Sentinel II - Sejarah

Sentinel II - Sejarah


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Sentinel II
(MB: 1. 45'; b. 11'6"; dr. 4')

Sentinel kedua, perahu motor yang dibangun pada tahun 1918 oleh Richardson Boat Co., Tonawanda Utara, NY, untuk Penjaga Pantai, selesai pada 17 Juni 1918 dan ditugaskan ke patroli Sungai St. Mary, Sault Ste. Marie, Mich.

Kembali ke Coast Guard ketika layanan dipisahkan pada 28 Agustus 1919, Sentinel bertugas hingga 1935, berganti nama menjadi AB-I S pada tahun 1923.


BerandaPatrol-2

Daya dapat disuplai oleh baterai atau sumber AC atau DC permanen, dijelaskan sebagai berikut:

  • 4 x Baterai NiMH isi ulang ukuran AA (2300mAh) (termasuk)
  • 4 x Baterai Alkaline ukuran AA (tidak termasuk)
  • Port USB Catu Daya DC 5V
  • Adaptor AC (AC 120V 60Hz ke DC5V 1000mA)
  • Adaptor DC (DC 12V ke DC5V 1000mA)
  • Koneksi USB ke PC untuk firmware dan pembaruan basis data melalui perangkat lunak Sentinel

Cakupan Frekuensi

  • 25.0000 - 512.0000 MHz
  • 7580000 - 823,9875 MHz
  • 849.0125 - 868.9875 MHz
  • 894.0125 - 960.000 MHz
  • 1240.0000 - 1300.0000 MHz

Fitur

  • Kemampuan untuk menyimpan nada CTCSS, DCS, atau NAC dengan cepat
  • Kemampuan untuk dengan cepat menyimpan ID Unit yang ditemukan
  • Presisi lokasi yang lebih baik untuk sistem – memungkinkan Anda menentukan lokasi dan jangkauan departemen menggunakan hingga 32 persegi panjang, bukan satu lingkaran (lingkaran masih didukung). – membunyikan peringatan yang dapat diprogram ketika saluran yang diatur ke peringatan menjadi aktif. /DCS/NAC tone decode yang menampilkan nada CTCSS/kode DCS dan kode NAC yang diterima
  • Peringatan Darurat – membunyikan peringatan saat unit memicu status daruratnya (pada sistem radio yang kompatibel).
  • Pemutaran ulang instan memutar ulang hingga 240 detik (4 menit) dari transmisi terbaru.
    • Perekaman sekali sentuh untuk menangkap transmisi untuk pemutaran nanti

    Fitur Peningkatan Ekstrim

      Mode
  • Kemampuan program panel depan lengkap untuk EDACS dan Sistem LTR
  • Batasi mode Pencarian dan Penemuan Konvensional
  • Output dan kontrol Audio USB
  • Kompatibilitas Sistem RR

    Pemindai ini kompatibel dengan Jenis Sistem Trunking dan Suara Sistem berikut yang digunakan dalam Basis Data Referensi Radio, tentu saja Anda harus memverifikasi bahwa pemindai akan mencakup rentang frekuensi yang sesuai:


    Sentinel II - Sejarah

    Revolver Sentinel Standar Tinggi


    High Standard memperkenalkan lini revolver Sentinel mereka pada tahun 1955, mungkin atas permintaan Sears Roebuck, yang merupakan pelanggan utama dan memiliki cukup banyak stok High Standard. Sears menginginkan kit gun murah atau revolver “tackle box” untuk dijual dengan merek J.C. Higgins mereka. Itu dijual oleh Sears sebagai JC Higgins Model 88. Senapan J.C. Higgins diberi pegangan khusus, seruling silinder, dan pin pelepas silinder. Versi label pribadi Sentinel juga dibuat untuk Western Auto (Wahyu Model 99) dan Armamex (perusahaan Kolonel Rex Applegate di Meksiko).

    Sentinel adalah revolver 9-shot .22. Itu diiklankan memiliki bingkai aluminium anodized, laras dan silinder baja karbon tarik tinggi, ejeksi ganda satu langkah, silinder counterbored swing-out, pandangan belakang berlekuk persegi yang dapat dipindahkan, pelatuk skor non-slip, berlian- grip kotak-kotak (meskipun mereka tidak menyebutkannya plastik), dan akurasi target.

    Desain inovatif diselesaikan oleh Harry Sefried, insinyur desain muda Standar Tinggi, hanya dalam enam bulan. Sefried tidak takut untuk memasukkan ide-ide bagus di mana pun dia menemukannya. Cengkeraman persegi pada model pertama dimodifikasi dari Colt New Model .36 Pocket Pistol tahun 1862, dan salah satu penembak dikatakan mengatakan bahwa itu adalah “pegangan layak pertama pada revolver sejak Perang Saudara.” Sampai hari ini tetap menjadi salah satu pegangan revolver paling nyaman yang pernah saya temui. Desain kunci silinder yang disederhanakan diambil dari revolver eksperimental Hugo Borchardt pada tahun 1876, yang ia rancang saat bekerja untuk Winchester dan yang diamati oleh Sefried selama lima tahun di Winchester. Pistol, seperti Broomhandle Mauser, tidak memiliki sekrup tetapi untuk sekrup pegangan.

    Keduanya adalah revolver R-101 Sentinel buatan tahun 1958.

    Revolver atas adalah R-106 Sentinel Deluxe dari tahun 1965, dan di bawahnya adalah R-103 Sentinel dari tahun 1961.

    Ada sandaran jempol integral yang dibentuk ke dalam bingkai di belakang rumah silinder di setiap sisi, membuat pistol terasa cukup alami di tangan. Bagian pegangan dan bingkai die cast dari aluminium. Tidak ada pelepasan ibu jari silinder untuk mengganggu rangka halus atau mempersulit pembuatan dan perakitan. Pistol dapat dipecah menjadi empat kelompok komponen utama: (1) silinder dan derek, (2) pelindung pelatuk/pegangan, (3) rakitan laras dan rangka, dan (4) palu, pelatuk, dan lainnya. komponen pengunci. Semuanya disatukan oleh pin palu, yang mengalir melalui pelindung pelatuk/pegangan dan rangka utama. Pegas koil digunakan di seluruh.

    Sefried merancang mekanisme ratchet unik yang memanfaatkan sembilan lubang yang dibor ke bagian belakang ekstraktor, bekerja dengan pawl tradisional yang memanjang dari bingkai. Lubang-lubang tersebut memberikan antarmuka positif pada pawl, memberikan putaran silinder yang sempurna dan mengurangi pengerjaan mesin yang diperlukan pada rangka dan silinder. Desainnya juga mengurangi keausan pada mekanisme ratchet yang pada akhirnya menyebabkan masalah dengan desain yang lebih tradisional. Mekanisme ratchet sembilan lubang ditinggalkan di Sentinel produksi selanjutnya.

    Sentinel memiliki kerucut pemaksaan yang diperpanjang yang hampir menghilangkan pencukuran timah saat peluru memasuki laras. Saya benci ketika sebuah pistol meludahkan timah panas ke samping ketika saya berdiri di samping si penembak--itu bisa menjadi gangguan fatal dalam pemadaman kebakaran.

    Sentinel awalnya tersedia dalam apa yang disebut lapisan biru (yang sebenarnya adalah selenium hitam). Selesai nikel tersedia pada bulan April 1956. Senjata nikel awal berharga $ 5 atau $ 6 lebih dari senjata blued. MSRP untuk senjata blued pada tahun 1955 adalah $37,50. Sentinel memiliki pegangan plastik one-piece wrap-around. Awalnya senjata biru memiliki pegangan coklat dan senjata nikel memiliki pegangan putih, tetapi skema itu tidak dipertahankan selama produksi.

    Katalog tahun 1955 mengatakan pistol itu tersedia dengan laras 3 atau 5 inci. Daftar suku cadang sekitar tahun 1957 atau 1958 menunjukkan barel 3 inci, 4 inci, dan 2-3/8 inci tersedia. Pada tahun 1956, laras 6 inci juga tersedia. Laras 3 inci dijatuhkan pada tahun 1964.

