Amfiteater Romawi – Alexandria

Amfiteater Romawi – Alexandria


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NS Amfiteater Romawi di Alexandria di Mesir adalah teater Romawi melingkar besar dan satu-satunya dari jenisnya yang dapat ditemukan di negara ini. Meskipun sering disebut sebagai amfiteater, situs ini sebenarnya adalah teater Romawi kecil daripada arena olahraga yang lebih besar.

Penggalian di situs - awalnya dilakukan untuk mencari makam Alexander Agung - menemukan tempat duduk marmer Romawi asli, sejumlah mosaik halaman dan bahkan grafiti yang berkaitan dengan persaingan pendukung tim kereta lokal. Selain teater itu sendiri, ada juga sisa-sisa kompleks pemandian di situs dan beberapa kamar dan tempat tinggal lainnya.

Penelitian dan penggalian lebih lanjut masih dilakukan, dengan temuan ini memberi penerangan baru pada kompleks tersebut. Beberapa teori terbaru berpusat di sekitar gagasan bahwa teater sebenarnya adalah ruang kuliah kecil, dan memang kompleks secara keseluruhan adalah institusi akademik – bahkan mungkin universitas kuno yang terhubung dengan Perpustakaan Besar Alexandria.


Sejarah Alexandria

Alexander Agung mendirikan kota itu pada tahun 332 SM setelah dimulainya kampanye Persia, kota itu akan menjadi ibu kota kekuasaan Mesir yang baru dan pangkalan angkatan laut yang akan mengendalikan Mediterania. Pilihan situs yang mencakup pemukiman kuno Rhakotis (yang berasal dari tahun 1500 SM ) ditentukan oleh banyaknya air dari Danau Mary, kemudian dialiri oleh taji Sungai Nil Canopic, dan oleh penjangkaran yang baik yang disediakan di lepas pantai pulau itu. dari Pharos.

Setelah Alexander meninggalkan Mesir, raja mudanya, Cleomenes, melanjutkan penciptaan Alexandria. Dengan pecahnya kekaisaran setelah kematian Alexander pada 323 SM, kendali kota diserahkan kepada raja mudanya, Ptolemy I Soter, yang mendirikan dinasti yang mengambil namanya. Ptolemies awal berhasil memadukan agama Yunani kuno dan Mesir dalam kultus Serapis (Sarapis) dan memimpin zaman keemasan Alexandria. Alexandria diuntungkan dari runtuhnya kekuasaan Fenisia setelah Alexander memecat Tirus (332 SM) dan dari perdagangan Roma yang berkembang dengan Timur melalui Sungai Nil dan kanal yang kemudian menghubungkannya dengan Laut Merah. Memang, Alexandria menjadi, dalam satu abad setelah pendiriannya, salah satu kota terbesar di Mediterania dan pusat beasiswa dan sains Yunani. Sarjana seperti Euclid, Archimedes, Plotinus sang filsuf, dan Ptolemy dan Eratosthenes para ahli geografi belajar di Mouseion, lembaga penelitian besar yang didirikan pada awal abad ke-3 SM oleh Ptolemies yang mencakup perpustakaan kota yang terkenal. Perpustakaan kuno menyimpan banyak teks, sebagian besar dalam bahasa Yunani "perpustakaan putri" didirikan di kuil Serapis sekitar 235 SM. Perpustakaan itu sendiri kemudian dihancurkan dalam perang saudara yang terjadi di bawah kaisar Romawi Aurelian pada akhir abad ke-3 M, sedangkan cabang cabangnya dihancurkan pada 391 M (Lihat Alexandria, Perpustakaan).

Alexandria juga merupakan rumah bagi koloni Yahudi yang padat dan merupakan pusat utama pembelajaran Yahudi terjemahan Perjanjian Lama dari Ibrani ke Yunani, Septuaginta, diproduksi di sana. Banyak kelompok etnis dan agama lain terwakili di kota, dan Alexandria adalah tempat banyak perselisihan antaretnis selama periode ini.


Museum Yunani-Romawi

Alexandria dikenal memiliki sedikit untuk ditampilkan karena sejarahnya yang bertingkat. Lokasi kota antara Mediterania dan lahan basah Nil di belakang berarti bahwa itu benar-benar telah dibangun di atas dirinya sendiri beberapa kali agar sesuai dengan tempat terbatas ini. Ditambah dengan kehancuran dari penaklukan, pengepungan, dan pemboman yang berulang sepanjang sejarahnya dan fakta bahwa sangat sedikit Alexandria kuno yang terlihat hari ini menjadi lebih dapat dimengerti.

Mungkin sulit untuk memahami pentingnya kota ini sebagai pusat perdagangan dan budaya sejak didirikan pada 331 SM. Kunjungan ke Museum Yunani-Romawi dan Kom Al-Dikka dapat membantu Anda mengatasi masalah ini.

Museum Yunani-Romawi kecil, tetapi menampilkan artefak dari periode menarik dalam sejarah Mesir ketika peradaban Yunani, Romawi, dan Mesir Kuno semuanya berinteraksi di sini, menghasilkan perpaduan tradisi yang menarik. Di museum kecil ini Anda akan bertemu dengan beberapa tokoh legendaris dari sejarah dunia, yang semuanya memainkan bagian penting dari kehidupan mereka di Alexandria.

Alexander Agung, Julius Caesar, Marc Antony, dan Cleopatra semuanya terwakili di sini. Anda juga dapat melihat satu-satunya replika Mercusuar Pharos yang digunakan untuk menandai pelabuhan Alexandria&mdashkedua dari Tujuh Keajaiban Dunia Kuno di Mesir. Piramida Giza di Kairo adalah yang lainnya.

Di dekat museum adalah Kom Al-Dikka. Namanya diterjemahkan dari bahasa Arab sebagai &ldquomound of puing-puing&rdquo, tetapi ini adalah salah satu dari segelintir situs di situs di mana para arkeolog telah menemukan bagian dari kota kuno. Penggalian yang sedang berlangsung di sini telah mengungkapkan amfiteater Romawi yang terpelihara dengan baik, satu-satunya dari banyak yang seharusnya menghiasi kota kuno. Situs ini juga mengungkapkan pemandian Romawi dan vila Romawi dengan dekorasi mosaik yang masih utuh.


Isi

Sunting era kuno

Penanggalan radiokarbon terbaru dari fragmen kerang dan kontaminasi timbal menunjukkan aktivitas manusia di lokasi selama periode Kerajaan Lama (abad 27-21 SM) dan lagi pada periode 1000-800 SM, diikuti dengan tidak adanya aktivitas sesudahnya. [11] Dari sumber-sumber kuno diketahui ada pos perdagangan di lokasi ini selama masa Ramses Agung untuk berdagang dengan Kreta, tetapi sudah lama hilang pada saat kedatangan Alexander. [9] Sebuah desa nelayan kecil Mesir bernama Rhakotis (Mesir: rꜥ-qdy.t, 'Yang dibangun') sudah ada sejak abad ke-13 SM di sekitarnya dan akhirnya berkembang menjadi bagian kota Mesir. [9] Tepat di sebelah timur Alexandria (tempat Teluk Abu Qir sekarang), pada zaman dahulu terdapat rawa-rawa dan beberapa pulau. Pada awal abad ke-7 SM, ada kota pelabuhan penting Canopus dan Heracleion. Yang terakhir baru-baru ini ditemukan kembali di bawah air.

Alexandria didirikan oleh Alexander Agung pada April 331 SM sebagai (Alexandreia). Melewati Mesir, Alexander ingin membangun sebuah kota besar Yunani di pantai Mesir yang akan menyandang namanya. Dia memilih lokasi Alexandria, membayangkan pembangunan jalan lintas ke pulau terdekat Pharos yang akan menghasilkan dua pelabuhan alam yang besar. [9] Alexandria dimaksudkan untuk menggantikan koloni Yunani yang lebih tua dari Naucratis sebagai pusat Helenistik di Mesir, dan menjadi penghubung antara Yunani dan lembah Nil yang kaya. Beberapa bulan setelah yayasan, Alexander meninggalkan Mesir dan tidak pernah kembali ke kota selama hidupnya.

Setelah kepergian Alexander, raja muda Cleomenes melanjutkan ekspansi. Arsitek Dinocrates of Rhodes merancang kota, menggunakan rencana grid Hippodamian. Setelah kematian Aleksander pada tahun 323 SM, jenderalnya Ptolemy Lagides menguasai Mesir dan membawa jenazah Aleksander ke Mesir bersamanya. [12] Ptolemy pada awalnya memerintah dari ibukota Mesir kuno Memphis. Pada 322/321 SM dia mengeksekusi Cleomenes. Akhirnya, pada 305 SM, Ptolemy menyatakan dirinya Firaun sebagai Ptolemy I Soter ("Juruselamat") dan memindahkan ibu kotanya ke Alexandria.

