Penduduk Asli Amerika yang Diperbudak yang Membuat Gold Rush Menjadi Mungkin

Penduduk Asli Amerika yang Diperbudak yang Membuat Gold Rush Menjadi Mungkin


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James Marshall tidak datang ke California untuk mencari emas. Tapi kemudian dia melihat batu berkilauan di tanah saat membangun pabrik baru untuk pemilik tanah lokal John Sutter. Saat itu tahun 1848, dan nasib Marshall—dan California—baru saja berubah selamanya.

Demam Emas yang mengikutinya juga mengubah kehidupan penduduk asli Amerika California. Dalam beberapa tahun, mereka akan hampir musnah karena imigrasi besar-besaran—dan kelaparan akan kekayaan—yang diilhami oleh Demam Emas.

Dipicu oleh keserakahan dan ketakutan, para pemukim Anglo yang berbondong-bondong ke California menyatakan perang terhadap penduduk asli California yang telah datang sebelum mereka. Tapi Forty-Niners bukanlah orang kulit putih pertama yang menindas atau bahkan memperbudak penduduk asli Amerika di California. Tanah di mana Marshall melihat emas adalah bagian dari kerajaan besar yang dibangun di atas tenaga kerja budak penduduk asli.

Tanpa penduduk asli Amerika, John Sutter—pemilik pabrik tempat emas ditemukan dan pemilik tanah paling berpengaruh di wilayah itu—tidak akan pernah menjadi begitu kuat. Sutter, seorang pengusaha yang cerdik, memperbudak ratusan penduduk asli Amerika dan menggunakan mereka sebagai sumber tenaga kerja gratis dan milisi darurat yang dengannya dia mempertahankan wilayahnya. Dia juga mengatur panggung untuk genosida mereka.

Sebelum John Sutter menjadi baron tanah, dia adalah Johann Suter, pemilik toko yang dililit hutang di Swiss. Alih-alih menjalani hukuman penjara karena hutangnya, pria berusia 31 tahun itu meninggalkan negara asalnya—dan istri serta lima anaknya—di belakang.

Pada saat itu, California adalah provinsi Meksiko, dan Sutter tergoda oleh sumber daya alamnya yang luas dan populasinya yang tampaknya jarang. Ditemani oleh sekelompok penduduk asli Amerika yang telah "diperoleh" bersama dengan perbekalan dan peralatan, dia meyakinkan gubernur provinsi untuk memberinya 50.000 hektar untuk pemukiman dan pusat perdagangan yang dia juluki "Nueva Helvetia," atau Swiss Baru, pada tahun 1841.

Sutter menjadi hakim dan komandan militer Nueva Helvetia, dengan wewenang untuk mencegah apa yang ia sebut sebagai “perampokan yang dilakukan oleh para petualang dari Amerika Serikat” dan “invasi orang-orang Indian yang biadab.” Untuk memperoleh tanah itu, ia masuk Katolik dan menjadi warga negara Meksiko, dan dalam beberapa tahun ia memiliki lebih dari dua kali lipat kepemilikan tanahnya.

Tanah yang dikuasai Sutter mungkin jarang dihuni oleh pemukim Anglo, tetapi itu adalah rumah bagi penduduk asli Amerika yang “menemukan tanah air mereka sekarang menjadi milik orang luar yang memandang mereka sebagai calon pekerja,” tulis sejarawan Lisa Emmerich. Penduduk asli itu menghadirkan ancaman sekaligus peluang bagi Sutter.

Sutter awalnya menjalin hubungan baik dengan orang Nisenan setempat, dan mengubah mereka menjadi milisi, melengkapi mereka dengan seragam dan senjata dan melatih mereka untuk mempertahankan tanahnya.

Meskipun hibah tanah Sutter mengharuskan dia memperlakukan penduduk asli Amerika dengan cara yang ramah, dia mulai mengganggu suku-suku lokal, mengganggu adat pernikahan setempat dan menciptakan apa yang disebut oleh seorang pengamat sebagai "harem." Heinrich Lienhard, salah satu karyawan Swiss Sutter, mengingat bahwa Sutter memiliki kamar yang bersebelahan dengan kantornya di mana "sekelompok wanita India selalu menunggu." Lienhard juga menuduh Sutter menganiaya gadis-gadis penduduk asli Amerika.

Pemaksaan seksual bukanlah satu-satunya cara Sutter menggunakan kendalinya atas penduduk asli Amerika. Dengan bantuan milisinya, dia juga memperbudak mereka. “Mereka yang tidak mau bekerja dianggap musuh,” kenang seorang peternak di dekatnya. “Seringkali Sungai Sacramento diwarnai merah oleh darah orang India yang tidak bersalah.”

Sutter mengatakan kepada pengawasnya untuk menjaga agar pelayannya tetap "di bawah ketakutan" dan tidak ragu-ragu untuk membunuh penduduk asli Amerika yang tidak tunduk pada kerja paksa di peternakannya. “Sutter membuat 600 hingga 800 orang India dalam keadaan perbudakan,” tulis seorang pemukim yang berkunjung, James Clyman, ketika dia mengunjungi peternakan Sutter.”

Edwin Bryant, seorang editor surat kabar dari Kentucky yang dipandu oleh Sutter dalam sebuah ekspedisi ke California, menggambarkan bagaimana para pekerja pribumi diberi makan jeroan dan sisa dedak gandum dari bak kayu, memakan makanan mereka tanpa peralatan atau mangkuk. Sementara itu, dia disuguhi makanan yang berlimpah di piring porselen. Budak tidur di kamar terkunci tanpa tempat tidur atau perabotan dan dicambuk dan kadang-kadang dibunuh ketika mereka menolak untuk memenuhi keinginannya.

Suka berteman dan menyambut pemukim kulit putih, Sutter mengundang banyak perintis awal ke peternakannya, di mana mereka melihat perlakuannya terhadap penduduk asli Amerika. Para pengunjungnya, tulis sejarawan Benjamin Madley, sangat terpengaruh oleh perlakuan terhadap para pekerja yang mereka saksikan di tanah Sutter. "Pertemuan ini memiliki efek psikis yang kuat," tulis Madley, "mendorong rasisme dan penjajah yang mengeras secara emosional ... hingga kekejaman terhadap orang Indian California."

Bagi Sutter, penduduk asli Amerika bukan hanya kekuatan ekonomi—mereka adalah mata uang. Dia memperdagangkan tenaga kerja asli di antara peternak lokal dan pemukim baru, mengirim kelompok besar penduduk asli California ke majikan yang berbeda dan menerima sebanyak dua dolar sehari untuk layanan mereka. Keramahan Sutter yang terkenal buruk kepada pemukim kulit putih—sambutan hangat yang bertentangan langsung dengan janjinya kepada pemerintah Meksiko—sangat berbeda dari cara dia memperlakukan penduduk asli Amerika yang menjunjung tinggi kekayaannya yang terus bertambah.

Tidak semua tenaga kerja John Sutter terdiri dari budak. Meskipun beberapa pekerja diperbudak, yang lain "dibayar" dalam mata uang timah yang hanya bisa digunakan di tokonya. Yang lain—seringkali pemimpin yang dukungannya dibutuhkan Sutter—dibayar untuk pekerjaan mereka.

Akhirnya, wabah campak menyapu bersih sebagian besar pekerja asli Amerika di peternakan Sutter, dan dia memutuskan untuk membangun penggergajian kayu di beberapa properti terdekat untuk menebus kehilangan pekerjaan.

Apa yang terjadi selanjutnya sudah diketahui dengan baik: Sutter's Mill menjadi ground zero untuk Demam Emas tahun 1849. Tetapi bahkan penemuan emas difasilitasi oleh perbudakan dan paksaan Sutter terhadap penduduk asli—memang, Marshall dibawa ke situs di mana dia melihat bongkahan emas itu. oleh pemandu penduduk asli Amerika dan tanah di sana digali oleh sekelompok penduduk asli Amerika yang dikendalikan Sutter yang tahu tentang emas, tetapi tidak menghargainya.

Ceritanya tidak berakhir dengan baik untuk Sutter atau Marshall. Setelah keberadaan emas diketahui, penghuni liar dan pencuri menyerbu peternakan Sutter, menghancurkan bangunannya, menjarah kekayaannya dan mencuri ternaknya. Para pekerja penduduk asli Amerika meninggalkannya dan, ketika negara bagian California yang baru menilai legalitas hibah tanah era Meksiko, klaimnya atas tanah yang diberikan kepadanya pada tahun 1841 dinyatakan tidak sah.

Miskin dan dibebani dengan utang, Sutter mengajukan petisi kepada pemerintah Amerika Serikat untuk restitusi sampai kematiannya pada tahun 1880. Marshall tidak jauh lebih baik: Dia bangkrut dan meninggal dalam kemiskinan setelah karir yang gagal sebagai penambang emas.

Tapi mungkin pecundang terbesar adalah penduduk asli Amerika di California era Gold Rush. Dalam 20 tahun setelah penemuan emas, 80 persen populasi penduduk asli Amerika dimusnahkan—korban pemindahan, penyakit, dan agenosida yang dilakukan demi kekuasaan dan emas. John Sutter telah menyiapkan panggung untuk kehancuran mereka—tetapi kekejamannya hanyalah permulaan.