    Suatu saat di paruh kedua Standar Tinggi 50’s melisensikan perusahaan Armscor, anak perusahaan Squires Bingham & amp Co. di Filipina, untuk memproduksi Sentinel. Saya tidak tahu apakah mereka mengimpor suku cadang dari AS, meskipun saya menduga mereka melakukannya dan senjatanya hanya dirakit di Filipina. Pistol ini tidak ditandai dengan nomor seri-R. Armscor menyebutnya Model P dan sisi kanan pistol dicap dengan P diikuti dengan nomor seri.

    Pada tahun 1957, model hidung pesek Sentinel diperkenalkan, dengan gagang bundar pada pegangannya. Senjata awal memiliki palu bobbed, sekitar tahun 1960, setelah itu mereka menampilkan palu taji. Versi biru adalah Model #9144 dan versi nikel adalah Model #9145. Warna selesai dalam emas (Model #9161), pirus (Model #9162), dan merah muda (Model #9163), yang dikenal sebagai warna Dura -Tone, ditawarkan untuk Sentinel snub-barrel. Senapan Dura-Tone hadir dalam kotak presentasi mewah dan memiliki gagang gading tiruan berwarna putih. Pada tahun 1967 ketika seri R-108 dimulai, model hidung pesek diberi nomor model yang berbeda, yang berwarna biru adalah Model #9344 dan yang berwarna nikel menjadi Model #9345.

    Sebuah versi snubby juga dibuat untuk Sears, diberi label J.C. Higgins Model 88 Fisherman, tersedia dalam warna biru hanya dengan pegangan kotak-kotak plastik cokelat satu bagian dan ‘spur’ pada pelindung pelatuk.

    The Western Auto snubby diberi label Revelation Model 99, tersedia dalam warna biru dan nikel. Versi awal dengan pegangan satu bagian memiliki ‘spur’ pada pelindung pelatuk, sedangkan versi yang lebih baru dengan pegangan dua bagian memiliki pelindung pelatuk biasa

    Pada tahun 1958, sederet revolver gaya barat dilepaskan dari lini Sentinel, model pertamanya disebut Double-Nine . Itu dijual oleh Sears sebagai J.C. Higgins Ranger Model 90.

    • R-100. Seri Sentinel pertama disebut R-100. Bingkai membawa logo elang.
    • R-101. Pada pertengahan tahun 1956, mekanisme palu dan pelatuk sedikit dimodifikasi untuk seri R-101.
    • R-102. Pada tahun 1961, untuk seri R-102, pegas kembali ditambahkan ke batang ejektor. Pada model sebelumnya, jika Anda tidak ingat untuk menarik ejektor secara manual ke dalam silinder sebelum menutup, Anda akan menggores sisi kiri rangka.
    • R-103. Seri R-103 memiliki slot yang digiling ke dalam ejektor, bukan lubang bor.
    • R-104. Pada tahun 1961 R-104 Sentinel Imperial dikeluarkan dengan bingkai pegangan berukuran penuh, pegangan kenari kotak-kotak dua bagian, pandangan depan jalan, dan pemicu gaya target. (Sentinel reguler masih tersedia dengan pegangan plastik satu bagian dan pandangan depan blade, dan mempertahankan penunjukan R-103 yang lama.)
    • R-105. Senjata ini awalnya dibuat untuk Sears, tetapi dikembalikan ke Standar Tinggi ketika Sears menjatuhkan garis pistol mereka pada tahun 1963, dan diganti namanya menjadi senjata Standar Tinggi (laras dan pegangannya diganti). Mereka mempertahankan seruling silinder, pin silinder, pelindung pelatuk, dan desain pegangan satu bagian dari senjata J.C. Higgins. Sejauh yang saya tahu, ini adalah salah satu Sentinel yang paling tidak umum.
    • R-106. Pada bulan April 1965 Sentinel Deluxe muncul, dengan nomor seri R-106. Pemandangan depan ramp diganti dengan pisau, dengan pegangan kayu palsu. Imperial lama melanjutkan produksi.
    • R-107. Ini juga merupakan Sentinel Deluxe. Saya tidak dapat menentukan perbedaan antara R-106 dan R-107. Secara eksternal mereka tampak identik, tetapi nomor bagian untuk bingkai, pegangan, pelatuk, dan palu semuanya berubah..
    • R-108. Pada tahun 1967 Sentinel hidung pesek diberi pegangan dua potong dan penunjukan seri R-108. Bingkai membawa logo pemicu. Beberapa dari seri ini tidak memiliki logo bingkai.
    • R-109. Kit Gun diperkenalkan pada tahun 1969 dan diberi nama seri R-109. Ini adalah model pertama dengan pandangan belakang yang dapat disetel sepenuhnya.
    • MK I dan MK IV. Pada tahun 1974 nomor seri dihilangkan dan Sentinel MK I dan MK IV diperkenalkan. Senjata-senjata ini memiliki pemandangan belakang opsional yang dapat disesuaikan, pegangan kenari yang membungkus, dan rangka baja pertama yang muncul di garis Sentinel. MK I dengan bilik untuk senapan panjang .22, dan MK IV dengan bilik untuk magnum Winchester .22. MK I dan MK IV tersedia dengan barel 2 inci, 3 inci, atau 4 inci. Camp Gun diperkenalkan pada periode yang sama. Itu mirip dengan MK I dan MK IV, tetapi tidak memiliki laras yang menutupi batang ejektor. Camp Gun datang dengan laras standar 6 inci dan pemandangan yang dapat disesuaikan, dan tersedia dalam senapan panjang .22 atau .22 magnum.
    • Sentinel Baja. Pada titik tertentu penunjukan Mark I dan Mark IV dijatuhkan dan meriam rangka baja dijual sebagai “Sentinel” dengan silinder .22 LR dan .22 magnum yang dapat dipertukarkan.
    • MK II dan MK III. Ini berganti nama menjadi revolver Dan Wesson .357 Magnum. Pistol tersebut dijual dari pertengahan 1973 hingga Februari 1975. Ada desas-desus yang terus-menerus beredar bahwa High Standard membuat pistol Dan Wesson, tetapi itu sama sekali tidak benar.

    “Revolver Baru Pertama dalam 50 Tahun,” oleh William B. Edwards. Majalah Guns, Juni 1955.
    Pistol & Revolver Standar Tinggi: 1951-1984, oleh James Spacek. Diterbitkan sendiri, Cheshire, Connecticut: 1998.
    Pistols, A Modern Encyclopedia, oleh Henry M. Stebbins. Stackpole, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: 1961.
    “The Sentinel Snub 1957-1974” oleh Mickey Waldinger,
    Buletin Asosiasi Kolektor Standar Tinggi , Vol XVIII, No 3, September 2009.
    HiStandard.Info

    Item menarik lainnya di Unblinking Eye Guns

    Hak Cipta 2009-2011 oleh Ed Buffaloe. Seluruh hak cipta.
    Klik pada gambar untuk membuka versi yang lebih besar di jendela baru.


    Arsip USGS EROS - Sentinel-2

    Instrumen Multispektral Badan Antariksa Eropa pada satelit Sentinel-2 memberikan resolusi global (dari 83 derajat utara 56 derajat lintang selatan) 10 meter, gambar multispektral setiap 10 hari (2015-sekarang).

    Ubin Sentinel-2A di sebagian Denmark dan Swedia (6 Agustus 2015)
    (Area publik)

    Armada satelit Sentinel dirancang untuk mengirimkan data penginderaan jauh darat yang penting bagi program Copernicus Komisi Eropa. Misi Sentinel-2 adalah hasil kolaborasi erat antara Badan Antariksa Eropa (ESA), Komisi Eropa, industri, penyedia layanan, dan pengguna data. Misi tersebut telah dirancang dan dibangun oleh konsorsium sekitar 60 perusahaan yang dipimpin oleh Airbus Defense and Space, dan didukung oleh badan antariksa CNES Prancis untuk mengoptimalkan kualitas gambar dan oleh DLR German Aerospace Center untuk meningkatkan pemulihan data menggunakan komunikasi optik.

    Misi Sentinel-2 terdiri dari dua satelit yang dikembangkan untuk mendukung vegetasi, tutupan lahan, dan pemantauan lingkungan. Satelit Sentinel-2A diluncurkan oleh ESA pada 23 Juni 2015, dan beroperasi di orbit sinkron matahari dengan siklus berulang 10 hari. Satelit identik kedua (Sentinel-2B) diluncurkan pada 7 Maret 2017 dan beroperasi dengan akuisisi data yang tersedia di EarthExplorer. Bersama-sama mereka menutupi semua permukaan tanah Bumi, pulau-pulau besar, dan perairan pedalaman dan pesisir setiap lima hari.