Meskipun Cleomenes terutama bertugas mengawasi perkembangan awal Alexandria, the Heptastadion dan daerah-daerah daratan tampaknya sebagian besar merupakan karya Ptolemeus. Mewarisi perdagangan Tirus yang hancur dan menjadi pusat perdagangan baru antara Eropa dan Timur Arab dan India, kota ini tumbuh dalam waktu kurang dari satu generasi menjadi lebih besar dari Kartago. Dalam satu abad, Alexandria telah menjadi kota terbesar di dunia dan, selama beberapa abad lebih, berada di urutan kedua setelah Roma. Ini menjadi kota Yunani utama Mesir, dengan orang-orang Yunani dari berbagai latar belakang. [13]

Alexandria tidak hanya menjadi pusat Hellenisme, tetapi juga merupakan rumah bagi komunitas Yahudi perkotaan terbesar di dunia. Septuaginta, versi Yunani dari Tanakh, diproduksi di sana. Ptolemeus awal menjaganya dan mendorong pengembangan museumnya menjadi pusat pembelajaran Helenistik terkemuka (Perpustakaan Alexandria), tetapi berhati-hati untuk mempertahankan perbedaan tiga etnis terbesar populasinya: Yunani, Yahudi, dan Mesir. [14] Pada masa Augustus, tembok kota mencakup area seluas 5,34 km 2 , dan total populasi selama kepangeranan Romawi adalah sekitar 500.000–600.000, yang akan bertambah dan berkurang dalam empat abad berikutnya di bawah pemerintahan Romawi . [15]

Menurut Philo dari Aleksandria, pada tahun 38 Masehi, gangguan meletus antara orang Yahudi dan warga Yunani di Aleksandria selama kunjungan Raja Agripa I ke Aleksandria, terutama atas penghormatan yang diberikan oleh bangsa Herodian kepada kaisar Romawi, dan yang dengan cepat meningkat menjadi penghinaan terbuka dan kekerasan antara dua kelompok etnis dan penodaan sinagoga Aleksandria. Peristiwa ini disebut pogrom Alexandria. Kekerasan itu dipadamkan setelah Caligula turun tangan dan membuat gubernur Romawi, Flaccus, dipindahkan dari kota. [16]

Pada 115 M, sebagian besar Alexandria dihancurkan selama Perang Kitos, yang memberi Hadrian dan arsiteknya, Decriannus, kesempatan untuk membangunnya kembali. Pada tahun 215, kaisar Caracalla mengunjungi kota itu dan, karena beberapa sindiran yang menghina yang diarahkan penduduk kepadanya, tiba-tiba memerintahkan pasukannya untuk membunuh semua pemuda yang mampu membawa senjata. Pada 21 Juli 365, Alexandria dihancurkan oleh tsunami (gempa bumi 365 Kreta), [17] sebuah peristiwa yang setiap tahun diperingati bertahun-tahun kemudian sebagai "hari horor". [18]

Sunting era Islam

Pada 619, Alexandria jatuh ke tangan Persia Sassanid. Meskipun Kaisar Bizantium Heraclius memulihkannya pada tahun 629, pada tahun 641 orang-orang Arab di bawah jenderal 'Amr ibn al-'As menyerbunya selama penaklukan Muslim atas Mesir, setelah pengepungan yang berlangsung selama 14 bulan. Gubernur Arab Mesir pertama yang tercatat pernah mengunjungi Aleksandria adalah Utba ibn Abi Sufyan, yang memperkuat kehadiran Arab dan membangun istana gubernur di kota itu pada tahun 664–665. [19] [20]

Setelah Pertempuran Ridaniya pada tahun 1517, kota ini ditaklukkan oleh Turki Utsmaniyah dan tetap berada di bawah kekuasaan Utsmaniyah hingga tahun 1798. Aleksandria kehilangan sebagian besar kepentingannya yang dulu dari kota pelabuhan Rosetta di Mesir selama abad ke-9 hingga ke-18, dan hanya mendapatkan kembali bekasnya. menonjol dengan dibangunnya Terusan Mahmoudiyah pada tahun 1807.

Alexandria menonjol dalam operasi militer ekspedisi Napoleon ke Mesir pada tahun 1798. Pasukan Prancis menyerbu kota pada 2 Juli 1798, dan kota itu tetap berada di tangan mereka sampai kedatangan ekspedisi Inggris pada tahun 1801. Inggris memenangkan kemenangan besar atas Prancis pada Pertempuran Alexandria pada 21 Maret 1801, setelah itu mereka mengepung kota, yang jatuh ke tangan mereka pada 2 September 1801. Muhammad Ali, gubernur Ottoman Mesir, mulai membangun kembali dan membangun kembali sekitar tahun 1810, dan pada tahun 1850, Alexandria telah kembali ke sesuatu yang mirip dengan kejayaannya sebelumnya. [21] Mesir beralih ke Eropa dalam upaya mereka untuk memodernisasi negara. Orang Yunani, diikuti oleh orang Eropa lainnya dan lainnya, mulai pindah ke kota. Pada awal abad ke-20, kota ini menjadi rumah bagi para novelis dan penyair. [10]

Pada Juli 1882, kota itu dibombardir oleh angkatan laut Inggris dan diduduki. [22]

Pada Juli 1954, kota itu menjadi sasaran kampanye pengeboman Israel yang kemudian dikenal sebagai Peristiwa Lavon. Pada tanggal 26 Oktober 1954, Alun-alun Mansheya Aleksandria adalah tempat percobaan pembunuhan yang gagal terhadap Gamal Abdel Nasser. [23]

Orang-orang Eropa mulai meninggalkan Alexandria setelah Krisis Suez 1956 yang menyebabkan ledakan nasionalisme Arab. Nasionalisasi properti oleh Nasser, yang mencapai titik tertinggi pada tahun 1961, mengusir hampir semua sisanya. [10]

Ibnu Batutah di Aleksandria Edit

Mengacu pada Aleksandria, Mesir, Ibnu Batutah berbicara tentang orang-orang kudus besar yang tinggal di sini. Salah satunya adalah Imam Borhan Oddin El Aaraj. Dia dikatakan memiliki kekuatan melakukan keajaiban. Dia memberi tahu Ibn Batutah bahwa dia harus pergi mencari tiga saudara laki-lakinya, Farid Oddin, yang tinggal di India, Rokn Oddin Ibn Zakarya, yang tinggal di Sindia, dan Borhan Oddin, yang tinggal di Cina. Battuta kemudian bertekad untuk menemukan orang-orang ini dan memberi mereka pujian. Sheikh Yakut adalah pria hebat lainnya. Ia adalah murid Syekh Abu Abbas El Mursi, yang merupakan murid Abu El Hasan El Shadali, yang dikenal sebagai hamba Allah. Abu Abbas adalah penulis Hizbut Tahrir dan terkenal karena kesalehan dan keajaibannya. Abu Abd Allah El Murshidi adalah seorang santo penafsir besar yang hidup terpencil di Minyat Ibn Murshed. Dia tinggal sendirian tetapi dikunjungi setiap hari oleh amir, wazir, dan orang banyak yang ingin makan bersamanya. Sultan Mesir (El Malik El Nasir) juga mengunjunginya. Ibnu Batutah meninggalkan Aleksandria dengan maksud mengunjunginya. [24]

Ibn Battuta juga mengunjungi mercusuar Pharos pada 2 kesempatan pada tahun 1326 ia menemukan sebagian reruntuhan dan pada tahun 1349 telah semakin memburuk, membuat pintu masuk ke bangunan tidak mungkin. [25]

Sunting Garis Waktu

Pertempuran dan pengepungan paling penting di Alexandria meliputi:

    , perang saudara Julius Caesar , perang terakhir Republik Romawi , Perang Bizantium-Persia , penaklukan Rashidun atas Mesir Bizantium (1365), perang salib yang dipimpin oleh Peter de Lusignan dari Siprus yang mengakibatkan kekalahan Mamluk dan penjarahan kota . , Perang Napoleon , Perang Napoleon , Perang Napoleon (1882), diikuti oleh pendudukan Inggris di Mesir

Alexandria Yunani dibagi menjadi tiga wilayah:

Dua jalan utama, berjajar dengan barisan tiang dan dikatakan memiliki lebar masing-masing sekitar 60 meter (200 kaki), berpotongan di pusat kota, dekat dengan titik di mana Sema (atau Soma) Alexander (Makamnya) berdiri. Titik ini sangat dekat dengan masjid Nebi Daniel saat ini dan garis jalan "Canopic" Timur-Barat yang besar, hanya sedikit menyimpang dari Boulevard de Rosette modern (sekarang Sharia Fouad). Jejak trotoar dan kanal telah ditemukan di dekat Gerbang Rosetta, tetapi sisa-sisa jalan dan kanal diungkap pada tahun 1899 oleh ekskavator Jerman di luar benteng timur, yang terletak jauh di dalam area kota kuno.