Pengalaman Amerika

Terjepit di antara Pembelian Louisiana pada tahun 1803 dan Perang Saudara pada tahun 1861, Demam Emas California dianggap oleh banyak sejarawan sebagai peristiwa paling signifikan pada paruh pertama abad kesembilan belas.

Sebuah selebaran tahun 1849 dari California Gold Rush. PD.

Cepat Kaya
Penemuan emas di Sutter's Mill pada 24 Januari 1848 melepaskan migrasi terbesar dalam sejarah Amerika Serikat dan menarik orang-orang dari selusin negara untuk membentuk masyarakat multi-etnis di pinggiran Amerika. Janji kekayaan selamanya mengubah harapan hidup ratusan ribu orang yang membanjiri California pada tahun 1849 dan dekade berikutnya. Emas juga mendorong ekonomi AS dan memicu mimpi liar seperti pembangunan jalur kereta api lintas negara.

Perang dengan Meksiko
Ketika Amerika Serikat dan Meksiko berperang pada tahun 1846, California berada di bawah kendali pemerintah Meksiko. Penduduk California terdiri dari sekitar 6.500 orang Californio (orang Spanyol atau Meksiko yang layak), 700 orang asing (terutama orang Amerika), dan 150.000 penduduk asli Amerika, yang jumlahnya telah berkurang setengahnya sejak kedatangan orang Spanyol pada tahun 1769. Orang-orang California tinggal di peternakan yang luas. yang telah diberikan oleh pemerintah Meksiko.

Sebelum Penemuan Emas
Setelah dua tahun pertempuran, Amerika Serikat muncul sebagai pemenang. Pada tanggal 2 Februari 1848, Perjanjian Guadelupe Hidalgo ditandatangani, secara resmi mengakhiri perang dan menyerahkan kendali California ke Amerika Serikat. Tidak ada pihak yang tahu bahwa emas baru-baru ini ditemukan di pabrik penggergajian yang dibangun oleh imigran Swiss John Sutter di dekat Coloma.

Ketidakpercayaan
Ketika berita tentang emas pertama kali sampai di San Francisco, hal itu disambut dengan ketidakpercayaan. Kemudian pengusaha Sam Brannan berbaris melalui kota sambil melambaikan sebotol logam mulia sebagai bukti. Pada pertengahan Juni, toko-toko kosong. Sebagian besar penduduk laki-laki San Francisco telah pergi ke tambang. Sisa California segera menyusul. Musim panas itu, orang-orang seperti Antonio Franco Coronel, dari Los Angeles, menggali emas bersama orang-orang California lainnya, penduduk asli Amerika, dan beberapa Anglo Amerika yang sudah berada di California.

Sekaleng Emas
Gubernur militer Kolonel Richard B. Mason, yang mengunjungi ladang emas, menulis sebuah laporan yang berisi fakta mencengangkan: dua penambang di Weber Creek mengumpulkan emas sebesar $17.000 dalam tujuh hari enam penambang dengan 50 orang India mengambil 273 pon penjualan emas di barang dagangan Sam Brannan toko di dekat tambang berjumlah $36.000 pada bulan Mei, Juni dan awal Juli. Mason mengirim laporannya dan sekaleng emas ke Washington, perjalanan berbulan-bulan.

Gubernur militer Kolonel Richard B. Mason. Courtesy: Doug Scougale

Menyebarkan Firman
Kabar emas selanjutnya mencapai tempat-tempat yang paling mudah diakses ke pantai California dengan kapal. Ribuan orang dari Kepulauan Sandwich (Hawaii), Oregon, Meksiko, Chili, Peru dan Cina menuju California pada musim panas dan gugur tahun 1848, sebelum orang Amerika di Pantai Timur memiliki petunjuk tentang apa yang akan terjadi. Eropa akan segera menyusul.

Negara serikat
Di surat kabar East Coast pertama kali menerbitkan laporan tentang penemuan emas pada pertengahan musim panas 1848. Para editor yang skeptis meremehkan gagasan itu, meskipun surat-surat dari California seperti yang ada di edisi 14 September majalah itu. Philadelphia Amerika Utara yang berbunyi, "Sungai-sungaimu memiliki ikan kecil dan sungai kami diaspal dengan emas." Tidak sampai Presiden James K. Polk mengumumkan laporan Kolonel Mason dalam pidato kenegaraannya pada 5 Desember 1848, orang Amerika menjadi orang percaya.

Jangan Pernah Memimpikan Kekayaan
Tiba-tiba, ribuan orang Amerika (kebanyakan pria) meminjam uang, menggadaikan rumah, atau menghabiskan tabungan hidup mereka untuk memanfaatkan kesempatan yang tidak pernah mereka impikan. Dalam masyarakat yang semakin didasarkan pada kerja upahan, gagasan bahwa seseorang dapat mengubah nasibnya dengan mengumpulkan emas dari tanah terbukti tak tertahankan. Beberapa wanita Amerika, di antaranya Luzena Wilson, pergi ke California, tetapi sebagian besar tinggal di rumah. Para wanita yang ditinggalkan mengambil tanggung jawab yang tidak pernah mereka duga, seperti mengurus keluarga sendirian, menjalankan bisnis, dan mengelola pertanian.

Serbuan Pencari Emas
Pada tahun 1849, populasi non-pribumi California telah berkembang menjadi hampir 100.000 orang. Hampir dua pertiganya adalah orang Amerika. Setibanya di California, para imigran mengetahui bahwa pertambangan adalah jenis pekerjaan yang paling sulit. Mereka memindahkan batu, menggali tanah dan mengarungi sungai yang membeku. Mereka kehilangan kuku, jatuh sakit dan menderita gizi buruk. Banyak yang meninggal karena penyakit atau karena kecelakaan. Hiram Pierce, seorang penambang dari Troy, New York, melakukan pemakaman untuk seorang pemuda dari Maine yang meninggal karena gangren setelah sembarangan menembak dirinya sendiri di kaki.

Datar pengisap
Terlepas dari pekerjaan tanpa henti, janji emas menarik lebih banyak penambang ke barat setiap tahun. Kota-kota dengan nama seperti Hangtown, Sucker Flat, dan Murderers Bar tumbuh di setiap celah Sierra yang menjanjikan. Dalam beberapa tahun, pelabuhan kecil San Francisco menjadi kota metropolitan perbatasan yang ramai dengan ekonomi yang hidup dan California dinobatkan sebagai negara bagian ke-31.

Jutaan dalam Emas
Sejumlah besar emas ditarik dari tanah: $10 juta pada tahun 1849, $41 juta ($971 juta pada dolar 2005) pada tahun 1850, $75 juta pada tahun 1851, dan $81 juta pada tahun 1852. Setelah itu, pengambilan secara bertahap menurun hingga tahun 1857, ketika itu mendatar menjadi sekitar $45 juta per tahun. Yang beruntung memperbaiki keadaan mereka, tetapi penambangan membutuhkan, di atas segalanya, keberuntungan. Dan tidak semua orang beruntung.

Emas Putih Putra
Bagian dari kesulitan bagi penambang individu adalah kompetisi. Karena wilayah pertambangan semakin ramai, semakin sedikit emas yang beredar. Para penambang Anglo-Amerika menjadi semakin teritorial atas tanah yang mereka pandang sebagai milik mereka dan memaksa warga negara lain dari tambang dengan taktik kekerasan. Adapun penduduk asli California, seratus dua puluh ribu penduduk asli Amerika meninggal karena penyakit, kelaparan dan pembunuhan selama demam emas.

Mimpi Memudar
Ketika emas permukaan menghilang, penambang individu menemukan impian mereka untuk menguangkan demam emas semakin sulit dipahami. Banyak pria pergi bekerja untuk perusahaan pertambangan besar yang berinvestasi dalam teknologi dan peralatan untuk mencapai emas yang ada di bawah permukaan. Pada pertengahan tahun 1850-an, penambangan emas tidak lagi menjadi perusahaan perorangan dan lebih merupakan pekerjaan upahan.

Teknik Invasif
Perusahaan pertambangan besar sangat sukses dalam mengekstraksi emas. Dengan menggunakan teknik yang disebut penambangan hidrolik, mereka mengekstraksi emas senilai $170 juta antara tahun 1860 dan 1880.

Dalam prosesnya, mereka menghancurkan lanskap dan menyumbat sungai dengan sedimen. Sedimen menyapu hilir dan membanjiri lahan pertanian, merusak tanaman.

Keputusan pengadilan mengakhiri penambangan hidrolik pada tahun 1884, dan pertanian mengambil alih sebagai kekuatan utama di balik ekonomi California.


Untuk menyerah atau melawan

Fisher meneliti efek jangka pendek dan jangka panjang dari perbudakan penduduk asli dalam studinya, mencatat bahwa selama perang, ketakutan yang meluas akan dijual ke luar negeri sebagai budak digunakan oleh penduduk asli Amerika yang bersekutu dengan Philip sebagai alat untuk merekrut penduduk asli ke pihak mereka.