    Sentinel-2 MultiSpectral Instrument (MSI) memperoleh 13 pita spektrum mulai dari panjang gelombang Visible and Near-Infrared (VNIR) hingga Shortwave Infrared (SWIR) di sepanjang petak orbital 290 km.

    Data sensor MSI melengkapi data yang diperoleh oleh US Geological Survey (USGS) Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) dan Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) (Perbandingan Sentinel-2 dan Landsat). Upaya kolaboratif antara ESA dan USGS menyediakan akses publik dan redistribusi akuisisi global data Sentinel-2 ESA tanpa biaya melalui portal sekunder berbasis di AS, selain akses pengguna langsung dari ESA.

    Pita Spektral dan Resolusi

    Ukuran MSI memantulkan pancaran melalui atmosfer dalam 13 pita spektral. Resolusi spasial tergantung pada pita spektral tertentu:

    • 4 pita pada 10 meter: biru (490 nm), hijau (560 nm), merah (665 nm), dan inframerah-dekat (842 nm).
    • 6 pita pada 20 meter: 4 pita sempit untuk karakterisasi vegetasi (705 nm, 740 nm, 783 nm, dan 865 nm) dan 2 pita SWIR yang lebih besar (1.610 nm dan 2.190 nm) untuk aplikasi seperti deteksi salju/es/awan atau vegetasi penilaian stres kelembaban.
    • 3 pita pada 60 meter: terutama untuk penyaringan awan dan koreksi atmosfer (443 nm untuk aerosol, 945 nm untuk uap air, dan 1375 nm untuk deteksi cirrus).

    Resolusi Radiometrik dan Spasial SENTINEL-2

    Nomor Band Panjang Gelombang Tengah (nm) Lebar pita (nm) Resolusi Spasial (m)
    1 443 20 60
    2 490 65 10
    3 560 35 10
    4 665 30 10
    5 705 15 20
    6 740 15 20
    7 783 20 20
    8 842 115 10
    8a 865 20 20
    9 945 20 60
    10 1375 30 60
    11 1610 90 20
    12 2190 180 20
    TCI* RGB Gabungan 10

    *Data yang diperoleh setelah 5 Desember 2016 mencakup Gambar Warna-Benar resolusi penuh sebagai gambar komposit RGB (merah, hijau, biru) yang dibuat dari pita 4, 3, 2.

    Penampil Karakteristik Spektral USGS membantu pengguna menentukan pita spektral mana yang bekerja paling baik untuk mengidentifikasi fitur yang mereka minati untuk interpretasi gambar. Alat ini juga memfasilitasi visualisasi Relative Spectral Response (RSR) dari berbagai sensor satelit.

    Tingkat Pemrosesan

    Kemitraan antara ESA dan USGS memungkinkan distribusi data reflektansi top-of-atmosphere (TOA) Level-1C. Pemrosesan Level-1C mencakup koreksi radiometrik dan geometris bersama dengan ortorektifikasi untuk menghasilkan produk geolokasi yang sangat akurat.

    Produk Data

    USGS Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center mengemas ulang produk Sentinel-2 pada basis per ubin sambil mempertahankan spesifikasi format Sentinel Standard Archive Format for Europe (SAFE), yang memungkinkan distribusi ukuran file yang mudah digunakan yaitu kurang lebih 650MB. Setiap produk Level-1C adalah ubin 100 km x 100 km dengan proyeksi dan datum UTM/WGS84 (Universal Transverse Mercator/World Geodetic System 1984). Kotak ubin Sentinel-2 dirujuk ke Sistem Referensi Grid Militer AS (MGRS). Ubin dapat sepenuhnya atau sebagian tertutup oleh data gambar. Ubin yang tertutup sebagian sesuai dengan yang ada di tepi petak. Paket unduhan dari USGS mencakup satu file untuk masing-masing dari 13 pita spektrum ditambah metadata. Memperbarui: Data yang diperoleh setelah 5 Desember 2016 didistribusikan dari ESA dalam basis ubin tunggal dengan konvensi penamaan yang lebih pendek dan menyertakan True-Colour Image resolusi penuh. Data Sentinel-2 yang sebelumnya ditawarkan dalam arsip EROS akan diganti karena data dengan True-Colour Image tersedia dari ESA. Pengguna mungkin melihat duplikasi adegan sementara di hasil pencarian.

    Produk tersedia untuk diunduh dalam file zip, yang mencakup data gambar, indikator kualitas, data tambahan, dan metadata. Data citra sentinel dalam format Geographic Markup Language JPEG2000 (GMLJP2). GML menyediakan pengkodean yang diperlukan untuk georeferensi gambar. Data Sentinel-2 dimaksudkan untuk penggunaan ilmiah dalam Sistem Informasi Geografis (SIG) atau perangkat lunak aplikasi khusus lainnya yang mendukung format GMLJP2. ESA menawarkan Sentinel 2 Toolbox, produk perangkat lunak sumber terbuka, untuk visualisasi, analisis, dan pemrosesan file GMLJP2/data Sentinel-2 dan data penginderaan jauh resolusi tinggi lainnya.

    Gambar Full Resolution Browse (FRB) dalam Georeferenced Tagged Image File Format (GeoTIFF) juga tersedia dari USGS untuk ubin Sentinel-2. Produk ini adalah gambar komposit warna alami simulasi yang dibuat dari tiga pita terpilih (11, 8A, 4) dengan resolusi tanah 20 meter.

    Semua produk data Sentinel-2 disediakan gratis untuk semua pengguna data, termasuk masyarakat umum, dan pengguna ilmiah dan komersial di bawah syarat dan ketentuan yang ditentukan oleh Program Copernicus Komisi Eropa.

    Peta Cakupan

    Peta Cakupan yang menunjukkan ketersediaan produk Sentinel-2 tersedia untuk diunduh.

    Informasi tambahan

    Akses Data

    EarthExplorer, USGS Global Visualization Viewer (GloVis), atau Sentinel2Look Viewer dapat digunakan untuk mencari, melihat pratinjau, dan mengunduh data Sentinel-2. Koleksinya terletak di bawah kategori Sentinel di EarthExplorer.

    Arsip USGS Sentinel-2 saat ini hanya sebagian representasi dari semua akuisisi yang tersedia dari ESA. Pengguna harus menunggu beberapa penundaan sebelum data yang diperoleh ESA tersedia di sistem USGS.


    Siswa dapat mengalami sejarah Perang Dunia II dari dekat

    BOCA RATON — Lebih dari 300 siswa dari sekolah daerah pada hari Jumat naik ke perut burung perang yang memenangkan Perang Dunia II, mencium minyak mesin itu dan mengaitkan jari mereka ke pemicu senapan mesin yang tujuh dekade lalu membidik musuh.

    Namun perhentian tur "Wings of Freedom" Yayasan Collings di Bandara Boca Raton juga menarik jenis sejarah yang tidak dapat dilestarikan selamanya.

    "Bagaimana rasanya di kamp penjara?" Ethan Stack, 14, dari Boca Raton, bertanya kepada Irwin Stovroff, 92, dari Boca, yang mengemudikan B-24 dalam Perang Dunia II — seperti yang ada di landasan pada hari Jumat.

    Selama apa yang seharusnya menjadi pengeboman terakhir Perang Dunia II, pesawatnya tertembak dan dia keluar dari wilayah musuh. Dia ditawan oleh orang Jerman, katanya.

    "Ketika Anda menjadi tawanan dan tawanan, Anda harus bergantung pada musuh Anda untuk segalanya," jawab Stovroff.

    Boca Raton adalah salah satu perhentian paling populer untuk tur Wings of Freedom, yang mengajak masyarakat untuk melihat langsung pesawat Perang Dunia II, B-17, B-24, dan P-51, yang bagian besar dari kemenangan AS dalam Perang Dunia II. Namun, Jumat pagi, itu semua tentang mengalami sejarah dari dekat bagi ratusan siswa.