Alexandria awalnya terdiri dari sedikit lebih dari pulau Pharos, yang bergabung dengan daratan oleh tahi lalat sepanjang 1.260 meter (4.130 kaki) dan disebut Heptastadion ("tujuh stadia"—a stadion adalah satuan panjang Yunani yang berukuran sekitar 180 meter atau 590 kaki). Ujung ini berbatasan dengan tanah di kepala Alun-Alun Agung saat ini, di mana "Gerbang Bulan" berdiri. Semua yang sekarang terletak di antara titik itu dan kawasan "Ras al-Tin" modern dibangun di atas lumpur yang secara bertahap melebar dan melenyapkan tahi lalat ini. Kuartal Ras al-Tin mewakili semua yang tersisa dari pulau Pharos, situs mercusuar yang sebenarnya telah lapuk oleh laut. Di sebelah timur mol adalah Pelabuhan Besar, sekarang sebuah teluk terbuka di sebelah barat terletak pelabuhan Eunostos, dengan cekungan dalamnya Kibotos, sekarang sangat diperbesar untuk membentuk pelabuhan modern.

Pada masa Strabo, (paruh akhir abad ke-1 SM) bangunan-bangunan utama adalah sebagai berikut, disebutkan seperti yang terlihat dari sebuah kapal yang memasuki Pelabuhan Besar.

  1. Istana Kerajaan, mengisi sudut timur laut kota dan menempati tanjung Lochias, yang ditutup di Pelabuhan Besar di timur. Lochias (Pharillon modern) hampir seluruhnya menghilang ke laut, bersama dengan istana, "Pelabuhan Pribadi", dan pulau Antirrhodus. Telah terjadi penurunan tanah di sini, seperti di seluruh pantai timur laut Afrika.
  2. Teater Besar, di Bukit Rumah Sakit modern dekat stasiun Ramleh. Ini digunakan oleh Julius Caesar sebagai benteng, di mana dia menahan pengepungan dari massa kota setelah dia merebut Mesir setelah pertempuran Pharsalus [kutipan diperlukan] [klarifikasi diperlukan]
  3. Poseidon, atau Kuil Dewa Laut, dekat dengan teater
  4. Timonium yang dibangun oleh Marc Antony
  5. Emporium (Pertukaran)
  6. Orang-orang murtad (Majalah)
  7. Navalia (Dok), terletak di sebelah barat Timonium, di sepanjang tepi laut sejauh mol
  8. Di belakang Emporium berdiri Kaisareum Agung, di mana berdiri dua obelisk besar, yang dikenal sebagai "Jarum Cleopatra", dan diangkut ke New York City dan London. Kuil ini, pada waktunya, menjadi Gereja Patriarkat, meskipun beberapa peninggalan kuno kuil telah ditemukan. Caesareum yang sebenarnya, bagian-bagian yang tidak terkikis oleh ombak, terletak di bawah rumah-rumah yang melapisi tembok laut yang baru.
  9. Gymnasium dan Palaestra keduanya berada di pedalaman, dekat Boulevard de Rosette di bagian timur situs kota yang tidak diketahui.
  10. Kuil Saturnus alexandria barat.
  11. Mausolea of ​​Alexander (Soma) dan Ptolemies dalam satu pagar cincin, dekat titik persimpangan dua jalan utama.
  12. Musaeum dengan Perpustakaan dan teaternya yang terkenal di situs wilayah yang sama tidak diketahui.
  13. Serapeum Alexandria, kuil Alexandria yang paling terkenal. Strabo memberi tahu kita bahwa ini berdiri di sebelah barat kota dan penemuan-penemuan baru-baru ini lebih jauh menempatkannya di dekat "Pilar Pompey," yang merupakan monumen independen yang didirikan untuk memperingati pengepungan kota oleh Diocletian.

Nama-nama beberapa bangunan umum lainnya di daratan diketahui, tetapi hanya ada sedikit informasi mengenai posisi sebenarnya. Namun, tidak ada yang setenar bangunan yang berdiri di ujung timur pulau Pharos. Di sana, Mercusuar Agung, salah satu dari Tujuh Keajaiban Dunia, yang terkenal setinggi 138 meter (453 kaki), terletak. Ptolemy pertama memulai proyek, dan Ptolemy kedua (Ptolemy II Philadelphus) menyelesaikannya, dengan total biaya 800 talenta. Butuh waktu 12 tahun untuk menyelesaikan dan berfungsi sebagai prototipe untuk semua mercusuar kemudian di dunia. Cahaya dihasilkan oleh tungku di bagian atas dan menara itu sebagian besar dibangun dengan balok-balok batu kapur yang kokoh. Mercusuar Pharos dihancurkan oleh gempa bumi pada abad ke-14, menjadikannya keajaiban kuno terpanjang kedua yang bertahan, setelah Piramida Agung Giza. Sebuah kuil Hephaestus juga berdiri di Pharos di kepala tahi lalat.

Pada abad ke-1, populasi Aleksandria berisi lebih dari 180.000 warga pria dewasa, [26] menurut sensus tanggal dari 32 M, di samping sejumlah besar orang merdeka, wanita, anak-anak, dan budak. Perkiraan total populasi berkisar dari 216.000 [27] hingga 500.000 [28] menjadikannya salah satu kota terbesar yang pernah dibangun sebelum Revolusi Industri dan kota pra-industri terbesar yang bukan merupakan ibu kota kekaisaran. [ kutipan diperlukan ]


Amfiteater Romawi di Alexandria

Amphitheatre adalah kata singkatan dari istilah Yunani kuno yang berarti area terbuka yang digunakan untuk jenis pertunjukan. Amfiteater Yunani biasanya berbentuk lingkaran atau oval dengan banyak tangga duduk untuk penonton. Itu sebenarnya lebih seperti stadion terbuka, dan tersebar di seluruh negara seperti Italia, Turki, Yordania dan Yunani ketika Romawi mendominasi semua wilayah ini. Amfiteater Alexandria ditemukan secara kebetulan pada tahun 1960. Ketika pemerintah Mesir sedang bersiap-siap untuk mendirikan salah satu bangunannya di kawasan kom El Dekka, salah satu pekerja menemukan kolom padat di bawah debu dan pasir saat mempersiapkan lokasi. oleh para insinyur. Segera, tim ekskavasi turun ke lokasi untuk memeriksa apa yang telah ditemukan. Teater Romawi adalah penemuan yang sangat penting di abad ke-20. Terbukti teater ini dibangun sejak abad ke-4 Masehi dan digunakan hingga abad ke-7 melewati zaman Romawi, Bizantium dan Islam. Travel to Egypt Company benar-benar menyadari nilai situs kuno ini karena sangat diminta oleh klien kami. Kami telah melibatkan banyak situs Romawi Yunani dalam tur Mesir, dan jika Anda ingin melacak lebih banyak situs Romawi, Anda akan menemukan semuanya terdaftar di tur harian Alexandria.


Sejarah Amfiteater Romawi

  • Amfiteater Romawi yang kita lihat sekarang di Aleksandria dibangun pada abad ke-4 M dan merupakan ciri umum dari periode Romawi Yunani. Amfiteater adalah teater beratap khusus yang dibangun untuk menyelenggarakan upacara musik dan kompetisi penyair pada masa pemerintahan Romawi di Mesir.
  • Amphitheatre Romawi Alexandria ditampilkan dengan bagian penonton marmer yang simetris dengan sayap yang diperpanjang dan dapat menampung hingga 600 penonton.
  • Bagian penonton dari Roman Amphitheatre memiliki diameter sekitar 33 meter dan terdiri dari 13 baris yang terbuat dari marmer putih Eropa dengan bagian paling atas adalah serambi yang terbuat dari kolom Granit yang dibawa dari Aswan dan beberapa di antaranya masih berdiri sampai sekarang. hari ini.
  • Tiga belas baris Amfiteater Romawi di Alexandria diberi nomor dengan angka dan huruf Romawi untuk mengatur tempat duduk penonton dalam berbagai kesempatan.
  • Ada juga lima kompartemen yang dibangun di bagian atas bagian penonton dan digunakan untuk menampung tokoh-tokoh penting dan pedagang kaya selama pertunjukan.
  • Kompartemen ini dulunya memiliki langit-langit dengan kubah yang didasarkan pada kolom besar yang terbuat dari granit untuk melindungi penonton dari matahari dan hujan. Selain itu, kubah ini digunakan untuk memperbesar suara musik dan nyanyian selama pertunjukan yang berbeda.