Penduduk asli Amerika lainnya menyerah, tulis Fisher, baik sebagai tanggapan terhadap bujukan eksplisit oleh Inggris yang menawarkan belas kasihan, atau karena mereka berharap hal itu akan dipahami sebagai pernyataan netralitas. Orang yang menyerah ini bisa berupa individu, keluarga, kelompok yang lebih besar atau seluruh komunitas, kata Fisher.

Beberapa penduduk asli Amerika menawarkan jasa mereka kepada Inggris dalam perang, seperti Awashonks, kepala perempuan dari konfederasi Indian Sakonnet, yang menjanjikan dukungan dengan syarat bahwa pria, wanita dan anak-anak Sakonnet tidak akan dibunuh atau dikirim ke luar negeri sebagai budak, menurut penelitian.

Terutama menjelang akhir perang, tulis Fisher, penduduk asli menyerah dalam jumlah yang lebih besar sebagai tanggapan langsung terhadap janji-janji keringanan hukuman, tetapi "kelonggaran" tidak memiliki makna praktis yang konsisten.

Pihak berwenang Inggris pertama-tama berfokus pada pelucutan senjata penduduk asli, baik dengan menjual senjata yang diserahkan oleh orang yang menyerah atau melarang mereka membawa senjata, tulis Fisher. Komunitas Inggris keberatan membiarkan penduduk asli yang menyerah begitu saja bebas, dan perumahan dan memberi makan mereka rumit, sehingga sering ditangkap dan menyerah penduduk asli Amerika dijual sebagai budak, baik di luar negeri maupun di dalam New England, atau dipaksa menjadi budak untuk jangka waktu terbatas di dalam rumah tangga Inggris . Selain itu, masyarakat asli diminta untuk membayar upeti tahunan sebesar lima shilling per laki-laki “sebagai pengakuan atas kepatuhan mereka” kepada pemerintah Connecticut, menurut penelitian tersebut.


Budak yang Terlupakan

Pedagang budak Eropa yang kejam mengosongkan desa dan memaksa korban yang ketakutan ke kapal menuju Atlantik. Barisan manusia yang dirantai berbaris menuju pasar budak di bawah pengawasan penjaga bersenjata. Pemilik budak yang kejam menggunakan penyiksaan dan pemerkosaan untuk memaksa lebih banyak pekerjaan keluar dari tawanan mereka.

Gambar-gambar yang membakar ini mungkin mengingatkan kita akan sejarah mengerikan perbudakan Afrika di Amerika Serikat. Tetapi sebenarnya mereka menggambarkan peristiwa sejarah di Bahama, Meksiko Tengah, dan perbatasan Barat benua Amerika — dan para budaknya adalah orang India.

Dalam budaya populer dan dalam beasiswa, perbudakan memiliki momen. Perselisihan rasial di masa sekarang menarik perhatian baru pada ketidakadilan dan ketidaksetaraan rasial di masa lalu kita. Buku-buku terbaru dan terkenal oleh Edward Baptist, Sven Beckert, dan Walter Johnson telah menerangi perhitungan ekonomi di balik kekejaman penanam dan hubungan antara perbudakan, kapitalisme, dan ekspansi Amerika. Tapi buku-buku ini, dan film-film seperti 12 Tahun Budak, juga telah memperkuat citra perbudakan “hitam dan putih” yang populer — ketidakadilan yang dilakukan oleh orang kulit putih terhadap orang Afrika dan keturunan mereka, terutama di Selatan sebelum perang.

TINJAUAN

Perbudakan Lainnya: Kisah Terungkap Perbudakan India di Amerika,
oleh Andres Reséndez

(Houghton Mifflin Harcourt)

Gambaran ini akan segera berubah, berkat banyak karya tentang perbudakan penduduk asli Amerika, bidang yang relatif baru yang memperoleh energi dari ledakan minat dalam studi Indian Amerika sejak 1980-an. Penelitian terbaru menunjukkan kepada kita bahwa kebanyakan orang yang diperbudak di Amerika sebelum tahun 1700 adalah orang India bahwa orang India merupakan proporsi yang cukup besar dari populasi budak global setelahnya dan bahwa orang Eropa memperbudak orang India dari Quebec ke New Orleans, dan dari New England ke Carolina. Karya seperti Pekka Hämäläinen's NS Kekaisaran Comanche (Yale University Press) telah mengeksplorasi perubahan tradisi perbudakan dalam masyarakat penduduk asli Amerika, sementara sarjana lain, terutama Alan Gallay dan Brett Rushforth, telah menangani perbudakan orang India oleh penjajah Prancis dan Inggris.

Namun, kesenjangan besar dalam pemahaman kita tetap ada. Dalam karyanya yang ditulis dengan indah (dan dinominasikan Penghargaan Buku Nasional) Perbudakan Lain: Kisah Terungkap Perbudakan India di Amerika, Andrés Reséndez menawarkan catatan tur-de-force tentang perbudakan orang India di Dunia Baru, dan dalam prosesnya memperluas definisi kita tentang perbudakan. Bagian dari tantangan masalah ini adalah bahwa perbudakan di India memiliki banyak bentuk, membuat korban sulit diidentifikasi dalam catatan. Reséndez, seorang profesor di University of California di Davis, menawarkan definisi yang luas tetapi dapat dipertahankan, termasuk pemberontak peonage yang dijatuhi hukuman budak yatim piatu dan gelandangan yang terikat untuk melayani korban kejahatan. mita (kuota kerja paksa yang diberlakukan di desa-desa di India) dan buruh upahan yang seolah-olah gratis yang majikannya tidak pernah membayar mereka.

Dengan menggunakan definisi ini, Reséndez memperkirakan jumlah budak India di Amerika antara 2,5 juta dan 5 juta — lebih sedikit dari sekitar 12,5 juta orang Afrika yang diperbudak antara abad ke-15 dan akhir abad ke-19, tetapi tetap saja jumlah yang mengejutkan. Selain itu, ia berpendapat bahwa hilangnya populasi karena perbudakan sebenarnya jauh lebih besar di Amerika daripada di Afrika. Perbudakan, bukan hanya penyakit epidemik, adalah penyebab utama tingginya angka kematian 70 persen hingga 90 persen yang dialami beberapa masyarakat India.

Dalam mengungkapkan sentralitas perbudakan terhadap penjajahan, Perbudakan Lainnya sama dengan dakwaan yang membakar kekaisaran. Dimulai dengan Christopher Columbus, yang menggembar-gemborkan perbudakan sebagai cara membiayai kerajaan, gelombang berturut-turut penakluk dan penjajah mendapat untung dari perdagangan manusia. Beberapa, termasuk Columbus, mengekspor orang India ke Dunia Lama melalui “jalan tengah terbalik”, tetapi sebagian besar budak tetap berada di Amerika.

Reséndez menggambarkan pusat pertambangan boomtown di Meksiko, terutama Parral, yang mendorong perdagangan budak lebih dari radius seribu mil dan bahkan mencapai Filipina. Dua ratus tahun kemudian, pengusaha California Gold Rush seperti John Sutter juga mengeksploitasi tenaga kerja wanita India. Bahkan Euro-Amerika bertekad untuk menghindari perbudakan India - termasuk misionaris Jesuit, Mormon, Kit Carson, dan Angkatan Darat AS - akhirnya berpartisipasi di dalamnya. Misi di Sonora menjadi termiliterisasi presidios yang memperbudak dan merelokasi ribuan orang Indian Seri. Brigham Young akhirnya menunda dengan undang-undang yang mengizinkan orang Mormon untuk “menebus” anak-anak tawanan dan menahan mereka dalam perbudakan selama 20 tahun.

Salah satu kontribusi utama Reséndez adalah pencariannya terhadap kisah perbudakan India dari Amerika Spanyol ke utara ke Amerika Serikat abad ke-19 dan ke-20, yang menunjukkan kontinuitas. Perhambaan paksa berlanjut di California dan Barat Daya bahkan setelah Perang Saudara. Reséndez menyiratkan bahwa "perbudakan lain" tidak berakhir sampai abad ke-20 karena banyak bentuknya membuat sulit untuk dihentikan melalui undang-undang, dan karena terlalu banyak pemilik tanah yang memiliki kepentingan dalam kelanjutannya.

Buku ini hadir di tengah perdebatan sengit tentang perbudakan dan kapitalisme. Sementara Eric Williams 1944 Kapitalisme dan Perbudakan (University of North Carolina Press) menyarankan bahwa perdagangan budak Afrika memanfaatkan industrialisasi Inggris, Perbudakan Lainnya mengungkapkan bahwa perbudakan India mendanai kolonisasi itu sendiri. Selain itu, karena perbudakan India berkembang dari industri besar ke rumah tangga kecil dan pertanian, karya Reséndez membuka jalan baru untuk berpikir tentang bagaimana perbudakan memungkinkan banyak orang Amerika — bukan hanya pekebun besar — ​​untuk berpartisipasi dalam revolusi pasar.

Kisah panjang perbudakan India juga berbicara tentang kegigihan tenaga kerja tidak bebas dalam ekonomi kapitalis tenaga kerja yang seolah-olah bebas. Reséndez menyimpulkan bahwa perdagangan manusia saat ini dan eksploitasi pekerja imigran adalah pewaris langsung dari praktik yang ia telusuri.