    Baru saja keluar dari perut B-17, juga dikenal sebagai Benteng Terbang, Max Silver, 10, dari Delray Beach, dan Sunand Sujai, 10, juga dari Delray, mengantre untuk masuk ke B-24, sebuah pesawat. dikenal sebagai "Pembebas".

    "Ini akan menjadi keren," kata Silver. "Saya ingin duduk di kokpit pilot."

    Menyentuh instrumen sebenarnya yang digunakan penembak membuat siswa kelas lima dari Sekolah Dasar Banyan Creek terpukau.

    "Mereka membiarkan Anda memegang senjata di samping," kata Isaac Singer, 11, dari Boca Raton.

    Shelby Rogerson, asisten program dengan Program Transisi Sekolah Palm Beach di Florida Atlantic University, mengatakan bahwa itu adalah pengalaman yang membuka mata baginya, apalagi belasan siswa yang dibawanya.

    "Hanya untuk mengintip ke dalam benda-benda ini," katanya. "Ini memberi Anda rasa hormat yang baru ditemukan atas apa yang dialami orang-orang ini," katanya.

    Siswa juga berbaris untuk berbicara dengan Stovroff dan Daniel Rothfeld, juga dari Boca Raton. Rothfeld adalah seorang spesialis radio di pesawat C-47 yang menerbangkan pasokan dan bahan bakar untuk tentara Amerika dan Australia di New Guinea, yang memerangi Jepang.

    Rothfeld menerbangkan 305 misi sebelum semuanya berakhir, katanya kepada para siswa.

    "Berapa umurmu ketika kamu mulai terbang?" Caitlin Krinsky, 14, yang bersekolah di Sekolah St. Andrew.


    Kemampuan

    Sebagai mesin, Sentinel telah dirancang semata-mata untuk pertempuran.

    • Kekuatan manusia super: Kekuatan yang secara alami dimiliki Sentinel adalah kemampuan untuk mengangkat berton-ton di atas kepala mereka dengan sangat mudah dan bertarung dengan kekuatan yang sama. Dua Penjaga Mark 10 cukup kuat untuk membelah Colossus menjadi dua. Satu Sentinel bisa mengalahkan Colossus dengan satu pukulan di kepala, membuatnya pingsan dalam beberapa detik di tanah. Sentinel juga bisa membuangnya ke seberang ruangan. Sentinel meraih Colossus dengan satu tangan dan memegangnya erat-erat dengan tinjunya, melumpuhkannya. Sentinel sendiri terbukti setara, jika tidak lebih kuat dari Colossus.
    • Daya Tahan Manusia Super: Sentinel Mk I dibuat dari polimer zaman ruang angkasa, yang sangat kuat dan tahan lama, membuat Sentinel sangat tahan terhadap sebagian besar senjata dan kekuatan mutan. Tidak diketahui dari bahan apa Mk X Sentinel dibuat, tetapi diasumsikan terbuat dari polimer yang sama dengan pendahulunya. Terlihat bahwa hanya senjata energi Bishop dan ledakan penghancur yang kuat dari kapal ruang angkasa Mk X Sentinel yang benar-benar dapat merusak atau menghancurkannya (setidaknya Sentinel X). Senjata dan kekuatan lain hanya bisa memperlambat mereka. Karena itu, jika mereka meningkatkan armor mereka dengan kekuatan mutan, mereka bisa mendapatkan armor tambahan (Iceman, Sunspot) atau hampir tidak dapat dihancurkan (berlian, batu, atau bentuk logam Colossus).
    • Mimikri Kekuatan: Meskipun model sebelumnya tidak memiliki kemampuan seperti itu, Mark 10 Sentinel berevolusi ke titik di mana mereka dapat meniru kekuatan hampir semua mutan yang mereka temui. Bukan hanya itu, mereka bisa meniru kekuatan mutan, kekuatan yang direplikasi itu lebih kuat daripada kekuatan mutan asli. Misalnya, Sentinel dalam bentuk es dapat berhasil bergerak menuju Sunspot tanpa masalah, dan mati/membeku dengan satu tangan. Sentinel dalam bentuk panas/lava/Sunspot bisa berhasil memecahkan es Iceman, memegang lehernya dan menghancurkan kepalanya. Dalam bentuk ini, itu bisa melelehkan pintu berat perbendaharaan dalam hitungan detik. Sentinel dalam bentuk logam yang diambil dari Colossus bisa membunuh Colossus sendiri hanya dengan dua pukulan di kepalanya. Setelah pukulan pertama, Sentinel merobek tangan Colossus. Ini karena semua kekuatan mutan ditingkatkan ke tubuh manusia, sementara kekuatan salinan Sentinel ditingkatkan ke bahan yang sangat tahan lama yang dibuat oleh Sentinel, sehingga mereka dapat menciptakan kemampuan yang lebih kuat, membuat Sentinel kebal dalam beberapa kasus.

    Sentinel juga terlihat berubah menjadi bentuk batuan (mungkin meniru bentuk batuan Darwin), memperoleh daya tahan yang ekstrem, lebih berat, dan kebal terhadap aliran energi panas bintik matahari. Dalam bentuk seperti itu, ketika mereka kehilangan Sunspot dengan tangan mereka, para Penjaga menghantam tanah, membuatnya meledak, menunjukkan kekuatan yang sangat meningkat.

    Sentinel lain di bawah serangan Sunspot terlihat berubah menjadi bentuk berlian, meniru bentuk berlian Emma Frost, meningkatkan ke baju besinya yang kuat, membuatnya kebal terhadap. energi bintik matahari juga memanas. Dalam bentuk ini dia bisa membuat paku berlian yang dipotong tangan bintik matahari.

    • Penerbangan: Sentinel dirancang dengan pendorong di dalam kaki mereka yang memungkinkan mereka melawan gravitasi. Pada tahun 2023, tanda 10 dirancang dengan perangkat hover yang memungkinkan mereka terbang sendiri tanpa pendorong jet.
    • Atletik / Kelincahan: Sentinel terlihat sangat lincah, mereka bisa melakukan jungkir balik ke depan dan ke belakang di udara dan mampu melompat pada jarak yang lebih tinggi. Mereka terlihat merangkak di atas tembok di biara Cina (satu memanjat, dan sedikit yang turun)
    • Mengubah Bentuk/Mempersenjatai: Berkat kekuatan pengubah bentuk Mystique, Sentinel juga terlihat mampu mengubah bentuknya agar sesuai dengan berbagai tujuan:

        Mereka bisa menjadi lebih kecil/lebih besar, seperti yang dijelaskan oleh pengembang. Hal ini juga terlihat pada adegan pertama ketika transporter mulai membuka pintu dan menurunkan Sentinel satu per satu. Para Sentinel itu tidak memiliki tangan dan kaki, mungkin karena lebih banyak Sentinel yang bisa masuk ke dalam transportasi.     Mereka juga bisa menjulurkan tangan mereka menjadi paku panjang dan sangat tajam yang mampu menembus dinding beton dan menusuk/memotong mutan. (Sentinel memotong tangan Sunspot, Sentinel lain menusuk dan membunuh Sunspot dalam bentuk lavanya dengan cakar panjang keluar dari setiap jari).     Sebelum pertempuran pertama melawan X men, Sentinel mengebor dinding beton dengan bor yang kuat. Butuh beberapa detik sampai mereka memecahkan beton, kemudian segera bor diubah kembali menjadi tangan.

    • Kekebalan terhadap senjata tertentu: Sebagai robot, Sentinel kebal terhadap serangan psikis dari Xavier dan mutan telepati lainnya. Mereka dibangun dari polimer zaman ruang angkasa, membuat mereka kebal terhadap kendali Magneto. Mereka memiliki detektor X-Gene untuk mendeteksi mutan dari jarak yang sangat jauh, yang berarti bahwa mutan yang berubah bentuk seperti Mystique tidak bisa menipu mereka untuk menyamar menjadi manusia.

    Senjata

    Sentinel telah berevolusi sejak diciptakan pada tahun 70-an dan oleh karena itu telah menggunakan berbagai senjata yang berbeda di sepanjang jalan.


    Penyelesaian pembedahan kelenjar getah bening pada saat operasi primer ditemukan untuk meningkatkan pengendalian penyakit lokal serta membantu dalam prognostik. Tidak ada peningkatan kelangsungan hidup dari melanoma pada pasien dengan metastasis sentinel node.