Teater digunakan selama tiga periode yang berbeda yaitu Romawi, Bizantium, dan Zaman Islam awal.

Sayangnya, semua struktur ini hancur saat gempa yang melanda Alexandria pada abad ke-6 M dan mengakibatkan kerusakan banyak struktur penting pada saat itu.

Amfiteater Romawi di Aleksandria, yang dianggap sebagai salah satu pencapaian arsitektur Romawi terpenting di Mesir, ditemukan secara kebetulan pada tahun 1960 oleh pekerja kausal yang memindahkan pasir untuk membersihkan tempat itu dan membangun gedung pemerintahan. .

Amfiteater Romawi Alexandria terletak di daerah yang disebut Kom El Dekka.


Siapa orang Romawi dan mengapa mereka membangun Amphitheatre?

Pada puncaknya, Kekaisaran Romawi Kuno menyebar dari lorong Inggris di barat laut sampai ke Mesir dan Irak modern di tenggara. Roma naik ke tampuk kekuasaan mulai tahun 509 SM, dan akhirnya jatuh 476 M. Kaisar Romawi terus-menerus berjuang untuk menjaga perdamaian di antara jutaan Warga Romawi dan mereka membangun amfiteater sebagai tempat bagi orang-orang untuk berkumpul dalam massa dan menikmati tontonan Romawi yang populer. Ini benar-benar membantu menjaga ketertiban di kekaisaran, dan selama mereka terhibur, orang-orangnya sebagian besar damai.

Apa itu? terbaik Amfiteater Romawi?

Daftar ini adalah upaya yang diperhitungkan untuk memilih dua puluh Amfiteater Romawi Kuno teratas yang masih dapat dikunjungi hingga saat ini. kami telah mengumpulkan banyak data dan mendasarkan daftar ini pada tiga kriteria utama. Pertama, ukuran amfiteater yang biasanya diukur dengan kapasitas tempat duduk. Kedua, pelestarian fasad eksterior, dan terakhir, pelestarian tempat duduk dan area pandang. Bersama-sama kriteria ini menentukan peringkat Amfiteater Romawi di bawah ini dimulai dengan yang terbesar dari semuanya, dan berakhir dengan amfiteater yang sayangnya sebagian besar dibongkar selama berabad-abad.

1. Colosseum – Roma, Lazio, Italia

foto oleh Diliff dari Wikimedia Commons

Kapasitas: 80.000+ Struktur Diawetkan: 60% ±

Yang terbesar dan paling terkenal dari semua Amfiteater Romawi, tentu saja, Colosseum. Mampu menampung sekitar 80.000 penonton, ini adalah arena terbesar dengan selisih yang sangat besar. Konstruksi dimulai pada masa pemerintahan Kaisar Vespasianus di 72 M dan selesai pada masa pemerintahan Kaisar Titus di 80 M. Dua gempa bumi penting di antara peristiwa lainnya menyebabkan kerusakan signifikan pada struktur, dan sebagian besar fasad eksterior dan kursi diubah fungsinya di banyak bangunan Roma lainnya. Sebagian besar fasad terbuat dari travertine dengan lapisan marmer, dan struktur lainnya adalah bata dan beton. Di dalam 2018 Colosseum adalah situs yang paling banyak dikunjungi di dunia, dan tetap menjadi simbol kota Roma dan Kekaisaran Romawi.

2. Amfiteater Nîmes – Nîmes, Occitanie, Prancis

foto oleh Wolfgang Staudt dari Wikimedia Commons

Kapasitas: 24,000+ Struktur Diawetkan: 90% ±

Amphitheatre Nîmes selesai dibangun pada tahun 100 M tak lama setelah selesainya Colosseum di Roma. Seperti Amfiteater Romawi lainnya, struktur ini digunakan sebagai benteng pertahanan setelah jatuh dan jatuhnya Kekaisaran Romawi. Saat ini sebagian besar arena masih utuh termasuk hampir semua tempat duduk dan semua 60 baris lengkungan eksterior asli. Di Prancis modern, amfiteater digunakan sebagai arena adu banteng selama bulan-bulan musim panas.

3. Amfiteater El Djem – El Djem, Mahdia, Tunisia

foto oleh Agnieszka Wolska dari Wikimedia Commons

Kapasitas: 35.000+ Struktur Diawetkan: 70% ±

Amfiteater El Djem adalah struktur tertinggi dan paling mengesankan di seluruh kota. Ini adalah amfiteater terbesar ketiga dalam daftar ini dan terdaftar sebagai Situs Warisan Dunia UNESCO. Konstruksi selesai pada tahun 238 M dan dibangun sepenuhnya dari bawah ke atas, tidak tenggelam ke dalam bumi seperti banyak arena lainnya. Semua lengkungan batu dan kursi terbuat dari batu pasir kuning, yang biasa ditemukan di Tunisia. Meskipun tidak terpelihara seperti Amfiteater Romawi lainnya, kapasitas geser dan ketinggian fasad eksterior menjadikannya salah satu sisa-sisa Roma Kuno yang paling mengesankan. (gambar sampul posting ini menunjukkan bagian luar Amfiteater El Djem)

4. Arles Amphitheatre – Arles, Provence, Prancis

foto oleh Guido Radig dari Wikimedia Commons

Kapasitas: 20.000+ Struktur Diawetkan: 90% ±

Arles Amphitheatre tidak sebesar yang lain dalam daftar ini, tetapi sangat terpelihara dengan baik. Sebagian besar kursi masih utuh, bersama dengan sebagian besar fasad eksterior. Ini terdaftar sebagai Situs Warisan Dunia UNESCO bersama dengan banyak bangunan Romawi lainnya yang terletak di Arles. Selama abad pertengahan, arena itu digunakan kembali sebagai benteng pertahanan. Banyak struktur kayu dibangun di dalam dan di atas struktur batu. Tiga menara pertahanan batu juga ditambahkan, yang masih bisa dilihat sampai sekarang.

5. Amfiteater Verona – Verona, Veneto, Italia

foto oleh Kevin Poho dari Wikimedia Commons

Kapasitas: 30.000+ Struktur Diawetkan: 80% ±

Italia, sebagai yang tertua dan paling sentral dari banyak wilayah kekaisaran, memiliki banyak Amfiteater Romawi. Terletak di Piazza Bra, Amphitheatre Verona adalah salah satu yang terpelihara dengan baik di seluruh Italia. Praktis 100% dari tempat duduk dan struktur internal tetap ada, tetapi semua kecuali empat lengkungan fasad eksterior asli dibongkar untuk bangunan lain. (gempa bumi di abad ke-12 melakukan kerusakan signifikan pada fasad luar, sehingga keputusan dibuat untuk menggunakan kembali material di tempat lain) Arena dibangun sekitar tahun 30 M. Hari ini adalah salah satu situs paling terkenal di Verona dan masih digunakan untuk konser dan pertunjukan yang dilihat oleh lebih dari setengah juta penonton setiap tahun.

6. Amfiteater Pula – Pula, Istria, Kroasia

foto oleh Jeroen Komen dari Wikimedia Commons

Kapasitas: 23.000+ Struktur yang Diawetkan: 70% ±

Pula Amphitheatre adalah salah satu situs Romawi paling terkenal di seluruh Kroasia. Ini bisa dibilang salah satu fasad eksterior paling spektakuler dan terpelihara dengan baik dari setiap Amfiteater Romawi. Meskipun dimodifikasi beberapa kali dalam sejarahnya, struktur yang kita lihat hari ini selesai dibangun 81 M. Fasad yang lebih tinggi mencapai ketinggian lebih dari 100 'dan berisi tiga tingkat lengkungan.

7. Amfiteater Pompeii – Pompeii, Campania, Italia

foto oleh Mosborne01 dari Wikimedia Commons

Kapasitas: 20.000+ Struktur Diawetkan: 90% ±

Amfiteater Pompeii adalah Amfiteater Romawi tertua yang masih bertahan sampai sekarang. Bersama dengan seluruh kota, arena itu terkubur oleh letusan Gunung Vesuvius di 79 M. Saat ini pengunjung situs arkeologi Pompeii diizinkan untuk berjalan di dalam dan di sekitar amfiteater. Terlepas dari jumlah penonton yang bisa ditampung, faade eksterior sebenarnya hanya satu tingkat, tidak seperti arena lain dalam daftar ini. Hal ini karena banyak struktur digali jauh ke dalam bumi. Amphitheatre of Pompeii juga digunakan oleh band rock Pink Floyd untuk merekam versi live dari lagu “echoes” di 1971lihat cuplikannya untuk melihat beberapa pemandangan amfiteater yang luar biasa!