Buku ini meninggalkan pembaca dengan pertanyaan yang tersisa, terutama mengenai jenis kelamin dan ras. Sebagian besar budak India adalah perempuan di Amerika Spanyol, dengan perempuan memerintahkan harga yang lebih tinggi daripada laki-laki. Apakah ini kesaksian tentang pentingnya tenaga kerja perempuan atau indikator bahwa layanan seksual perempuan India adalah elemen kunci dari perdagangan budak?

Dan bagaimana faktor perbudakan penduduk asli Amerika ke dalam tatanan rasial yang muncul di Amerika? Karena gender dan etnisitas pasti memainkan peran yang menjadi sasaran pelecehan oleh masyarakat, kita perlu lebih memahami bagaimana perbudakan India membentuk gagasan orang Amerika tentang ras dan kelas, dan sebaliknya.

Pertanyaan seperti itu adalah bukti seberapa banyak Perbudakan Lainnya telah memperluas pemandangan lapangan. Sebuah buku yang kaya dan ambisius yang dibicarakan semua orang di bidang ini, karya Reséndez membuktikan bahwa perbudakan India adalah bagian penting dari kisah Amerika sejak awal. Itu menempatkannya di jantung percakapan kami yang berkelanjutan tentang warisan perbudakan di Amerika, bersama dengan Michelle Alexander Jim Gagak Baru (The New Press) dan film dokumenter Ava DuVernay tanggal 13, karya-karya yang mengkaji bentuk-bentuk ketidakbebasan lainnya.

Budak India membantu membangun Amerika, dengan biaya yang mengerikan. Kisah mereka layak untuk diceritakan.

Margaret Ellen Newell adalah profesor sejarah di Ohio State University dan penulis Saudara secara Alami: Indian New England, Penjajah, dan Asal Usul Perbudakan Amerika (Cornell University Press, 2015).


Orang Indian California yang diperbudak sebelum Periode Amerika Serikat

Ada sejarah panjang perbudakan Pribumi dan kerja paksa di California, sejak misionaris Spanyol awal (1769-1821), kemudian peternak Californio (penjajah Meksiko lama), dan imigran Eropa-Amerika awal lainnya.

Orang Indian California yang tinggal di sepanjang Pantai Pasifik dari San Diego utara ke Teluk San Francisco adalah orang pertama yang dieksploitasi untuk pekerjaan mereka oleh misionaris Fransiskan. Pada tahun 1805, suku-suku pedalaman tunduk pada “perekrutan” militer dan misionaris berkala untuk memasok pekerja yang sehat, menggantikan misi India yang sakit dan berkurang dengan cepat.[22]

Sulit untuk memercayai apa yang dialami orang-orang kami dalam misi. Saya ingat apa yang nenek (Filicad Calac Molina) katakan kepada kami bertahun-tahun yang lalu. Ibunya bercerita tentang Misi San Luis Rey. Ayah di sana memiliki orang-orang Spanyol yang mempekerjakan orang-orang India sebagai budak di sana, dan ketika mereka melarikan diri, orang-orang Spanyol akan datang ke Rincon dan mengambil bayi-bayi itu, mengayunkan lengan atau kaki mereka dan melemparkan mereka ke dalam kaktus… Orang Spanyol akan membuat orang tua memberi tahu di mana orang India bersembunyi…mereka yang melarikan diri dari misi. (Max Mazzetti, Ketua Suku, Reservasi Rincon)[23]

Ketika gubernur Meksiko pertama tiba di California pada tahun 1825, penduduk asli di wilayah pengaruh Hispanik secara efektif mengalami perdagangan bahasa Spanyol untuk tuan Meksiko. Tuan-tuan baru akan menjadi kelas baru penguasa tanah yang akan mempraktikkan perbudakan sekuler. Ini terjadi terlepas dari kenyataan bahwa perbudakan dilarang di seluruh Republik Meksiko, dan kewarganegaraan telah diberikan kepada penduduk asli pada tahun 1824. Ini tidak berarti bahwa orang India dapat memilih atau diperlakukan sama. Meksiko, seperti Amerika Serikat pada waktu itu, memiliki pembatasan pemungutan suara berdasarkan properti dan pekerjaan seseorang.

Di tingkat lokal, penduduk asli di California selama periode Meksiko (1822-1846) dipaksa bekerja tanpa bayaran dan dipandang sebagai subkelas yang majikannya mengeksploitasi tenaga kerja mereka dan menggunakannya sebagai bentuk mata uang. Sepanjang akhir 1830-an dan awal 1840-an, imigran Euro-Amerika seperti Johann August Sutter menggunakan orang-orang India di koloninya di Lembah Sacramento sebagai pekerja lapangan, sementara wanita dan anak-anak diberikan kepada banyak krediturnya. Banyak yang disebut, "Indian liar" secara rutin ditangkap dalam pertempuran dan diberikan kepada para pemenang dan pasukan mereka.

Emigran darat Jacob Wright Harlan, penjebak bulu James Clyman, dan John Henry Brown, pengawas rumah masak Fort Sutter, semua kemudian menulis tentang pengamatan mereka tentang perlakuan terhadap penduduk asli di benteng John Sutter. Sutter adalah pendiri kota Sacramento:

Kapten [Sutter] membuat 600 atau 800 orang India dalam keadaan perbudakan dan karena saya malu melihat mereka makan, saya dapat memberikan deskripsi singkat – 10 atau 15 Palung sepanjang 3 atau 4 kaki dibawa keluar dari ruang masak dan duduk di bawah terik matahari – semua Lobourers parut dan dan kecil berlari ke palung seperti babi somany dan memberi makan diri mereka sendiri dengan tangan mereka selama palung mengandung bahkan kelembaban.[25]

Berakhirnya Perang Meksiko-Amerika pada tahun 1848 memicu perdebatan sengit di Kongres mengenai perluasan perbudakan ke wilayah yang baru diakuisisi, termasuk California. Penduduk California, melalui perwakilan delegasi, mempertimbangkan masalah ini selama konvensi konstitusional negara bagian pada tahun 1849. Para delegasi, yang terdiri dari imigran Amerika yang baru tiba dan pemilik tanah Meksiko, bergumul dengan pertanyaan tentang ras. Beberapa dari mereka dengan jelas memegang pandangan yang tercermin dalam surat kabar daerah edisi 15 Maret 1848 orang California, yang menyatakan:

Ketujuh. Kami hanya menginginkan populasi kulit putih di California bahkan orang India di antara kami, sejauh yang kami lihat, lebih mengganggu daripada memberi manfaat bagi negara yang ingin kami singkirkan.[26]

Namun, pada akhirnya, pemilih California mengadopsi konstitusi pada tahun 1849 (sebelum California menjadi negara bagian), yang mencakup bagian yang mengatakan:

Bagian 18. Perbudakan dilarang. Penghambaan paksa dilarang kecuali untuk menghukum kejahatan.[27]

Posisi anti-perbudakan California mengenai orang Afrika-Amerika meningkatkan perdebatan yang berkecamuk di Senat Amerika Serikat pada waktu itu sebagian karena mempengaruhi keseimbangan antara negara bagian yang menyukai perbudakan dan negara bagian yang menentangnya. Perdebatan itu untuk sementara diselesaikan oleh Kompromi tahun 1850, yang mengakui California sebagai negara bagian sebagai negara bagian bebas.


Pengalaman Amerika

Pada bulan Agustus 1852, Alta California mengekspos pertempuran pengadilan pembuatan bir. Nyonya Cina paling terkenal di San Francisco berencana untuk menuntut seorang pemimpin Cina terkenal karena pemerasan. Miss Ah Toy yang cantik mengklaim bahwa Yee Ah Tye telah meminta pelacur Dupont Street-nya membayar pajak kepadanya. Dia segera mengakalinya dengan melakukan sesuatu yang tidak pernah bisa dia lakukan di China -- mengancam akan membawanya ke pengadilan.

Penggugat dan Tergugat
"Nona Atoy tahu satu atau dua hal, setelah tinggal di bawah lipatan Spanduk Kelap-kelip Bintang selama tiga tahun dan menghirup udara Republik, dan dia tidak dapat dengan mudah ditundukkan dalam tindakan seperti itu. Selain itu dia tinggal di dekat Kantor Polisi dan tahu di mana untuk mencari perlindungan, yang telah menghadap Perekam sebagai terdakwa setidaknya lima puluh kali sendiri.A-Thai sebaiknya khusus untuk kekuatan yang dia ambil, atau dia mungkin menemukan martabatnya dihapus, dia dibuang di penjara ," tulis seorang reporter yang gembira.

Potret Seorang Pria Cina, c1853. Courtesy: Museum Oakland California

Peran Kepemimpinan
Setahun kemudian Yee Ah Tye benar-benar dibuang ke penjara, kali ini karena penyerangan dan pencurian besar-besaran. Berasal dari Guangdong, pria yang disebut oleh salah satu surat kabar sebagai "lalim kecil" telah berlayar ke San Francisco dengan kapal Cina tepat sebelum demam emas, ketika dia berusia kira-kira 20 tahun. Dia menghabiskan malam pertama di jalanan, meringkuk di ambang pintu. Yee Ah Tye telah belajar bahasa Inggris di Hong Kong dan tak lama kemudian dia naik ke posisi kepemimpinan di Asosiasi Sze Yup yang kuat.