    Melanoma dipentaskan pada saat eksisi bedahnya menggunakan biopsi kelenjar getah bening sentinel (SLNB). Teknik invasif minimal ini dilakukan dengan pewarna biru metilen dan/atau limfosintigrafi dengan analisis probe gamma intraoperatif. SLNB penting dalam prognostik melanoma. Secara klinis pada pasien dengan SLNB positif, diseksi kelenjar getah bening selesai (CLND) dilakukan pada saat SLNB dengan tujuan pengendalian penyakit lokal. Pasien-pasien ini juga dapat menerima terapi medis adjuvant. Saat ini tidak ada bukti mengenai kegunaan CLND langsung. Prosedur ini bukannya tanpa risiko, khususnya infeksi, seroma, pemisahan luka, dan limfedema. [1]

    Multicenter Selective Lymphadenectomy Trial-1 (MSLT-1) menegaskan bahwa SLNB merupakan bagian penting dalam pengobatan pasien dengan melanoma. [2] [3] [4] . Uji coba MSLT-1 menunjukkan bahwa analisis patologis kelenjar getah bening sentinel adalah faktor yang paling penting untuk prognostik melanoma, dan pasien yang menjalani biopsi kelenjar getah bening sentinel memiliki tingkat kekambuhan melanoma yang lebih rendah jika dibandingkan dengan pasien yang menjalani eksisi luas dengan tidak ada biopsi kelenjar. Biopsi kelenjar getah bening sentinel ditemukan terkait dengan peningkatan kelangsungan hidup spesifik melanoma 10 tahun (62% Biopsi dengan keterlibatan kelenjar getah bening vs 41,5% pengamatan dengan keterlibatan kelenjar getah bening, P = 0,006) serta kelangsungan hidup bebas penyakit 10 tahun jauh (54,8% Biopsi dengan kelenjar getah bening). keterlibatan vs 35,6% observasi dengan keterlibatan nodal, P=0,002) pada paten dengan melanoma dengan ketebalan sedang (kedalaman Breslow 1,2-3,5 mm).

    Uji coba MSLT-2 menunjukkan bahwa CLND menawarkan pengendalian penyakit lokal, tetapi tidak meningkatkan tingkat kelangsungan hidup spesifik penyakit pada pasien dengan melanoma dengan metastasis kelenjar getah bening sentinel.


    Varian

    Cruiser Tank Sentinel AC III

    Sebanyak 65 Sentinel Tank diproduksi. 4 varian diproduksi

    • Sentinel AC I: Memasang Ordnance QF 2-pon
    • Sentinel AC II: Ditingkatkan Sentinel AC I
    • Sentinel AC III: Memasang senjata laras ganda Ordnance QF 25-pon
    • Sentinel AC IV: Memasang senapan Ordnance QF 17-pon


    Karakteristik [ sunting | edit sumber]

    A Penjaga-pesawat antar jemput kelas membawa peti kemas

    Dirancang oleh Sienar Fleet Systems dalam bentuk sepupunya, the lambda-pesawat ulang-alik kelas T-4a, pesawat ulang-alik yang lebih besar dan lebih luas ini terutama digunakan untuk mengangkut 75 pasukan stormtroopers ke dalam pertempuran Ζ] 󈠇 lebih banyak pasukan daripada lambda-kelas. ⎗] Kapal menampilkan tiga sayap: satu foil pusat stasioner dan dua sayap sayap yang diartikulasikan. Ώ] Kapal pendarat juga memiliki perisai yang cukup kuat untuk menahan beberapa serangan dari a Api Quasar-Menara kapal penjelajah kelas. ⎘] Mereka juga dapat dimodifikasi dengan kendaraan pengangkut kontainer khusus. ⎙] Pesawat ulang-alik juga memiliki dua lampu sorot di bagian depan pesawat. ⎚] Pesawat ulang-alik memiliki beberapa titik masuk termasuk jalan depan, jalan belakang, ⎛] dan pintu ke samping. ⎜] Bagian dalam kapal memiliki bagian penumpang utama dan kokpit. Di area penumpang/kargo, ada bangku dan harness di setiap sisi dengan tangga ke sisi ramp depan yang mengarah langsung ke palka untuk akses kokpit. Bagian kokpit memiliki empat kursi. ⎛] Pesawat ulang-alik juga bisa menampilkan penyegaran di sisi berlawanan dari tangga. ⎝]


    RQ-170 SENTINEL ORIGINS BAGIAN II: CUCU “TACIT BLUE”

    Karya pertama saya tentang leluhur RQ-170 Sentinel, truk sensor rahasia tak berawak pilihan Amerika, mendapat banyak lalu lintas dan merupakan topik dari salah satu wawancara penuh warna baru-baru ini di program radio nasional John Batchelor (http ://johnbatchelorshow.com/). Namun setelah menulis sesuatu tentang asal usul platform pengintaian taktis bersayap kelelawar yang sekarang terkenal itu aneh bagi saya. Saya telah mendengar tentang persyaratan misi uniknya di suatu tempat di sepanjang garis waktu abstrak teknologi kedirgantaraan yang telah saya tanamkan di kepala saya selama bertahun-tahun, jauh sebelum bahkan seluruh konsep TIER3- secara resmi ada. Bahkan mesin ini bahkan mendahului Operasi Badai Gurun dan rumor tentang kemungkinan keberadaan TR-3A “Black Manta” seperti pesawat pengintai taktis berawak yang tersembunyi yang muncul pada akhir 1980-an dan mencapai puncaknya setelah Perang Teluk pertama. Kemudian saya tersadar, Northrop's “Whale,” ya, itu dia! Nenek moyang dari persyaratan TIER3- USAF pada pertengahan 1990-an, dan dengan demikian dihasilkan RQ-3 Darkstar yang kemudian memimpin juga RQ-170 Sentinel, jelas merupakan program “Tacit Blue” yang sederhana namun menarik yang tanggal kembali ke awal zaman siluman. Setelah banyak penyelidikan, saya menyadari bahwa dengan memahami Tacit Blue, kita dapat memahami cucunya, RQ-170 Sentinel, lebih baik dari sebelumnya.

    'Revolusi siluman' Amerika “&8217 terjadi pada pertengahan 1970’-an, yang dipicu oleh kemajuan dalam pemrosesan komputer dan teknik pembuatan pesawat terbang, serta Perang Dingin yang sedang berlangsung. By the turn of decade multiple “low observable” programs, spearheaded by a variety of manufacturers, were well underway. Most notable of all of these programs was Lockheed’s notorious bleeding edge “Skunkworks” design house’s “Have Blue” demonstrator, aka the “Hopeless Diamond.” The successful Have Blue program would eventually morph into the world’s first true “Stealth” production aircraft, the infamous F-117A Nighthawk Stealth Fighter (the Nighthawk was really an attack aircraft but marketing is a powerful thing even in the Pentagon’s black budget world). Yet another smaller, less glamorous, but arguably as influential top-secret technology demonstration was also underway around this same period in time, known ambiguously as “Tacit Blue.”

    The Tacit Blue aircraft, known affectionately as “The Whale” amongst those who were involved with the program over at legendary aerospace manufacturer Northrop, had an entirely separate set of objectives than Lockheed’s proposed stealth attack aircraft, although radar invisibility was one they both had in common. Whereas Lockheed, leveraging its innovative “ECHO1” radar predictability software, found the “faceted,” diamond like structural approach suitable for a stealth tactical attack aircraft, where speed and agility were on the requirement list, a few years later Northrop would take an almost entirely opposite route to achieve groundbreaking “low observable” results.