8. Amfiteater Uthina – Mohammedia, Kegubernuran Ben Arous, Tunisia

foto oleh Maurizio Hublitz dari Wikimedia Commons

Kapasitas: 16.000+ Struktur Diawetkan: 60% ±

Afrika Utara adalah wilayah penting di dalam kekaisaran, dan saat ini banyak Amfiteater Romawi Afrika Utara terpelihara dengan sangat baik. Kursi Amphitheatre Uthina hanya sekitar 60% utuh, tetapi beberapa lengkungan batu dari fasad asli masih bertahan hingga hari ini. Sekitar setengah dari arena dibangun cekung ke bukit yang berdekatan. Sisanya dibangun dari tanah dengan fasad megah yang pasti merupakan keajaiban di zaman kuno. Untungnya, karena sifatnya yang terpencil jauh dari kota-kota besar lainnya, kemungkinan besar arena ini akan semakin banyak digali di masa depan.

9. Amfiteater Leptis Magna – Khoms, Murqub, Libya

foto oleh Capuozzo Pietro dari Wikimedia Commons

Kapasitas: 16.000+ Struktur yang Diawetkan: 70% ±

Sebuah kota Afrika Utara terkemuka selama Kekaisaran Romawi, Leptis Magna memiliki beberapa atraksi Romawi Kuno yang terkenal, termasuk a Lengkungan Kemenangan didedikasikan untuk Kaisar Septimius Severus. Amphitheatre of Leptis Magna adalah sorotan dari seluruh area, deretan tempat duduk dan lorong-lorongnya terpelihara dengan sangat baik. Karena amfiteater dibangun ke dalam Bumi, dalam depresi alami, tidak ada fasad eksterior yang bertahan. Konstruksi didedikasikan untuk Kaisar Nero, yang menempatkan tanggal penyelesaian sekitar 56 M.

Seperti Roma Kuno? lihat artikel kami, “20 Saluran Air Romawi Kuno Terbaik.”

10. Avenches Amphitheatre – Avenches, Vaud, Swiss

foto oleh Nursangaion dari Wikimedia Commons

Kapasitas: 16.000+ Struktur Diawetkan: 50% ±

Avenches Amphitheatre selesai pada tahun 165 M dan merupakan salah satu situs teratas di Modern Avenches. Awalnya disebut Aventicum, kota ini adalah ibu kota Swiss Romawi. Sebagian besar fasad eksterior telah dipindahkan untuk bangunan lain, dan banyak baris tempat duduk masih belum digali. Pengunjung diperbolehkan masuk ke tengah arena dan berdiri persis di tempat pertempuran gladiator dulu berlangsung. Arena ini adalah satu-satunya amfiteater Swiss dalam daftar ini, dan satu fitur penting adalah menara pertahanan yang ditambahkan ke struktur di abad ke 11.

11. Amfiteater Tarragona – Tarragona, Catalonia, Spanyol

foto oleh Malopez 21 dari Wikimedia Commons

Kapasitas: 15.000+ Struktur Diawetkan: 40% ±

Amfiteater Romawi Kuno di Tarragona saat ini diklasifikasikan sebagai Situs Warisan Dunia UNESCO, bersama dengan bangunan kuno lainnya di kota. Arena ini memiliki posisi yang sangat indah, menghadap ke Laut Mediterania di Selatan. About 50% of the seating rows are still preserved, as well as a good portion of the archways on the south façade. Construction began in the 2nd century CE when the city was called, Tarraco. Today, visitors to amphitheater can walk around the rows of seats, and if you climb to the top you are rewarded with a magnificent view of the ocean beyond.

12. Mérida Amphitheater – Mérida, Extremadura, Spain

Photo by José Manuel García from flickr

Capacity: 15,000+ Preserved Structure: 20% ±

Mérida’s Roman Amphitheater, as well as the Roman Theater, aqueduct, and Bridge, are some of the most notable Roman sites in all of Spain. Together, these structures are classified as UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The majority of the structure, including the top two seating sections, were repurposed in other buildings.

13. Italica Amphitheater – Santiponce, Andalusia, Spain

Photo by Diego Delso from Wikimedia Commons

Capacity: 25,000+ Preserved Structure: 20% ±

Italica is a historic site, located about 5 miles north of the town of Santiponce in Spain. The amphitheater and other remnants of the Ancient Roman city are a popular day trip from nearby Seville. Italica was a large city in Roman times, founded in 206 BCE by the general now known as Scipio Africanus. The birthplace of at least two Roman Emperors, Hadrian, and Trajan, Italica was known to have large and notable buildings. The amphitheater was also recently used as a filming location for Game of Thrones in 2017, in a scene where a few main characters (and their dragons) meet.

14. Trier Amphitheater – Trier, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany

Photo by Berthold Werner from Wikimedia Commons

Capacity: 20,000+ Preserved Structure: 50% ±

Trier Amphitheater is the best-preserved Ancient Roman Amphitheater in all of Germany. At the time of its construction, Trier was a leading city in the Roman province of Gaul. Trier continued to grow in importance later becoming a regional capital in the later stages of the Western Roman Empire. Today the Roman monuments of Trier, along with several other historic buildings in the city, are recognized as UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

15. Alexandria Amphitheater – Alexandria, Alexandria, Egypt

Photo by ASaber91 from Wikimedia Commons

Capacity: 600+ Preserved Structure: 30% ±

By far the smallest on this list, Alexandria’s Amphitheater could only have held about 600+ spectators. Many historians believe it was used more for concerts and plays rather than gladiatorial combat. But one noticeable difference is the actual marble seats that still exist today. Completed in the 4th century CE this amphitheater was built during the Roman occupation of Egypt. It’s one of the top Roman sites located in the ancient city which was founded by Alexander the Great.

16. Lecce Amphitheater – Lecce, Apulia, Italy

Photo by Paolo de Reggio from Wikimedia Commons

Capacity: 25,000+ Preserved Structure: 20% ±

The Amphitheater of Lecce is still largely unexcavated. It’s highly unlikely it will ever be excavated since the remainder of the structure is covered up by modern roads and buildings. During the time of the Romans, the city was named Lupiae and was a major city on the “heel” of the Italian Peninsula. The seats and façade of the arena are made of yellow-white sandstone, the same material which is used on many other significant buildings in the city.

Check out our article, “Top 15 Ancient Roman Triumphal Arches” to learn more about the architecture of the Roman Empire!

17. Cagliari Amphitheater – Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy

Photo by Ruben Holthuijsen from flickr

Capacity: 10,000+ Preserved Structure: 40% ±

The Roman Amphitheater of Cagliari differs from many of the others on this list since it was partially carved out of solid rock in the surrounding hillside. The hill of Buon Cammino is one of the tallest and steepest in Cagliari. Most of the seating was carved to match the slope of the hill, and there was also a large entry façade on the southern side. Today restoration work is still ongoing, so there’s a strong chance that more of the remains will be uncovered in the future.

18. Flavian Amphitheater of Pozzuoli – Pozzuoli, Campania, Italy

Photo by ho visto nina volare from Wikimedia Commons

Capacity: 50,000+ Preserved Structure: 40% ±

The Flavian Amphitheater of Pozzuoli is the third-largest Amphitheater built during the Roman Empire. (“Flavian Amphitheater” is also a term widely associated with the Colosseum in Rome) Today several of the exterior arches and the vast majority of the seats remain, although all of the exterior marble veneers were reused in other buildings. The underground portion of this arena is among the best-preserved of all Roman Amphitheaters. Even some portions of the lifting mechanisms that connected the arena floor to the underground chambers are still intact.

19. Capua Amphitheater – Santa Maria Capua Vetere, Campania, Italy

Photo by Rico Heil from Wikimedia Commons

Capacity: 60,000+ Preserved Structure: 30% ±

The Amphitheater of Capua is the second-largest amphitheater that still survives from antiquity. It is believed to be the model for the Colosseum in Rome. Today only a few of the original arches and about 30% of the original seating rows are still intact. The arena was the center point in a very well known event in Roman history, the Revolt of Spartacus that started in 73 BCE.

20. Aquincum Amphitheater – Budapest, Central Hungary, Hungary

Photo by Civertan Grafik from Wikimedia Commons

Capacity: unknown Preserved Structure: 10% ±

The Ancient Roman City of Aquincum was located on the Danube River in what is now Budapest. The city actually contained two separate Roman Amphitheaters, the Aquincum Miltary Amphitheater (depicted above) and the Aquincum Civil Amphitheater. In addition to being used for organized spectacles, the Aquincum Military Amphitheater was an important military training facility. Today the amphitheater lies at the southern edge of the Obuda district of Budapest.