Sisi gelap
Sze Yup, dan organisasi Cina lainnya, bertemu pendatang baru Cina di demam emas di dermaga, memberi mereka tempat tinggal, menemukan pekerjaan, atau melengkapi mereka untuk tambang. Mereka menyediakan layanan penting untuk sekelompok orang yang berbicara sedikit bahasa Inggris. Tapi Sze Yup juga punya sisi gelap, seperti penggunaan kekerasan. NS San Francisco Herald menuduh Yee Ah Tye "menjatuhkan hukuman fisik berat pada banyak orang sebangsanya yang lebih rendah hati . memotong telinga mereka, mencambuk mereka dan merantai mereka selama berjam-jam."

Gunung Emas
Pada tahun 1848, ketika orang Cina pertama tiba di San Francisco, orang Cina sudah memiliki pola yang mapan untuk meninggalkan Cina untuk bekerja di bagian lain dunia. Pajak yang tinggi setelah Perang Candu telah memaksa banyak petani dan petani meninggalkan tanah mereka. Beberapa tahun banjir dan kekeringan menyebabkan keputusasaan ekonomi. Kemudian kapal dagang membawa berita tentang Gam Saan, atau gunung emas. Mayoritas pria Cina yang berlayar ke California buta huruf, tetapi memimpikan kemungkinan baru.

Seperlima dari Populasi
Penambang Cina cenderung hidup berkelompok dan pekerjaan yang diklaim telah ditinggalkan oleh Amerika. Awalnya, orang Amerika menganggap pendatang baru - dengan topi lebar dan sumpit mereka - aneh dan akan mengunjungi kamp Cina untuk hiburan. Kemudian, pada tahun 1852, tahun gagal panen yang serius di Cina selatan, 20.026 orang Cina membanjiri rumah pabean San Francisco. Tahun sebelumnya hanya 2.716 yang datang. Pada akhir tahun 1850-an, imigran Cina merupakan seperlima dari populasi empat kabupaten yang merupakan Tambang Selatan.

Rasisme
Seorang penambang Yankee mengeluh, "Orang Cina menjadi terlalu banyak di negara ini." Gubernur John Bigler menyuarakan sentimen publik ketika dia menyarankan untuk membendung gelombang imigrasi Tiongkok. A Chinese man responded with a letter to the Alta California, writing "The effects of your late message has been thus far to prejudice the public mind against my people, to enable those who wait the opportunity to hunt them down, and rob them of the rewards of their toil."

Robberies and Murders
In May 1852 the state imposed a Foreign Miners Tax, the second such tax on non-Americans in two years. This time, a levy of $3 per month was explicitly directed at the Chinese miners. And, as predicted, violence increased. NS Alta California reported that 200 Chinese miners had been robbed and four murdered at Rich Gulch. When miner Alfred Doten's camp was robbed, he blamed some convenient Chinese. "We visited our camp on the gulch and found it had been broken into so we went in and kicked up a row with the Chinese and told them we would shoot them if they stole any more."

No Longer Allowed to Testify
In 1854 Ah Toy was no longer able to take her grievances to court. In the case People v. Hall, the California Supreme Court reversed the conviction of George Hall and two other white men who had murdered a Chinese man. Hall and his companions had been convicted based on testimony of some Chinese witnesses. In its reversal the court extended the California law that African Americans and Native Americans could not testify in court to include the Chinese. The reversal made it impossible to prosecute violence against Chinese immigrants.

Business and Servitude
Chinese men moved into other occupations, including the laundry business, domestic service and later railroad building. Yee Ah Tye became a partner in a store called Hop Sing in La Porte. By 1866 it was the richest Chinese store in that town, with a value of $1,500 (about $36,000 in 2005 dollars). Only a few Chinese women came to the U.S. before 1880, but many of those who did served as prostitutes for people like Ah Toy. Upon arrival, they were examined and sold for between $300 and $3,000 to brothel owners or wealthy Chinese seeking a mistress.

Rose-colored Glasses
When Chinese miners sent their gold home, their families quickly assumed a prominent new place. Women married to successful miners were called "gold mountain wives." As they built new houses, they were subject to gossip and envy. Rarely did stories about the hard work and the daily discrimination faced by Chinese in America find their way across the Pacific.

Significant Contributions
By 1870 there were 63,000 Chinese in U.S., 77% of whom were in California. That year, Chinese miners contributed more than $5 million to state's coffers through the Foreign Miners Tax, almost one quarter of state's revenue.

In 1882, Congress enacted the Chinese Exclusion Act, the only American law to specifically bar one group from immigrating to the United States.


COMING TO TERMS WITH GENOCIDE

In today's partisan world of American politics there is a bipartisan consensus on one issue, sweeping the troublesome issue of native American genocide under the rug. There is a reason for this. Any effort to discuss the genocidal origins of America would create two very severe problems. In the first place it would raise questions about the moral authority of the American system at home and the moral authority of American imperialism abroad. A second major problem would be that a frank look at US origins would mandate trillions of dollars in reparations to native Americans.

Meanwhile, the living conditions of native Americans are among the worst in the nations

A particularly amusing aspect of modern America is the hysteria about "illegal immigrants" from Mexico. Who are the real "illegal immigrants". Frank discussion about this is to be avoided at all costs.

However, the past does haunt the future. Karma is powerful force. History is a long term game. There are reasons to fear for America's future if the sins of the past are not recognized. This article to stimulate debate here.

The truth matters. You cannot live a lie.

America has many positive aspects. However, a frank look at the darker aspects of the past really is necessary if we are to build a viable future.


The Enslaved Native Americans Who Made The Gold Rush Possible - HISTORY

S lavery has been practiced since the fall of man. It is not a product of &ldquoracism&rdquo it is not an issue of skin color it is a product of man&rsquos sinful heart. The Lord Jesus Christ described man&rsquos condition with perfect accuracy and uncovered the fundamental issue:

&ldquo And he said, That which cometh out of the man, that defileth the man. For from within, out of the heart of men, proceed evil thoughts, adulteries, fornications, murders, Thefts, covetousness, wickedness, deceit, lasciviousness, an evil eye, blasphemy, pride, foolishness: All these evil things come from within, and defile the man&rdquo (Mark 7:20-23).

When men believed the devil&rsquos lie and chose sin over God, they became slaves, slaves not only to sin but slaves physically. History is filled with the sad accounts of men being enslaved by their fellow men and treated as mere cattle, from the slaves under the brutal whips of ancient pharaoh to the serfs of 17th century Europe to the dirt poor classes of modern Asia and Africa.

Slavery has been practiced by the white man, the black man, the red man, the yellow man, and every other kind of man.

Slavery was practiced by the Babylonians, the Hittites, the Assyrians, the Egyptians, the Greeks, the Persians, the ancient Brits, the Danes, the Romans, the African kingdoms, the South American kingdoms, the Chinese, Indians, Mongols, Mughuls, Burmese, Native Americans, the Muslim kingdoms, Spanish, British, and Americans. It is still practiced in some places.

BABYLONIAN king Hammurabi (ruled c. 1792-1750 BC) enslaved multitudes. &ldquoAt the basis of it lay the slave population, the necessary condition of all economic activity in antiquity. Slaves were employed upon the farms, by the manufacturers and in the temples. The sources of the supply were various. War furnished many others had fallen from the position of free laborers still others were purchased from abroad, or were children of native bondsmen&rdquo (George Goodspeed, A History of the Babylonians and Assyrians , 1902, Kindle Locations 876-879).

Ancient EGYPT practiced slavery on a massive scale. Egypt infamously enslaved the entire nation of Israel. The Midianites knew there was a ready market in Egypt for slaves such as Joseph (Ge. 37:28). This type of thing happened continually in ancient times. &ldquoTravellers were easily and often illegally captured in foreign lands where nobody knew them, and sold into slavery and there was often no one they could appeal to for help&rdquo (&ldquoSlavery,&rdquo reshafim.org). Women were purchased for the harems of the Pharaoh and other nobility. Pharaoh Amenhotep III ordered 40 &ldquovery beautiful concubines without blemish&rdquo from Syria. Multitudes became slaves as prisoners of war. Ancient Egyptian monuments describe large numbers of slaves taken in battle. For example, Ramses III wrote, &ldquoI laid low the Meshwesh, the Libyans, the Esbet, the Keykesh, the Shai, the Hes and the Beken. . I carried away those whom my sword spared, as numerous captives, pinioned like birds before my horses, their wives and their children by the ten thousand, their cattle in number like hundred thousands&rdquo (James Henry Breasted, Ancient Records of Egypt , Part IV). Thutmose III returned from a campaign in Canaan with almost 90,000 prisoners. Many slaves were sent to work in the gold and copper mines of Nubia and Sinai, where they were worked to death under harsh conditions in the terrible heat. Other slaves worked on &ldquothe estates of the pharaohs, the nobility and the priests.&rdquo &ldquoPharaoh Seti I announced on the Wadi Halfa stela how he had endowed Min-Amen&rsquos temple at Buhen, so that his storehouse was filled with male and female slaves from the captivity of his majesty, L.P.H. Ramses III is said to have given 113,000 to the temples during the course of his reign&rdquo (&ldquoSlavery,&rdquo reshafim.org). &ldquoIf a [slave] stole so much as an animal hide he could be whipped with 100 lashes and stabbed five times in the back, and then be sent back to work&rdquo (&ldquoSpear injuries show worker life in ancient Egypt,&rdquo Amerika Serikat Hari Ini , Oct. 13, 2015). The wealthy included their slaves in lists of valuable assets. The children of slaves belonged to their masters, and slave families were passed from generation to generation by inheritance.