    In the late 1970’s the DoD’s Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) was working hard at breaking open stealth technology’s virtual “Pandora’s box,” and diligently figuring out new ways to leverage the still very young and emerging capability. Never before could America actually build an invisible warplane, and the creative minds over at the Pentagon were deciding exactly where this new revolutionary method of designing aircraft could make the most impact. One of the areas where they wanted to push the stealth envelope was in the business of battlefield reconnaissance. At the time, taktis aerial intelligence was collected via fighter jets, or other very un-stealthy aircraft, that were fitted with cameras and sent out to make daring runs, sometimes at very low-level and at very high speeds, over enemy territory. At best these systems could capture a snapshot in time of the enemies force posture, which could never be exploited in real-time, and was only gained at incredible risk to the aircrews involved. Lainnya strategic surveillance assets, such as the SR-71 Blackbird and especially reconnaissance satellites had similar, if not even more severe drawbacks, as the information they gathered was momentary in nature, and resolutions were at times inconsistent. With these limitations in mind, DARPA hired the Northrop company to answer a simple question: Could emerging “low observable” aircraft technology be used to build an aircraft that could survive while loitering for hours at a time deep behind enemy lines, all the while collecting real-time battlefield tactical intelligence that commanders could exploit in real-time, while being located safely behind friendly lines?

    During this same period of time the USAF was looking to develop an aircraft that could take advantage of recent air to ground radar technology revelations. The concept behind such emerging capabilities was to use a large phased array radar, mounted on an airplane, to provide real-time Ground Moving Target Indicator (GMTI) intelligence. GMTI is a radar mode that basically sees the movement of vehicles across large land masses, as well an associated Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) mode that could theoretically map the battlefield using high-resolution radar beams and computer processing instead of optical photography. Both modes are able to peer through inclement weather with ease, can be implemented at long-range, and are persistent in nature. In other words, they can be used to survey enemy territory for long periods of time, looking for not just targets but operational trends in the enemy’s force posture, under almost any conditions. This new radar technology development program was known as “Pave Mover,” and it would prove to have drastic effects on the future of airborne intelligence collection.

    With the “Pave Mover” radar concept and Northrop’s stealthy and persistent tactical intelligence aircraft in mind, the folks at DARPA decided to combine the two into a top-secret program now known officially as the Battlefield Surveillance Aircraft-Experimental (BSAX), code name “Tacit Blue.” By combining the deep penetrating radar capabilities of “Pave Mover” and Northrop’s stealthy surveillance platform, commanders would theoretically be able to look deeper into enemy territory than ever previously imagined, and the products of such a capability could truly be war winning. The only problem would be, how would Northrop engineers leverage a new design philosophy that was still in its infancy to be able to carry a massive radar array while staying invisible to radar at the same time? Further, how would they ensure that the radar itself was not detected through its high power emissions? The program’s goals were truly groundbreaking and in being so they were also incredibly challenging. Literally, the BSAX had to not just blaze a single trail, but many in order to be successful.

    Around the turn of the decade, Northrop had designed an aircraft that was so ugly that it had to be genius, and it was. Resembling a whale, including its blow-hole on top (the jet air intake!) the Tacit Blue was a marvel of function over form. Instead of using the faceted, almost diamond like approach to designing their stealth aircraft, as Lockheed had done a couple of years prior, Northrop engineers took a different approach, one of continuous curvatures, chined edges, and masked vulnerabilities. Much of this design philosophy was demanded by the “loiter” part of Tacit Blue’s mission requirements. The aircraft had to feature “all aspect stealth,” whereas an aircraft like the F-117 could be optimized for front and rear, or “coming and going” stealth aspects, as their mission was sneak inside a defense network, drop bombs, and high tail it out of danger. Tacit Blue had no such luxury as it would have to loiter for hours over enemy territory, and thus every angle would be susceptible to radar surveillance for prolonged periods of time. Tacit Blue’s rounded approach to stealth, known as curvilinear design, would be a massive development that would affect future stealth technology arguably more than the famous F-117’s “faceted” approach to masking radar signatures.

    The Tacit Blue Weighed in at some 30,000lbs, measured around 55’X55′ and looking more like a motor-home than an aircraft. With a massive phased array radar, provided by Hughes, shoehorned into its boxcar fuselage, the ugly Whale was one unaerodynamic flying creature. It’s surfaces were so smooth that it almost took on a sculpted appearance. This does make some sense as one of its main designers actually sculpted its unique fascia while sitting on a park bench after being stumped on how to come up with a solution for DARPA’s BSAX challenge. By its very nature, Tacit Blue was a highly unstable design and thus had to utilize an advanced fly-wire-system similar to the one used on YF-16. Making the aircraft even more awkward, the design team utilized many parts from existing aircraft to minimize design time, complexity and cost. At a price tag of about $130,000,000 to build, with a total program cost of about $170,000,000, the Whale was an expensive ugly duckling, but it would pay for itself in spades over some 135 test flights between 1983 and 1985.

    During these 135 test flights Tacit Blue and the whole BSAX team would not only pave the way for a multitude of stealth and surveillance technologies, but in doing so it would make the exact case for a TIER3- unmanned stealth and persistent tactical reconnaissance requirement that would spawn the RQ-3 Darkstar some ten years later, and eventually the RQ-170 another decade after that. In many ways Tacit Blue was the manned experimental RQ-170 of decades past. Here are some of the key BSAX program’s accomplishments:

    1.) “Curvilinear” and “All-Aspect” Stealth- Tacit Blue’s design was incredibly unique for its time, and many, if not all of its features can be seen today on modern stealth aircraft and UAVs. Its continuously curving architecture was revolutionary and would pave the way and help validate the design for Northrop’s B-2A Bomber, still America’s most valuable (that we know of) deep penetrating weapon system some 20+ years after it’s unveiling. Also, the “Whale’s” exact design was almost exactly copied for the Tri-Service Standoff Attack Missile (TSSAM), although the program was cancelled in 1993 due to budget and technological reasons, similarities are still abundant on the JASSM missile system currently in service. Its chined forward fuselage bears a close family resemblance to that seen on the YF-23, and it’s elliptical exhaust can be identified on the RQ-170 Sentinel. It’s overhead stealthy jet inlet, and deep buried motors are both concepts utilized to a great degree on the B-2 and RQ-170 as well.

    Tacit Blue’s “all aspect” stealth design philosophy has been used in almost every low observable product in existence today and can be seen extrapolated to a greater, more refined degree on the f-22 and F-35. In fact the “curvilinear” design method, aided by much more powerful computer aided design software and processors, would allow stealth aircraft to be configured more freely for many different kinds of missions and uses as compared to the F-117’s inefficient and limiting faceted architecture. Although the Tacit Blue’s design was so ahead of its time it seems as if it is still being used today with minimal modifications. Case in point is General Atomics’s new Predator C, also known as the Avenger, which possesses and uncanny resemblance to Tacit Blue some 25 years after its last flight. In summary, structurally alone, the Tacit Blue changed the way America builds aerial weaponry forever, arguably more so than the more popular “Have Blue” demonstrator and it’s infamous F-117 successor.

    2.) Infra Red Heat, Noise, and Optical Signature Reduction- It is said that the Tacit Blue was literally the coolest aircraft ever tested at the time. The aircraft ejected its exhaust before and above the end of aircraft’s tail section. This made the motor’s direct heat signature masked to anyone viewing the aircraft from below. It is also said that Tacit Blue’s exhaust was “after cooled” or chilled after being ejected from the aircraft’s engine, and this, combined with chemicals injected into the exhaust, all but eliminated the possibility of creating a contrail or being detected with infra-red sensors. Further, its light paint was optimized for medium and high altitude operations during daytime, and its deeply buried motors made the aircraft incredibly quiet. All of this and of course the unlikely overall shape of the Tacit Blue would make the aircraft almost entirely undetectable. These low-signature revelations would be exploited in advanced military aircraft design for decades after the Whale’s last flight.

    3.) Low Probability Of Intercept (LPI) Radar- The Tacit Blue’s design was extremely stealthy, but packing a huge radar that emits tremendous amounts of energy over or near an enemy battlefield is not stealthy to say the least. Passive detection devices and Electronic Support Measures (ESM) could alert the enemy to the BSAX’s whereabouts almost as easily as radar detection if it’s radar were to be employed in a normal fashion. So engineers from Hughes and Northrop worked on cutting-edge ideas to make what was already a breakthrough radar technology, that being Ground Moving Target Indicator (GMTI) capability, all that more revolutionary by making its electronic emissions almost impossible to detect by the enemy.