Roman Amphitheaters Today

Today, Roman Amphitheaters have left a lasting legacy on architectural history. Many of the amphitheaters on this list are still used for events to this day. They remain symbols of the Roman Empire and the fact that they can be found all over the Mediterranean is a testament to the reach and power of the Romans.

The model for the Roman Amphitheater has been reproduced all over the globe. One great example is the Harvard Colosseum located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States. Used as a football stadium for Harvard University, the exterior facade resembles what most Roman Amphitheaters would have looked like in their prime.

Photo of the Harvard Colosseum in Cambridge Massachusettes.
Photo by Nick Allen from Wikimedia Commons

Kesimpulan

The Roman Empire was one of the most influential civilizations to have ever existed. They created monumental structures and made incredibly significant advancements in construction and engineering. Their largest and most emblematic structures were their amphitheaters. Throughout the lands of the Roman Empire, some 400 arenas remain. This list shows 20 of the best-preserved examples, each one a significant site that is worth a visit. Two honorable mentions that did not make this list are the Roman Amphitheater of Lucca Italy, which has since been repurposed as a public square, and Serdica Amphitheater in Sofia Bulgaria, where today a modern hotel atrium is built surrounding the ancient structure.

tentang Penulis

Rob Carney, the founder and lead writer for Architecture of Cities has been studying the history of architecture for over 10 years. He is an avid traveler and photographer, and he is passionate about buildings and building history. Rob has a B.S. and a Master’s degree in Architecture and has worked as an architect and engineer in the Boston area for several years.

Exterior facade of the Amphitheater of El Djem in Tunisia
Photo by Mrabet.amir from Wikimedia Commons

The Roman Amphitheatre

The only known Roman amphitheater in Egypt is located in Kom El-Dekka, Alexandria, and is an extraordinarily well-preserved structure consisting of 13 terraces built in the traditional Greek style with a flat stage in the center of the lower level.

The Roman Amphitheater of Alexandria is the only Roman amphitheater in Egypt, dating back to the 2nd century AD. It was discovered by chance in 1960 by the Polish Egyptian expedition to Kom el-Dekka. It was found when the expedition team was trying to remove some remains from Napoleon’s time. The theater dates back to the 1st -2nd century BC. During the times this place was changing its plan and function until in the 6th century it became a place to celebrate religious feasts. The theatre consists of 2 main parts: AUDITORIUM – conference hall and SKENE’ – performance hall. Between these two parts, there was a special place for the orchestra. The diameter of the theatre was 42 meters. Now it is impossible to identify exactly how many steps the theatre had until the 6th century. After that, it became 33.5 meters in diameter and 16 steps. In the same century, it was decided to turn the open theatre into a close celebration hall. In the beginning, it was a semicircular auditorium with a number of rows of seats and a skenè in the middle.

Then it was decided to remove 3 steps (rows) and extend the auditorium. In addition, 6 columns on two rows were made to cover the theater and support a dome that was designed to be placed on the body of the theater (steps) and 6 columns. But after construction, the dome collapsed due to incorrect scientific calculations. After the theater is no longer used statp…So far you can see some remains of mosaic floors that once covered the entire floor of the scene. The steps of the theatre are made of white marble with the exception of the lower one in pink granite. The site is also home to the Villa degli Uccelli – four well-preserved floor mosaics depicting birds rather than risk damaging the mosaics by moving them, a museum has been built over the opera to protect it from the elements.

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Isi

Pergamon lies on the north edge of the Caicus plain in the historic region of Mysia in the northwest of Turkey. The Caicus river breaks through the surrounding mountains and hills at this point and flows in a wide arc to the southwest. At the foot of the mountain range to the north, between the rivers Selinus and Cetius, there is the massif of Pergamon which rises 335 metres above sea level. The site is only 26 km from the sea, but the Caicus plain is not open to the sea, since the way is blocked by the Karadağ massif. As a result, the area has a strongly inland character. In Hellenistic times, the town of Elaia at the mouth of the Caicus served as the port of Pergamon. The climate is Mediterranean with a dry period from May to August, as is common along the west coast of Asia Minor. [4]

The Caicus valley is mostly composed of volcanic rock, particularly andesite and the Pergamon massif is also an intrusive stock of andesite. The massif is about one kilometre wide and around 5.5 km long from north to south. It consists of a broad, elongated base and a relatively small peak - the upper city. The side facing the Cetius river is a sharp cliff, while the side facing the Selinus is a little rough. On the north side, the rock forms a 70 m wide spur of rock. To the southeast of this spur, which is known as the 'Garden of the Queen', the massif reaches its greatest height and breaks off suddenly immediately to the east. The upper city extends for another 250 m to the south, but it remains very narrow, with a width of only 150 m. At its south end the massif falls gradually to the east and south, widening to around 350 m and then descends to the plain towards the southwest. [5]

Pre-Hellenistic period Edit

Settlement of Pergamon can be detected as far back as the Archaic period, thanks to modest archaeological finds, especially fragments of pottery imported from the west, particularly eastern Greece and Corinth, which date to the late 8th century BC. [6] Earlier habitation in the Bronze Age cannot be demonstrated, although Bronze Age stone tools are found in the surrounding area. [7]

The earliest mention of Pergamon in literary sources comes from Xenophon's Anabasis, since the march of the Ten Thousand under Xenophon's command ended at Pergamon in 400/399 BC. [8] Xenophon, who calls the city Pergamos, handed over the rest of his Greek troops (some 5,000 men according to Diodorus) to Thibron, who was planning an expedition against the Persian satraps Tissaphernes and Pharnabazus, at this location in March 399 BC. At this time Pergamon was in the possession of the family of Gongylos from Eretria, a Greek favourable to the Achaemenid Empire who had taken refuge in Asia Minor and obtained the territory of Pergamon from Xerxes I, and Xenophon was hosted by his widow Hellas. [9]

In 362 BC, Orontes, satrap of Mysia, based his revolt against the Persian Empire at Pergamon, but was crushed. [10] Only with Alexander the Great was Pergamon and the surrounding area removed from Persian control. There are few traces of the pre-Hellenistic city, since in the following period the terrain was profoundly changed and the construction of broad terraces involved the removal of almost all earlier structures. Parts of the temple of Athena, as well as the walls and foundations of the altar in the sanctuary of Demeter go back to the fourth century.

Possible coinage of the Greek ruler Gongylos, wearing the Persian cap on the reverse, as ruler of Pergamon for the Achaemenid Empire. Pergamon, Mysia, circa 450 BC. The name of the city ΠΕΡΓ ("PERG"), appears for the first on this coinage, and is the first evidence for the name of the city. [11]

Coin of Orontes, Achaemenid Satrap of Mysia (including Pergamon), Adramyteion. Circa 357-352 BC

Hellenistic period Edit

Lysimachus, King of Thrace, took possession in 301 BC, but soon after his lieutenant Philetaerus enlarged the town, the kingdom of Thrace collapsed in 281 BC and Philetaerus became an independent ruler, founding the Attalid dynasty. His family ruled Pergamon from 281 until 133 BC: Philetaerus 281–263 Eumenes I 263–241 Attalus I 241–197 Eumenes II 197–159 Attalus II 159–138 and Attalus III 138–133. The domain of Philetaerus was limited to the area surrounding the city itself, but Eumenes I was able to expand them greatly. In particular, after the Battle of Sardis in 261 BC against Antiochus I, Eumenes was able to appropriate the area down to the coast and some way inland. The city thus became the centre of a territorial realm, but Eumenes did not take the royal title. In 238 his successor Attalus I defeated the Galatians, to whom Pergamon had paid tribute under Eumenes I. [12] Attalus thereafter declared himself leader of an entirely independent Pergamene kingdom, which went on to reach its greatest power and territorial extent in 188 BC.

The Attalids became some of the most loyal supporters of Rome in the Hellenistic world. Under Attalus I (241–197 BC), they allied with Rome against Philip V of Macedon, during the first and second Macedonian Wars. In the Roman–Seleucid War against the Seleucid king Antiochus III, Pergamon joined the Romans' coalition and was rewarded with almost all the former Seleucid domains in Asia Minor at the Peace of Apamea in 188 BC. Eumenes II supported the Romans again, against Perseus of Macedon, in the Third Macedonian War, but the Romans did not reward Pergamon for this. On the basis of a rumour that Eumenes had entered into negotiations with Perseus during the war, the Romans attempted to replace Eumenes II with the future Attalus II, but the latter refused. After this, Pergamon lost its privileged status with the Romans and was awarded no further territory by them.