A large portion of ancient CHINESE society consisted of slaves. Qin Shi Huang, emperor of the Chin Dynasty, castrated captives &ldquoto mark them and make them slaves&rdquo (&ldquoThe 25 most ruthless leaders of all time,&rdquo Business Insider , Feb. 4, 2016). The Great Wall was built largely by slaves and there was no concern for the cost in human lives. It is said that &ldquoevery stone cost a human life&rdquo ( A Brief History of Chinese and Japanese Civilizations ).

The Phoenician city-state of CARTHAGE gained control over tribes and cities along the African coast and far inland, enslaving the populations.

Slaves formed a large portion of the ancient Greek population. Many were chattel slaves who were called by Aristotle &ldquoan animate or ensouled piece of property.&rdquo Slaves were obtained by warfare, kidnapping, and piracy. They were bought and sold like other pieces of property. The price of the slave depended on his or her education, skill, appearance, and health. &ldquoThe majority of well-to-do Athenians probably owned two or three slaves, whereas the wealthy possessed between ten and twenty. . Nikias, one of the richest men in Athens in the late fifth century BC, owned 1,000 slaves, whom he leased out to fellow citizens at the rate of one obol per slave per day&rdquo (Garland, Daily Life of the Ancient Greeks , P. 70). Slaves had no practical legal rights. They were often starved, beaten, abused, even killed, depending on the whim of the master. &ldquoA runaway slave was branded with a hot iron upon capture.&rdquo

The SPARTANS enslaved an entire large tribe of people, the Helots. They were the property of the state and were assigned to Spartan citizens. There were possibly seven helot slaves for each Spartan. They were forced to do the agricultural and household work and any manual labor, freeing the Spartans to devote themselves to military training. Helot farmers gave half their produce to the Spartans. They had &ldquoan altogether cruel and bitter condition.&rdquo The poet Tyrtaios described the Helots as &ldquoasses worn down with great burdens.&rdquo They were forced to wear a dogskin cap and were beaten each year so they would not forget they were slaves. They were degraded in many ways, such as being forced to get drunk and dance and sing to entertain the Spartans.

PHILIP OF MACEDON (382-336 BC) razed at least 35 Greek cities to the ground, enslaved women and children by the tens of thousands, killed prisoners taken from defeated armies.

ALEXANDER THE GREAT enslaved hundreds of thousands. He destroyed the great city of Thebes, killing 6,000 of its citizens, selling 30,000 as slaves. When he destroyed Tyre in 332 BC, he sold 30,000 men, women, and children into slavery. He did the same to many others.

In the ROMAN EMPIRE , as many as 35% of the population were slaves, and their condition was often terrible. The city of Rome had a population of one to two million, half of whom were slaves (Henry Burton, The Biblical World , Jil. 3, 1894). After Rome destroyed Jerusalem and Israel&rsquos temple in AD 70, more than a million Jews were killed or sold as slaves. Slaves were considered property and had no legal rights under Roman law. They were called res (a thing, an object) and res mortales (a mortal thing). On the farm, slaves were called instrumentum vocalis (a talking tool). Farm slaves were branded on the forehead, chained together in teams of ten, and guarded by a foreman with a whip. Slaves could not own property or legally marry. They could be punished as the owner pleased, tortured, raped, castrated, prostituted, even executed. Runaways were treated as thieves (having stolen themselves from their masters) and suffered terrible tortures as warnings to others. When the slave revolt under Spartacus was defeated in 71 BC, 6,000 of them were crucified along the Appian Way to Rome and their bodies left to rot on the crosses for months. Children born of slaves were the property of their owners. Many were worked to death under cruel conditions. Consider the Egyptian mines. &ldquoEgypt&rsquos gold and quicksilver mines were worked by slaves, criminals and prisoners of war, including women, elderly men and children. Young men hacked the quartz loose. Older men broke the quartz into fragments. Children dragged the quartz to the grinders, powered by women who like others worked without rest, walking in circles and pushing levers that rotated a shaft. According to the Greek writer Agatharchides, in the mid-100s BCE, relief came only with death, which these miners welcomed&rdquo (&ldquoPrivilege, Poverty and Failed Revolutions,&rdquo Macrohistory and World Timeline , www.fsmitha.com). This description refers to the time of the Greek Empire, but nothing of significance changed under the Romans.

ISLAM was a slaving people since Mohammed, who took one-fifth of the slaves for himself. Muslims turned slavery into a major industry for over a thousand years. It was a &ldquoMuslim gold rush.&rdquo &ldquoSlave taking rapidly burgeoned into a major industry&rdquo (Robert Davis, Christian Slaves , P. 140). Between 698-709, Muslims defeated the black Berber tribes of northwestern Africa, selling 60,000 into slavery. &ldquo Islamic Spain became the hub of a vast new slave-trade. Hundreds of thousands of European slaves, both from Christian territories and from the lands of the pagan Slavs, were imported into the Caliphate, there to be used as concubines (if female) or to be castrated (if male) and made into harem guards or the personal body-guards of the Caliph&rdquo (Emmet Scott, Muhammad and Charlemagne Revisited ). Between 712 and 1193, Muslim armies raided India in subsequent waves of attacks. They demolished temples, robbed, murdered, raped, and enslaved millions. For example, in 1001 AD Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni took 500,000 slaves from Jayapala, including thousands of children. In the days of Mughal ruler Babur (r. 1526-1531), slave markets were set up at Kabul and Qandahar &ldquowhere caravans came from India carrying slaves ( barda ) and other commodities to sell at great profits&rdquo (M.A. Khan, Islamic Jihad , P. 216). Mughal governor Said Khan Chaghtai &ldquopossessed 1,200 eunuch slaves.&rdquo Shah Jahan (builder of the Taj Mahal) had a harem of 5,000 concubines. The magnificent Mughal buildings were constructed largely through slave labor. &ldquo[I]t is the great multitude of enslaved Indians who supplied unconditional labor, with Muslim masters on watch with whips in their hands. . Sultan Alauddin accumulated 70,000 slaves, who worked continuously in building. . Sultan Firoz Tughlaq assembled 180,000 slaves for his services&rdquo (M.A. Khan. Islamic Jihad , pp. 229, 230). The Ottomans were major slavers. An estimated one-fifth of the population consisted of slaves. Most towns and cities had a slave marketplace called an Esir . It is estimated that over 28 million Africans were enslaved in the Muslim world in the past 14 centuries&rdquo (&ldquoA Focus on the African Slaves in the Arab World,&rdquo African Echo , Sep. 18, 2015). Another four million white Europeans were enslaved (Robert Davis, Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters ). The Ottomans also traded in slaves in the region of the Black Sea. An estimated three million Europeans from this region were enslaved between the 14th to the 17th centuries (Alan Fisher, &ldquoMuscovy and the Black Sea Slave Trade,&rdquo Canadian American Slavic Studies , 1972, Vol. 6, pp. 575&ndash594). The Ottomans also purchased white slaves from the Vikings . They lived in North Europe in modern Sweden and Denmark and conducted pirate raids between the eighth to the eleventh centuries. They are called Norse and Scandinavians. They raided throughout the British Isles, western and northern Europe. They traveled east as far as the Volga River in Russia where they sold white European slaves to the Muslims, particularly white women for the harems (M.A. Khan, Islamic Jihad , pp. 322, 323). Beginning in the 8th century, Muslims took over the ancient African slave trade that had existed since the Egyptian pharaohs. &ldquoThe African continent was bled of its human resources via all possible routes. Across the Sahara, through the Red Sea, from the Indian Ocean ports and across the Atlantic. At least ten centuries of slavery for the benefit of the Muslim countries (from the ninth to the nineteenth). . Four million slaves were exported via the Red Sea, another four million through the Swahili ports of the Indian Ocean, perhaps as many as nine million along the trans-Saharan caravan route, and eleven to twenty million (depending on the author) across the Atlantic Ocean&rdquo (Elikia M&rsquobokolo, &ldquoA Hundred and Fifty Years after France Abolished Slavery,&rdquo Diplomatik Le Monde , April 1998). Beginning in the eighth century, Arab traders on the Swahili Coast in east Africa bought Zanj (Bantu) captives from the interior of Africa (present-day Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique) and sold them to Muslims in Egypt, Arabia, Persia, India, and elsewhere. Eventually tens of thousands of slaves were captured and sold every year. &ldquoA 10th-century caliph of Baghdad had 11,000 slaves at his palace&rdquo (&ldquoHuman Cargo,&rdquo Waktu New York , Mar. 4, 2001). Slaving continued on the East Coast of Africa until the 19th century. Under Omani Arabs in the 19th century as many as 50,000 slaves were passing through Zanzibar each year (&ldquoSwahili Coast,&rdquo National Geographic , Oct. 17, 2002). Northern Africa became the base for the Muslim Barbary pirates . They operated throughout the Mediterranean and into the Atlantic from their bases in Morocco, Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli. These states were a part of the Ottoman Empire, and the sultans in Constantinople received a portion of the slaves and stolen wealth. They were &ldquothe recognized overlords of the Mohammedan world&rdquo (Brian Kilmeade, Thomas Jefferson and the Tripoli Pirates , P. 36). From the 16th to the 19th century, they captured an estimated 1 to 1.25 million white Europeans (Robert Davis, Christian Slaves ). This doesn&rsquot include those captured by Morocco and other raiders. It was called &ldquoChristian stealing.&rdquo Slavery is still practiced widely in Sudan and Mauritania . In the latter, slavery has existed since the Arabs conquered it in the 12th century. Though abolished in 1981, the law is not enforced. Estimates of slaves in Mauritania today &ldquorange from 100,000 to more than a half-million.&rdquo Slaves &ldquoare used for labor, sex and breeding. The property of their masters, they are passed down through generations, given as wedding gifts or exchanged for camels, trucks, guns or money. . According to a Human Rights Watch/Africa report, routine punishments for slaves in Mauritania--for the slightest fault--include beatings, denial of food and prolonged exposure to the sun, with hands and feet tied together. More serious infringement of the master&rsquos rule (in American slave-owning parlance, &lsquogetting uppity&rsquo) can lead to prolonged tortures known as &lsquothe camel treatment,&rsquo in which the slave&rsquos body is slowly torn apart the &lsquoinsect treatment,&rsquo in which tiny desert insects are inserted and sealed into the ear canal until the slave is driven mad and &lsquoburning coals,&rsquo a torture not fit to describe in a family newspaper&rdquo (&ldquoArabs Have Black Slaves Today,&rdquo Berita Nasional Israel , Mar. 29, 2013).

The ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE of the 15th to the 19th centuries was a continuation of this ancient, global practice. In the 1440s, the Portuguese began trading in gold and slaves from the western coast of Africa. The first 200 slaves were brought to Portugal in 1444. This was the beginning of the wretched slave trade which corrupted western nations for four hundred years.

Historically, women were basically slaves in most nations and under most religions. Of Hindu women in India in former times, the Flemish painter Frans Solvyns said, &ldquoWhile their husband lives they are slaves, when he dies they must be ready to resign in the most cruel manner a life of which they never tasted the enjoyments [referring to the practice of wife burning called sati ]&rdquo (Robert Hardgrave, Jr., The Representation of Sati: Four Eighteenth Century Etchings by Baltazard Solvyns ).

Slavery is a fact of man&rsquos wretched history, and it is a reflection of man&rsquos fallen condition.

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Idaho - History and Heritage

Prior to the arrival of European and Mexican explorers, roughly 8,000 American Indians, representing two distinct groups, inhabited Idaho: the Great Basin Shoshone and Bannock tribes of the Shoshone-Bannock, the Shoshone Paiute and the Plateau tribes of the Coeur d'Alene, Nez Perce and Kootenai. Today, Idaho's American Indian heritage, their tribes and chiefs are reflected in county names like Nez Perce, Benewah, Shoshone, Bannock and Kootenai counties and the communities of Shoshone, Pocatello, Blackfoot, Nezperce, White Bird, Kamiah, Lapwai, Weippe, Kooskia, Picabo and Tendoy.

Konten Terkait

Spanish explorers made trips west beginning in 1592. Spaniards introduced pigs, horses, domestic fowl, tomatoes, beans, corn and garlic to the American Indians of the Northwest. Lewis and Clark were the first Euro-Americans to set foot on what is now known as Idaho. They encountered Spanish-speaking American Indians as well as those who spoke their tribal language. The expedition was followed by French-Canadian fur trappers resulting in names of communities like Coeur d'Alene (French for "heart of the awl") and Boise (Le Bois-French for "the trees").

Even the impact of Hawaiian Islanders employed as laborers in the Northwest fur trade received recognition through the naming of Owyhee County. Almost the entire staff of Fort Boise from 1834-1844 were from the Hawaiian Islands.

Mountain men, including Spaniards and Mexicans, lived off the land as trappers and hunters. In the 1860s, there were a number of Mexican vaqueros (cowboys) living in the Treasure Valley. By 1863 Mexicans were mining at Spanishtown, a camp near Rocky Bar. Jesus Urquides, one of several successful Mexican businesspeople, came to Boise in 1863, became a prominent Pacific Northwest packer and built the Spanish Village in 1870s to house his Mexican packers. The 1870 census included 60 Mexican-born individuals.

York, William Clark's African American servant, traveled through what is now Idaho in 1805 with the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Respected then by the Indians, today York is credited as being of great value to the trip’s success. Some fur trappers, traders and miners who followed were African American, including one who helped build the first mission in the Northwest. Until after the Civil War, only free Black or escaped slaves came West unless brought by their owners. The entry of the railroad through southern Idaho starting in the 1880s resulted in a number of African Americans settling in Pocatello. Four companies of troops from the 24th Regiment (an African American unit) were sent to Idaho 1899 to maintain order during the Coeur d'Alene mining strikes. The 1900 Idaho census listed 940 African Americans.

At one time, during the Gold Rush of the early 1800s, Idaho's population was one-quarter Chinese. By 1870, a majority of all Idaho miners were Chinese.

In the mid-1800s, as with other western states, most early Idaho settlers fled the East to escape what they saw as officially-sanctioned harassment of individuals for their beliefs. This was true of Mormons fleeing persecution and Union and Rebel supporters desperately seeking to flee the Civil War.

During the 1890s, there were several thousand Japanese laborers constructing the railroad through Idaho.

In 1896, Idaho became the fourth state in the nation to give women the right to vote. The territorial legislature had come close to giving women the right to vote as early as 1869. In 1867, the territorial legislature passed a statute making Idaho a community property state. It was not until the turn of the century that women in more than a handful of states had equal rights to family assets. In 1972, Idaho became the first state in the nation to ratify the Equal Rights Amendment.

Between 1900 and 1920 a large number of Basque immigrants came to Idaho from the Pyrenees to work as sheepherders. Today, Boise has the largest Basque community in the United States.

Idaho was the first state in the nation to elect a Jewish governor. Moses Alexander was elected in 1914 and re-elected in 1916.

In 1990, Larry EchoHawk was the first Native American to be elected attorney general of any state in the United States.

Idaho’s American Indian Communities

Coeur d’Alene Tribe
Translated from French, the name "Coeur d’Alene" came from the French fur traders and trappers who first encountered the Schitsu'umish Indians. The term actually means "heart of the awl" referring to the sharpness of tribal member trading skills exhibited in their dealings with fur traders. The nickname stuck. One Frenchman even described the tribe as "the greatest traders in the world."

The Coeur d’Alene’s tribal homeland includes almost five million acres of what are now northern Idaho, eastern Washington and western Montana. Unlike the tribes of the plains, the Coeur d'Alenes were not nomadic. Coeur d'Alene Indian villages were established along the Coeur d'Alene, St. Joe, Clark Fork and Spokane rivers. These tribes traded with neighboring tribes and with many tribes far away on the Pacific coast.

Ancient trade routes connected the Coeur d'Alenes with the Nez Perce, the Shoshones and the Bannocks to the south and southeast. To the east were the tribes of the Great Plains and the vast herds of buffalo. With the coming of horses, young Coeur d'Alene men journeyed east to hunt buffalo. However these journeys were not necessary for survival. They were viewed as adventures and even rites of passage for youth who would emerge into manhood and into leadership roles. All ancient tribal trade routes and paths remain today. In fact, those very same routes are still used all across the country and are called interstate highways.

Duck Valley Shoshone-Paiute Tribes
The Duck Valley Indian Reservation is home to approximately 900 of 1,700 tribal members of the Shoshone-Paiute. Located 96 miles north of Elko on the high desert in northeastern Nevada and southwestern Idaho, a mix of Western Shoshone, Northern and Malheur Paiute Indians represent the tribe. Total acreage includes 289,819 acres of tribal land 144,274 acres in Elko County, Nev. and 145,545 acres in Owyhee County, Idaho. There are also 3,981.68 acres of public land at Wildhorse Reservoir.

While a large portion of land is dedicated to agriculture, the tribe's primary source of income is from the sale of fishing permits in its two large reservoirs. The operation of a marina on one of its lakes and the sale of grazing permits for its 260,000 acres of range land provide additional income for the tribe. Other limited employment available for residents can be found at several small, tribal-owned businesses including a laundromat, general store, café and gas station.

Nez Perce Tribe
Nez Perce is a misnomer given to the tribe by French-Canadian fur trappers. The French translate it as "pierced nose." Even though the Nez Perce didn't pierce their noses, the name remained and today it is pronounced "Nezz Purse". Ni Mii Pu (Ni-MEE-Poo) is what tribal members call themselves. It means "The People."

When the weary and hungry Lewis and Clark Expedition encountered the Nez Perce on the Weippe Prairie in 1805, the Ni Mii Pu chose to help the explorers survive. They fed and refreshed them, helped build canoes and provided directions to the Pacific Ocean.