    LPI radar works using a variety of tactics that combine collectively to lower the possibility of a radar being detected while turned on. Advanced methods such as utilizing agile frequency modulation over a very wide band, emitting a much more finely tuned beam at lower power for short bursts instead of long continuous emissions, all via a phased array radar design that is paired with advanced back-end computing power fantastically lowered the chances of the Tacit Blue being detected via its emissions. Today LPI radar techniques, especially when joined with new Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA) radar sets has changed the way radar is used in aerial and sea combat. The technology was most certainly used in the ATB program which produced the B-2A Spirit that was fielded just a few years after the Whale made its last flight. At the time the B-2 was a fantastic asset to migrate LPI airborne radar technology into because it had massive real estate on it’s leading edge for a pair phased array radar arrays to be installed, and it could utilize them while under it’s stealth cloak. Today, stealth fighters like the F-22 and F-35, and even modern combat ships use advanced LPI radars to their advantage, allowing them to keep tabs and engage their enemies while maintaining a high degree of invisibility. Further, the exact LPI and GMTI technology pioneered by Tacit Blue, improved and miniaturized over time, most likely makes it possible for the stealthy RQ-170 Sentinel to penetrate deep into enemy territory and actively gather high-resolution radar intelligence without being detected. This has been further confirmed by Pentagon officials in a recent piece posted over at Aviation Week where sources said that the RQ-170 started out as a radar platform and then was refitted for electre-optical streaming video as well a few years back.

    4.) Data Links: Unlike Tacit Blue’s larger, standoff oriented successor, the Boeing 707 based E-8 J-STARS, which emerged as the chosen production platform as a result of the multi-tiered “Pave Mover” demonstration program, Tacit Blue had no radar and intelligence support operators on-board. Seeing how the requirement for real-time intelligence was a key part of the “Pave Mover” program and thus the BSAX program, engineers had to figure out a way to not only control the radar but also broadcast the stealthy Tacit Blue’s intelligence data back to operators on the ground for immediate exploitation. This was a massive departure from airborne intelligence collection of the day, which either saw large airframes utilized so that operators on-board could control the surveillance systems and utilize the information collected, or smaller airframes would be utilized to go out and collect intelligence that could only be leveraged once deciphered by specialists well after the mission ended. The incredibly high-risk nature of a deep penetrating, loitering, airborne surveillance platform’s mission set could be somewhat offset by relocating the radar operators and intelligence professionals off the aircraft and far behind friendly lines. These operators would be connected to the small stealthy airframe via a data link. Without breakthroughs data link technology Tacit Blue’s objectives would have been virtually impossible to achieve.

    Tacit Blue used line of sight data links that were also low probability of intercept in nature and thus difficult to detect by the enemy. All the data collected over “enemy” territory was transferred back to the control station it was “tethered to,” theoretically far away from the front lines of the battlefield. At the time data links were used mainly between air superiority fighters to sort targets and to provide other situational awareness functions that would help crews be less reliant on radio communications, or in TV guided weaponry like the “Popeye” series of missiles. Tacit Blue stepped way beyond this capability and truly blazed the way for modern UAV technology and their related ground control and information exploitation concepts as we know them today. Most notably those used to satisfy the TIER2+ (which became the RQ-4 Global Hawk) and TIER3- (which became the RQ-3 Darkstar) requirements put forth by the USAF almost a decade after the Tacit Blue took its last flight. Today, data links, and LPI optimized data links, are used in almost every combat aircraft flying in the US’s inventory. These links primarily exist in the form of the Multifunctional Information Distribution System (MIDS)/Link-16 architecture. Further, a new data link optimized for stealth aircraft, which utilizes cutting edge LPI technology, is currently under development. This system is known as Multifunctional Advanced Data Link (MADL) which will be fielded on America’s stealth F-22, B-2, F-35 and Next Generation Bomber force. Modern data links have been described as the most game changing weapon system of the 21st century, and offer a single pilot a gods eye view of battlefield around him, with massive amounts of data being fused into a single tactical picture right at his or her fingertips. Never before has such a widespread capability existed, and it is arguably the most significant “force multiplier” concept combat aircraft have seen for decades.

    5.) Ground Moving Target Indicators (GMTI) Radar Technology: As the deeply classified arm of the “Pave Mover” program, the Whale proved that such technology could be shoehorned into a relatively small tactical asset, when paired with a tethered ground station, and this aircraft could also be invisible to radar, loiter for hours in denied air space, peering deeper into enemy territory than a standoff asset could, literally into a foe’s vulnerable rear echelons. The testing done with Tacit Blue no doubt added greatly to the E-8 J-STARS program, and was further leveraged in the RQ-4 Global Hawk over a decade later, of which GMTI capability was one of the main capability requirements. It is also widely speculated that the RQ-170’s original mission was to provide high resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) pictures and possibly GMTI data back to commanders on the ground to be used in real time. GMTI is not only effective at tracking armored columns, but it is also effective at cataloging critical “pattern of life” intelligence data in and around a target area. Since Tacit Blue flew with it’s mini-van sized Sideways Looking Aerial Radar (SLAR), such radar technology has been miniaturized to a massive degree. These radars can now be packed inside the dimensions of a targeting pod, while offering much more capability, and have become ideal for UAV operations.

    6.) Dual-Role, Stealthy Electronic Intelligence (ELINT) Concept: Although the Tacit Blue may never have flown with passive ELINT hardware on-board, those involved with the program have made it clear that they were very aware of the “Whale’s” unique potential for carrying automated electronic listening equipment to passively collect the enemy’s electronic order of battle and their communications without them ever knowing. This ELINT suite of equipment could be manipulated and it’s products exploited in real-time by the ground control station just like the radar array. This information could then be used to great effect for Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses (SEAD) and general intelligence purposes. In other words, Tacit Blue could provide similar functions as the much larger, standoff in nature RC-135 “Rivet Joint,” as a secondary mission while conducting radar surveillance. Since the aircraft was already being theoretically risked over enemy territory it was only logical that such a risk be leveraged to its maximum potential in order to gain the maximum amount of rewards. This “cherry on top” added capability is very similar to what we know about the F-22 and it’s ALR-94 ESM kit, which some say is the most potent part of the Raptor weapon system, and supports what many hypothesize about the RQ-170, that it has a secondary ELINT capability built-in.

    7.) Advanced Fly-By-Wire: The malformed Tacit Blue was unstable in both pitch and yaw and depended on a quadruple redundant fly-by-wire system in order to literally keep its nose pointed in the right direction. The aircraft was proven to flip on its back and weather-vein tail first into the airstream during wind tunnel tests! It has been said that the Whale was the most unstable aircraft mankind had ever flown at the time, a situation fraught with danger and pitfalls. Yet engineers were able to refine the flight control system enough so that the aircraft would fly reliably, although it was in no way a hot rod or high-performance machine. Lessons learned during the design and implementation of the “Whale’s” flight control system would be used later on as aircraft designs became more function over form. Thus opening up the opportunity to fly aircraft of strange, inherently unstable shapes, such as the B-2 flying wing bomber, and later the RQ-170 Sentinel. In the end, and against great odds, Northrop built an invisible sensor truck, and a flyable one at that.

    As you read through the incredible accomplishments of the Tacit Blue / Whale / BSAX or whatever you want to call it, there can be little doubt that this aircraft was the progenitor of the TIER3- program, and thus the RQ-170 Sentinel as we know it today. The BSAX program definitively marks the first time in aerospace history where such a concept was envisioned, tested and validated. Additionally, as part of the decision to fund the Tacit Blue program, the USAF had a strong interest in utilizing the technology for an unmanned aircraft, a concept that was really beginning to emerge as the possible future of air combat at the time. Tacit Blue’s mission, persistent tactical reconnaissance over enemy airspace, is a very risky one. By taking human risk out of the equation the concept could be more readily applied during a time of conflict and the USAF knew this, although the technology to make such a capability reality simply did not exist at the time.

    Almost everything we know about the TIER3- program that emerged in the mid 1990’s and the subsequent RQ-170 Sentinel that sprang from its ashes can be traced directly to Tacit Blue. It’s curvilinear low observable design was utilized extensively on the B-2 and can be seen leveraged to even a greater degree on the RQ-170. The same can be said for the RQ-170’s overhead inlet, deep buried motor and light paint optimized for daytime operation. Even the exhaust of the RQ-170 matches that of the Whale’s to an uncanny degree. Then there is the Tacit Blue’s data link systems, cutting edge at the time, that now represents the genesis of all unmanned aerial vehicles control interfaces. In effect the offspring of the Tacit Blue’s ground control stations and data links would make the unmanned aircraft concept as we know it today actually feasible. By the 1990’s breakthroughs in computer automation and satellite communications would let unmanned aircraft dream become a reality.