Image of Philetaerus on a coin of Eumenes I

NS Kingdom of Pergamon, shown at its greatest extent in 188 BC

Over-life-size portrait head, probably of Attalus I, from early in the reign of Eumenes II

Nevertheless, under the brothers Eumenes II and Attalus II, Pergamon reached its apex and was rebuilt on a monumental scale. Until 188 BC, it had not grown significantly since its founding by Philetaerus, and covered c. 21 hectares (52 acres). After this year, a massive new city wall was constructed, 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) long and enclosing an area of approximately 90 hectares (220 acres). [13] The Attalids' goal was to create a second Athens, a cultural and artistic hub of the Greek world. They remodeled the Acropolis of Pergamon after the Acropolis in Athens. Epigraphic documents survive showing how the Attalids supported the growth of towns by sending in skilled artisans and by remitting taxes. They allowed the Greek cities in their domains to maintain nominal independence. They sent gifts to Greek cultural sites like Delphi, Delos, and Athens. The Library of Pergamon was renowned as second only to the Library of Alexandria. Pergamon was also a flourishing center for the production of parchment (the word itself, a corruption of pergamenos, meaning "from Pergamon"), which had been used in Asia Minor long before the rise of the city. The story that parchment was invented by the Pergamenes because the Ptolemies in Alexandria had a monopoly on papyrus production is not true. [14] The two brothers Eumenes II and Attalus II displayed the most distinctive trait of the Attalids: a pronounced sense of family without rivalry or intrigue - rare amongst the Hellenistic dynasties. [15] Eumenes II and Attalus II (whose epithet was 'Philadelphos' - 'he who loves his brother') were even compared to the mythical pair of brothers, Cleobis and Biton. [16]

When Attalus III died without an heir in 133 BC, he bequeathed the whole of Pergamon to Rome. This was challenged by Aristonicus who claimed to be Attalus III's brother and led an armed uprising against the Romans with the help of Blossius, a famous Stoic philosopher. For a period he enjoyed success, defeating and killing the Roman consul P. Licinius Crassus and his army, but he was defeated in 129 BC by the consul M. Perperna. The kingdom of Pergamon was divided between Rome, Pontus, and Cappadocia, with the bulk of its territory becoming the new Roman province of Asia. The city itself was declared free and was briefly the capital of the province, before it was transferred to Ephesus.

Roman period Edit

In 88 BC, Mithridates VI made the city the headquarters in his first war against Rome, in which he was defeated. At the end of the war, the victorious Romans deprived Pergamon of all its benefits and of its status as a free city. Henceforth the city was required to pay tribute and accommodate and supply Roman troops, and the property of many of the inhabitants was confiscated. The members of the Pergamene aristocracy, especially Diodorus Pasparus in the 70s BC, used their own possessions to maintain good relationships with Rome, by acting as donors for the development of city. Numerous honorific inscriptions indicate Pasparus’ work and his exceptional position in Pergamon at this time. [17]

Pergamon still remained a famous city and the noteworthy luxuries of Lucullus included imported wares from the city, which continued to be the site of a conventus (regional assembly). Under Augustus, the first imperial cult, a neocorate, to be established in the province of Asia was in Pergamon. Pliny the Elder refers to the city as the most important in the province [18] and the local aristocracy continued to reach the highest circles of power in the 1st century AD, like Aulus Julius Quadratus who was consul in 94 and 105.

Yet it was only under Trajan and his successors that a comprehensive redesign and remodelling of the city took place, with the construction a Roman 'new city' at the base of the Acropolis. The city was the first in the province to receive a second neocorate, from Trajan in AD 113/4. Hadrian raised the city to the rank of metropolis in 123 and thereby elevated it above its local rivals, Ephesus and Smyrna. An ambitious building programme was carried out: massive temples, a stadium, a theatre, a huge forum and an amphitheatre were constructed. In addition, at the city limits the shrine to Asclepius (the god of healing) was expanded into a lavish spa. This sanctuary grew in fame and was considered one of the most famous therapeutic and healing centers of the Roman world. In the middle of the 2nd century, Pergamon was one of the largest cities in the province, along with these two, and had around 200,000 inhabitants. Galen, the most famous physician of antiquity aside from Hippocrates, was born at Pergamon and received his early training at the Asclepeion. At the beginning of the third century, Caracalla granted the city a third neocorate, but the decline had already set in. During the crisis of the Third Century, the economic strength of Pergamon finally collapsed, as the city was badly damaged in an earthquake in 262 and was sacked by the Goths shortly thereafter. In late antiquity, it experienced a limited economic recovery.

Byzantine period Edit

The city gradually declined during Late Antiquity, and its settled core contracted to the acropolis, which was fortified by Emperor Constans II ( r . 641–668 ). [19] In AD 663/4, Pergamon was captured by raiding Arabs for the first time. [19] As a result of this ongoing threat, the area of settlement retracted to the citadel, which was protected by a 6-meter-thick (20 ft) wall, built of spolia.

During the middle Byzantine period, the city was part of the Thracesian Theme, [19] and from the time of Leo VI the Wise ( r . 886–912 ) of the Theme of Samos. [20] The presence of an Armenian community, probably from refugees from the Muslim conquests, is attested during the 7th century, from which the emperor Philippikos ( r . 711–713 ) hailed. [19] [20] In 716, Pergamon was sacked again by the armies of Maslama ibn Abd al-Malik. It was again rebuilt and refortified after the Arabs abandoned their Siege of Constantinople in 717–718. [19] [20]

It suffered from the attacks of the Seljuks on western Anatolia after the Battle of Manzikert in 1071: after attacks in 1109 and in 1113, the city was largely destroyed and rebuilt only by Emperor Manuel I Komnenos ( r . 1143–1180 ) in c. 1170 . It likely became the capital of the new theme of Neokastra, established by Manuel. [19] [20] Under Isaac II Angelos ( r . 1185–1195 ), the local see was promoted to a metropolitan bishopric, having previously been a suffragan diocese of the Metropolis of Ephesus. [20]

With the expansion of the Anatolian beyliks, Pergamon was absorbed into the beylik of Karasids shortly after 1300, and then conquered by the Ottoman beylik. [20] The Ottoman Sultan Murad III had two large alabaster urns transported from the ruins of Pergamon and placed on two sides of the nave in the Hagia Sophia in Istanbul. [21]

Pergamon, which traced its founding back to Telephus, the son of Heracles, is not mentioned in Greek myth or epic of the archaic or classical periods. However, in the epic cycle the Telephos myth is already connected with the area of Mysia. He comes there following an oracle in search of his mother, and becomes Teuthras' son-in-law or foster-son and inherits his kingdom of Teuthrania, which encompassed the area between Pergamon and the mouth of the Caicus. Telephus refused to participate in the Trojan War, but his son Eurypylus fought on the side of the Trojans. This material was dealt with in a number of tragedies, such as Aeschylus' Mysi, Sophocles' Aleadae, and Euripides' Telephus dan Auge, but Pergamon does not seem to have played any role in any of them. [22] The adaptation of the myth is not entirely smooth.

Thus, on the one hand, Eurypylus who must have been part of the dynastic line as a result of the appropriation of the myth, was not mentioned in the hymn sung in honour of Telephus in the Asclepieion. Otherwise he does not seem to have been paid any heed. [23] But the Pergamenes made offerings to Telephus [24] and the grave of his mother Auge was located in Pergamon near the Caicus. [25] Pergamon thus entered the Trojan epic cycle, with its ruler said to have been an Arcadian who had fought with Telephus against Agamemnon when he landed at the Caicus, mistook it for Troy and began to ravage the land.

On the other hand, the story was linked to the foundation of the city with another myth - that of Pergamus, the eponymous hero of the city. He also belonged to the broader cycle of myths related to the Trojan War as the grandson of Achilles through his father Neoptolemus and of Eetion of Thebe through his mother Andromache (concubine to Neoptolemus after the death of Hector of Troy). [26] With his mother, he was said to have fled to Mysia where he killed the ruler of Teuthrania and gave the city his own name. There he built a heroon for his mother after her death. [27] In a less heroic version, Grynos the son of Eurypylus named a city after him in gratitude for a favour. [28] These mythic connections seem to be late and are not attested before the 3rd century BC. Pergamus' role remained subordinate, although he did receive some cult worship. Beginning in the Roman period, his image appears on civic coinage and he is said to have had a heroon in the city. [29] Even so, he provided a further, deliberately crafted link to the world of Homeric epic. Mithridates VI was celebrated in the city as a new Pergamus. [30]

However, for the Attalids, it was apparently the genealogical connection to Heracles that was crucial, since all the other Hellenistic dynasties had long established such links: [31] the Ptolemies derived themselves directly from Heracles, [32] the Antigonids inserted Heracles into their family tree in the reign of Philip V at the end of the 3rd century BC at the latest, [33] and the Seleucids claimed descent from Heracles' brother Apollo. [34] All of these claims derive their significance from Alexander the Great, who claimed descent from Heracles, through his father Philip II. [35]

In their constructive adaptation of the myth, the Attalids stood within the tradition of the other, older Hellenistic dynasties, who legitimized themselves through divine descent, and sought to increase their own prestige. [36] The inhabitants of Pergamon enthusiastically followed their lead and took to calling themselves Telephidai ( Τηλεφίδαι ) and referring to Pergamon itself in poetic registers as the 'Telephian city' ( Τήλεφις πόλις ).