Today the Nez Perce Reservation in Idaho totals about 138,000 acres. Approximately 1,800 of the 3,100 enrolled tribal members live on the reservation itself. The nine-member Nez Perce Tribal Executive Committee is the governing body for the reservation.

Shoshone and Bannock Tribe
In eastern Idaho along Interstate 1-15 and 1-86 lies the 544,000-acre Fort Hall Indian Reservation on a small part of the land that the Shoshone and Bannock Indians have lived on for more than 10,000 years.

Before recorded history, the Shoshone and Bannock originally roamed the areas of what are now the states of Wyoming, Utah, Nevada and Idaho. In their search for food they hunted, gathered and fished for salmon. Horses introduced in the early 1700s allowed some groups to travel great distances in pursuit of buffalo.

A Presidential Executive Order established the 1.8 million acre reservation in 1867 but a survey error reduced the size of the Reservation to 1.2 million acres in 1872. Later, encroachments reduced the reservation to its present size.

The first white men to explore the West were the trappers and explorers. Sacajawea, a Lemhi Shoshone, accompanied Lewis and Clark to the Pacific Ocean in 1805 and back in 1806. Visit the Sacajawea Interpretive, Cultural and Education Center in Salmon and the Fort Hall Museum in Fort Hall, ID.

Salish Tribe
The Flathead Indian Reservation (1,244,000 acres) is home to the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes. In this confederation the Salish and Pend d'Oreilles members formed one tribe and the Kootenai another. The tribal headquarters are in Pablo, Mont.

The traditional Salish and Kootenai hunted buffalo on the Great Plains as well as deer, elk and other wild game in western Mont. A variety of plant foods such as bitterroot, camas, moss, wild onions, Indian potatoes and serviceberries were gathered during their seasons and preserved for later use.

North Central Idaho
Idaho’s history is deeply intertwined with the American Indians who first inhabited this land. Experience the history of Idaho’s American Indians by visiting the Nez Perce National Historical Park and Trail. The historical park and museum pays tribute to the lives and legacy of the people of the Nez Perce Tribe. Originally developed as a Nez Perce mission location, two years after missionaries Henry and Eliza Spalding settled on Lapwai Creek in 1836, today this site serves as National Park Service headquarters and contains a major interpretive center to explain Nez Perce history. The park consists of 38 sites scattered across four states and is the only national park that celebrates a people instead of a place. It contains over 5,000 historic photographs and 24 historic sites that tell the story of the Nez Perce people. Visitors can also view a movie about the Nez Perce culture and history.

For a truly all-encompassing history of Idaho, stop along the Lewis and Clark Trail. Relive the steps of the historic Lewis and Clark Expedition with the Riverside Tepee and Canoe Camp where you will enjoy Lewis and Clark history, Native American historical and cultural activities, expedition re-enactments, special events and hands-on activities with American Indian staff. Experience longboat river tours, guided fishing trips, kayaks and canoes.

Silver Valley Mining History
Northern Idaho is filled with history and stories from the days of the big mining era. Experience this look back in time with a trip to the Silver Valley termasuk Wallace, Murray, Prichard and Kellogg.

Until recently, mining was the lifeblood of Wallace. Established in 1892 Wallace served as supply center for one of the largest silver producing areas in the world in the late 1800s. Today the entire town is on the National Register of Historic Places. The Northern Pacific Depot - an architectural gem - and the Coeur d'Alene District Mining Museum serve as interpretive centers for regional history. The Oasis Bordello Museum provides a more "colorful perspective" of the town's past and the Sierra Silver Mine gives a good feel for the life of an underground miner.

Located near Wallace in the Idaho Panhandle, Murray and Prichard also feature the history of the early mines that put Idaho on the map. Travel to Murray to see the famous Spragpole Museum Restaurant & Bar along with the Bedroom Gold Mine Bar.

Next, travel southwest to Kellogg where kids will enjoy panning for their own gold on the Crystal Gold Mine Tour. This 30-minute tour takes visitors deep inside this old mine which, after miner Tom Irwin blasted the mountain away to hide the mine’s entrance in 1882, lay hidden to the world for more than 100 years. Visitors experience a time gone by witnessing Tom’s old mine car and tools inside. Paved walking paths make it easy for all ages to get around.

Southeastern Idaho
For a history trip the kids will not forget, a tour of southeastern Idaho is a must. Start out at Fort Hall in Pocatello, a replica of the historic facility that served pioneer travelers along the Oregon Trail. Enter the massive wooden gates and wander through Company Hall, Frontier Room, Indian Room, Blacksmith, and Carpenter's Room. A covered wagon and tepee enhance the outdoor exhibit. Web: www.forthall.net or 208-234-1795.

If the kids are ready for a break, travel southeast to Lava Hot Springs. For centuries many Indian tribes called these natural hot water springs "healing waters." Geologists theorize the water has been a consistent 110 degrees for at least 50 million years. Today the State of Idaho maintains this world-famous resort complex year-round, offering hot mineral baths at 110 degrees Fahrenheit that are sulfur and odor-free. In addition to the hot pools there is a free form Olympic-size swimming and diving pool for summer fun.

Continuing southeast to Montpelier, stop at The National Oregon/California Trail Center which offers an excellent, structured educational experience about the largest mass migration in American history, the Oregon Trail. Ride in a computer-controlled covered wagon. Journey the trails with experienced guides in period costumes.

Finally if your family is a Napoleon Dynamite fan, visit the movie location site in Preston and check out specific places and items such as Napoleon’s house, Preston High School and Uncle Rico’s van.

Sacajawea Heritage Days celebrates the assistance Sacajawea, a native of the Lemhi valley, gave to the Lewis and Clark Expedition as it passed through the Lemhi Valley. The event features the annual Great Salmon Valley Balloonfest with hot air balloons, arts and crafts reminiscent of the period, breakfast, cattlemen's barbeque, a concert, talent stage, Lewis & Clark artifact replicas, tribal dancing and an ice cream social.


Effects of the California Gold Rush

No one could have imagined the far-reaching implications of the discovery of gold at Sutter’s Mill in Northern California.

On 24 January 1848, James Wilson Marshall found the first few pieces of gold in Coloma, California. It did not take long for more than 300 000 people, men and women alike, to migrate west in the hopes of making their fortune panning gold. The effects of the California Gold Rush are many and far-reaching they did not cease to be felt when the furor finally died down, but continue to be felt to this day

California Becomes a State

Though California was a Mexican possession when the year began, the land was ceded to the United States early in 1848. Though initially content to change nothing about the system of law or government in place in the region, it soon became evident that something had to be changed – little could be done to maintain roads, oversee education, or provide other essential services.

Though Congress was given recommendations to designate California as a US territory, nothing was done in this regard before the Gold Rush. However, once gold was discovered and the Californian economy began to really take off, it did not take long for the government officials to recognize the advantages of allowing California to join the union, and in 1850 it was accepted as a free state.

Effects of the Gold Rush on Settlements

As forty-niners poured into California, the towns and villages quickly filled up, resulting in the growth of already established cities, such as San Francisco, and the creation of new hastily-developed settlements. While many of these settlements developed into permanent cities still surviving today, many were abandoned at the close of the Gold Rush. Today, numerous ghost towns dating from the Gold Rush can be found scattered across California.

Farming settlements were also greatly affected by the California Gold Rush. On the one hand, the newly created settlements encroached on the farmland, and mining practices compromised the quality of the land. On the other hand, however, many farming communities enjoyed increased economic prosperity during the Gold Rush, thanks to the large number of miners who could not produce food for themselves.

Natives and the California Gold Rush

When gold was first discovered in California, the Native Americans of the area did not oppose the mining, and did not feel strong negative effects. At first, the white miners hired the Native Americans to pan the gold for them (though some did work independently). However, as news of the discovery spread and miners began to arrive from other regions, particularly Oregon, relations between the miners and the natives began to sour. Hostilities were soon opened, and the two groups openly attacked each other.

Furthermore, the excitement created by the discovery of gold, and the sheer volume of immigrants to the area, led to complete disregard for prior treaties and land reservations. It did not take long for the newcomers to push their way into the natives’ land, forcing them to move. Many of those who did not move faced further hostilities. In the end, thousands of natives were killed or forced out of California, leaving only a few in a region that at one point had had one of the largest populations of Native Americans in the United States.

Other Effects of the California Gold Rush

These are by no means the only short- or long-term effects of the 1848 Gold Rush. The creation of mines and settlements led to widespread destruction of habitat and, consequently, the destruction of thousands of animals. (This, of course, played a role in the destruction of Native Americans, as these animals were a major food source.) The need to transport people and products to and from the newly settled region led to the creation of infrastructure, particularly transportation routes, previously unknown in California. This helped to reaffirm the United States’ east-west ties.

There was no way for the first participants in the California Gold Rush to know what was going to happen in the years to come. The prosperity it initiated helped convince those in power to admit California to the Union settlements grew while others were created and subsequently abandoned and Native Americans faced almost total annihilation. Like any major event in history, the California Gold Rush had both its positive and negative effects, and these have been felt by thousands of people, even to this day.


Tonton videonya: 7 Fakta dan Sejarah Suku Indian Amerika yang Perlu Kalian tahu