    Low probability Of intercept surveillance radar and advance data links would make it so the RQ-170 could penetrate deep into enemy airspace and operate for hours without a high risk of being detected by passive listening systems. Even the proposed secondary ELINT capability of the BSAX is almost certainly on-board the RQ-170. Beyond logical deduction there were multiple reports from sources in the Pentagon that the RQ-170 not only transmitted real-time video on the night of the Bin Laden raid but that it was also providing key ELINT information so that commanders could monitor the Pakistani’s response, or lack thereof, at critical times during the fragile operation. Even the concept of using an aircraft as a sensor platform only, and communicating its collected data back to a ground station in real-time for interpretation, was the forerunner of the RQ-170’s real-time tactical reconnaissance capabilities.

    The definitive proof that establishes a direct ancestral link between Tacit Blue and the RQ-170 Sentinel can be found in the very reason why the BSAX was created in the first place, to prove that a small stealthy tactical intelligence platform could loiter for long periods of time over denied airspace undetected, all the while transmitting its high fidelity intelligence back to commanders on the ground in real-time. Does this sound familiar? Of course it does, as this is the exact same unique mission requirements as the unmanned TIER3- concept that emerged almost a decade after the Whale’s last flight. Further, the BSAX was really a minimally manned asset, the pilot providing the flight control only because remote systems were simply incapable of doing so at the time, and were not needed in order to prove the concept during controlled tests. So although the larger 707 based E-8 J-STARS become the known winner of the “Pave Mover” program, the idea of a stealthy and persistent tactical surveillance aircraft was proven by Tacit Blue with flying colors. Further, it was realized that by simply replacing Tacit Blue’s radar, or in addition to it adding advanced imaging equipment, you would have an asset that would be almost entirely undetectable and capable of collecting multiple forms of intelligence during its high risk missions.

    It would take a decade for satellite data links and computer hardware to catch up with the BSAX in order to make the concept an unmanned reality. Even the TIER3- requirement of the early 1990’s stated the need to leverage miniaturized LPI radars as part of the program, along with fully passive electro-optical surveillance payloads. And from the TIER3- minus requirement, and the program’s resulting RQ-3 Darkstar, the RQ-170 Sentinel was born, as was detailed in my prior piece linked above. So the Sentinel’s direct lineage, its exact reason for existing, dates back some 30 years to the birth of the BSAX program and Tacit Blue.

    In the end the RQ-170’s pedigree is a long one of secret successes and public failures, culminating in a drone so effective and so critical to national security that it was used on the most sensitive American mission since the Doolittle Raid on Japan at the beginning of WWII. The fantastically successful Tacit Blue demonstrator, the clear father of the troubled Darkstar, the grandfather of the history making Sentinel, and the uncle of so many other successful aircraft that used smaller parts of its innovative technologies to accomplish their own diverse missions, leaves a legacy that is truly stunning. Yet one question does emerge out of this epic family saga: After learning so much about the success of the Tacit Blue, did this aircraft and it’s mission set in fact go the way of the RQ-3 Darkstar, being evolved into a more operational form under a dark classified cloak? Even the Tacit blue took over a decade from its last flight to become partially declassified. What is to say that a follow-on, much more capable system was not fielded once the BSAX technology demonstration program shutdown? Just as the standoff oriented “TIER2+” RQ-4 Global Hawk was pursued in the white world and the “TIER3-” RQ-170 was pursued in the black, maybe the similarly standoff oriented E-8 J-STARS and a stealthy tactical Tacit Blue follow-on blazed a similar path? Isn’t this more probable than not when compared to historical patterns of evolution regarding such programs and game changing capabilities?

    Was Tacit Blue’s first actual offspring the fabled manned TR-3A “Black Manta” that was spotted around the globe, supposedly assisted the F-117A over Baghdad, and possibly crashed at Royal Air Force Base Boscombe Down in the 1994, or an aircraft similar to it? Only a couple of months after this mysterious crash at Boscombe Down of an aircraft that fits the proposed tactical manned stealth reconnaissance aircraft mold, the SR-71 program was reactivated against huge odds. Regardless of any speculative details it just seems somewhat apparent there may in fact be a manned missing link in the RQ-170’s murky family tree. Something existing between the Tacit Blue technology demonstrator and the TIER3- unmanned requirement of the mid 1990’s seems like almost a given considering the historic continuity of such programs. Or are we really to believe that the USAF, after the conclusion of the Tacit Blue program, with such an innovative and proven tactical battlefield intelligence technology in hand, decided not to pursue a follow-on in any form until the curious announcement of the TIER3- program that resulted in the still-birth of Darkstar in the mid 1990’s? Was there really no aircraft to fill this role, even in very small numbers, between the triumphant Tacit Blue’s last flight, and the far-reaching unmanned TIER3- program? Would the existence of such a craft in fact also provide an answer to the odd SR-71 Blackbird retirement initiative of the late 1980’s?

    The SR-71 was designed during a time when true stealth was a pipe-dream and thus it had to leverage high altitudes, great speed, and some rudimentary low observable techniques to survive. It would make sense that once the proverbial stealth genie was out of the bottle there would be no need for hugely expensive ultra high-speed reconnaissance over enemy territory. In fact a theoretical aircraft like the TR-3A that utilized subsonic, and/or moderate super-cruise operating speeds while at medium altitudes, and offered near radar invisibility, could actually possess an advantage over one that utilized blistering high speeds and altitudes. Slower speeds would give the platform more time to soak up intelligence data while remaining undetected, and if need be, like the Tacit Blue, it could loiter for long periods of time over denied territory. Did this reasonably faster, more capable and survivable offspring of Tacit Blue nicely fill the gap, along with modern strategic satellite reconnaissance, left by the retirement of the SR-71 Blackbird? One that not only inhabited Tacit Blue’s unique mission set and exploited it’s groundbreaking innovations, but also one that incorporated some of the innovations applied to the B-2 bomber, and the technologies that were publicly showcased during the Advanced Tactical Fighter (ATF) program in the form of the YF-23, although a few years prior, while they were still under a dark shroud of secrecy? Was this in fact Northrop’s ASTRA (Advanced Stealth Reconnaissance Aircraft) that was rumored to exist during the time period in question? It sure makes a lot more sense than the almost mainstream obsession with the possible existence of the “Aurora” high-speed, high altitude spy plane, that would have been unbelievably expensive to develop and operate, while only furnishing similar capabilities than those of spy satellites that the DoD and US intelligence apparatus has already invested in heavily.

    If you asked me my opinion on this a month ago I would have said it would be anyone’s guess, but after the hours of research on the RQ-170’s lineage, it would appear that there is indeed an aircraft flagrantly missing from its family tree. Some 10+ years would have gone by between the time that this invaluable capability was proven and when we would see a publik requirement from the USAF to fill such a role in the guise of the unmanned TIER3- program. But was the TIER3- the first attempt at an operational stealth tactical reconnaissance capability, or was it set in place to replace an aircraft that already existed, its main weakness being that human beings were at risk in the cockpit?

    I believe that the BSAX did in fact result in a semi-operational manned airframe of a different configuration, but one of the exact same mission, that leveraged both Tacit Blue, and it’s emerging B-2 cousin’s technology innovations. Such an aircraft would help more evenly fill the gap left by the aging and vulnerable SR-71s on a tactical level, leaving satellites for the strategic reconnaissance mission. Theorizing freely, possibly this program never reached its full potential and was abandoned after a fatal crash at RAF Boscombe Down in 1994, thus ushering in the Blackbird as a stopgap and the TIER3- as a final replacement.

    Like so many things that prowl the skies high above the central Nevada desert, we may never truly know their whole story, although we can apply logic, patterns in aerospace development, known facts and liberal creativity to create a story that is more probable than possible, and probably more believable than the actual truth….

    LINKED BELOW IS A THOROUGH WRITEUP ABOUT THE CRASH AT RAF BOSCOMBE DOWN IN SEPTEMBER OF 1994. THERE IS LOTS OF SPECULATION HERE BUT STILL IT IS AN ENLIGHTENING PIECE:


    Tonton videonya: Sentinel