The first mention of Pergamon in written records after ancient times comes from the 13th century. Beginning with Ciriaco de' Pizzicolli in the 15th century, ever more travellers visited the place and published their accounts of it. The key description is that of Thomas Smith, who visited the Levant in 1668 and transmitted a detailed description of Pergamon, to which the great 17th century travellers Jacob Spon and George Wheler were able to add nothing significant in their own accounts. [37]

In the late 18th century, these visits were reinforced by a scholarly (especially ancient historical) desire for research, epitomised by Marie-Gabriel-Florent-Auguste de Choiseul-Gouffier, a traveller in Asia Minor and French ambassador to the Sublime Porte in Istanbul from 1784 to 1791. At the beginning of the 19th century, Charles Robert Cockerell produced a detailed account and Otto Magnus von Stackelberg made important sketches. [38] A proper, multi-page description with plans, elevations, and views of the city and its ruins was first produced by Charles Texier when he published the second volume of his Description de l’Asie mineure. [39]

In 1864/5, the German engineer Carl Humann visited Pergamon for the first time. For the construction of the road from Pergamon to Dikili for which he had undertaken planning work and topographical studies, he returned in 1869 and began to focus intensively on the legacy of the city. In 1871, he organised a small expedition there under the leadership of Ernst Curtius. As a result of this short but intensive investigation, two fragments of a great frieze were discovered and transported to Berlin for detailed analysis, where they received some interest, but not a lot. It is not clear who connected these fragments with the Great Altar in Pergamon mentioned by Lucius Ampelius. [40] However, when the archaeologist Alexander Conze took over direction of the department of ancient sculpture at the Royal Museums of Berlin, he quickly initiated a programme for the excavation and protection of the monuments connected to the sculpture, which were widely suspected to include the Great Altar. [41]

As a result of these efforts, Carl Humann, who had been carrying out low-level excavations at Pergamon for the previous few years and had discovered for example the architrave inscription of the Temple of Demeter in 1875, was entrusted with carry out work in the area of the altar of Zeus in 1878, where he continued to work until 1886. With the approval of the Ottoman empire, the reliefs discovered there were transported to Berlin, where the Pergamon Museum was opened for them in 1907. The work was continued by Conze, who aimed for the most complete possible exposure and investigation of the historic city and citadel that was possible. He was followed by the architectural historian Wilhelm Dörpfeld from 1900 to 1911, who was responsible for the most important discoveries. Under his leadership the Lower Agora, the House of Attalos, the Gymnasion, and the Sanctuary of Demeter were brought to light.

The excavations were interrupted by the First World War and were only resumed in 1927 under the leadership of Theodor Wiegand, who remained in this post until 1939. He concentrated on further excavation of the upper city, the Asklepieion, and the Red Hall. The Second World War also caused a break in work at Pergamon, which lasted until 1957. From 1957 to 1968, Erich Boehringer worked on the Asklepieion in particular, but also carried out important work on the lower city as a whole and performed survey work, which increased knowledge of the countryside surrounding the city. In 1971, after a short pause, Wolfgang Radt succeeded him as leader of excavations and directed the focus of research on the residential buildings of Pergamon, but also on technical issues, like the water management system of the city which supported a population of 200,000 at its height. He also carried out conservation projects which were of vital importance for maintaining the material remains of Pergamon. Since 2006, the excavations have been led by Felix Pirson. [42]

Most of the finds from the Pergamon excavations before the First World War were taken to the Pergamon Museum in Berlin, with a smaller portion going to the İstanbul Archaeological Museum after it was opened in 1891. After the First World War the Bergama Museum was opened, which has received all finds discovered since then.

Pergamon is a good example of a city that expanded in a planned and controlled manner. Philetairos transformed Pergamon from an archaic settlement into a fortified city. He or his successor Attalos I built a wall around the whole upper city, including the plateau to the south, the upper agora and some of the housing - further housing must have been found outside these walls. Because of the growth of the city, the streets were expanded and the city was monumentalised. [43] Under Attalos I some minor changes were made to the city of Philetairos. [44] During the reign of Eumenes II and Attalos II, there was a substantial expansion of the city. [45] A new street network was created and a new city wall with a monumental gatehouse south of the Acropolis called the Gate of Eumenes. The wall, with numerous gates, now surrounded the entire hill, not just the upper city and the flat area to the southwest, all the way to the Selinus river. Numerous public buildings were constructed, as well as a new marketplace south of the acropolis and a new gymnasion in the east. The southeast slope and the whole western slope of the hill were now settled and opened up by streets.

The plan of Pergamon was affected by the extreme steepness of the site. As a result of this, the streets had to turn hairpin corners, so that the hill could be climbed as comfortably and quickly as possible. For the construction of buildings and laying out of the agoras, extensive work on the cliff-face and terracing had to be carried out. A consequence of the city's growth was the construction of new buildings over old ones, since there was not sufficient space.

Separate from this, a new area was laid out in Roman times, consisting of a whole new city west of the Selinus river, with all necessary infrastructure, including baths, theatres, stadiums, and sanctuaries. This Roman new city was able to expand without any city walls constraining it because of the absence of external threats.

Housing Edit

Generally, most of the Hellenistic houses at Pergamon were laid out with a small, centrally-located and roughly square courtyard, with rooms on one or two sides of it. The main rooms are often stacked in two levels on the north side of the courtyard. A wide passage or colonnade on the north side of the courtyard often opened onto foyers, which enabled access to other rooms. An exact north-south arrangement of the city blocks was not possible because of the topographical situation and earlier construction. Thus the size and arrangement of the rooms differed from house to house. From the time of Philetairos, at the latest, this kind of courtyard house was common and it was ever more widespread as time went on, but not universal. Some complexes were designed as Prostas houses, similar to designs seen at Priene. Others had wide columned halls in front of main rooms to the north. Especially in this latter type there is often a second story accessed by stairways. In the courtyards there were often cisterns, which captured rain water from the sloping roofs above. For the construction under Eumenes II, a city block of 35 x 45 m can be reconstructed, subject to significant variation as a result of the terrain. [46]

Open spaces Edit

From the beginning of the reign of Philetairos, civic events in Pergamon were concentrated on the Acropolis. Over time the so-called 'Upper agora' was developed at the south end of this. In the reign of Attalos I, a Temple of Zeus was built there. [47] To the north of this structure there was a multi-story building, which propbably had a function connected to the marketplace. [48] With progressive development of the open space, these buildings were demolished, while the Upper Agora itself took on a more strongly commercial function, while still a special space as a result of the temple of Zeus. In the course of the expansion of the city under Eumenes, the commercial character of the Upper Agora was further developed. The key signs of this development are primarily the halls built under Eumenes II, whose back chambers were probably used for trade. [49] In the west, the 'West Chamber' was built which might have served as a market administration building. [50] After these renovations, the Upper Agora thus served as a centre for trade and spectacle in the city. [51]

Because of significant new construction in the immediate vicinity - the renovation of the Sanctuary of Athena and the Pergamon altar and the redesign of the neighbouring area - the design and organisational principle of the Upper Agora underwent a further change. [52] Its character became much more spectacular and focussed on the two new structures looming over it, especially the altar which was visible on its terrace from below since the usual stoa surrounding it was omitted from the design. [53]

The 80 m long and 55 m wide 'Lower Agora' was built under Eumenes II and was not significantly altered until Late Antiquity. [54] As with the Upper Agora, the rectangular form of the agora was adapted to the steep terrain. The construction consisted in total of three levels. Of these the Upper Level and the 'Main Level' opened onto a central courtyard. On the lower level there were rooms only on the south and east sides because of the slope of the land, which led through a colonnade to the exterior of the space. [55] The whole market area extended over two levels with a large columned hall in the centre, which contained small shop spaces and miscellaneous rooms. [56]

Streets and bridges Edit

The course of the main street, which winds up the hill to the Acropolis with a series of hairpin turns, is typical of the street system of Pergamon. On this street were shops and warehouses. [57] The surface of the street consisted of andesite blocks up to 5 metres wide, 1 metre long and 30 cm deep. The street included a drainage system, which carried the water down the slope. Since it was the most important street of the city, the quality of the material used in its construction was very high. [58]


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