George Villiers, Adipati Pertama Buckingham

George Villiers, Adipati Pertama Buckingham


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

George Villiers, putra kedua Sir George Villiers, lahir di Brooksby, Leicestershire, pada 28 Agustus 1592. Villiers bukanlah seorang sarjana alam, "tetapi unggul dalam keterampilan seperti menari, anggar, dan berkuda, dan karena ini digabungkan dengan ketampanan yang luar biasa dan pesona sikapnya yang diperlengkapi dengan baik untuk kehidupan sebagai seorang punggawa". (1)

Pada 1611 Villiers bertemu Sir John Graham, seorang pria dari kamar rahasia, yang bertindak sebagai mentor dan promotornya. Dia mengatur agar Villiers diperkenalkan kepada Raja James I yang langsung menyukai Villiers. Sepanjang masa pemerintahannya ia bergaul dengan pria muda yang menarik dan menurut Maurice Ashley ia telah mengembangkan perasaan homoseksual di masa mudanya. (2)

Meskipun dia menikahi Anne dari Denmark pada tahun 1589, dan dia melahirkan Henry (1594) dan Charles (1600) Raja James menghabiskan sedikit waktu dengan istrinya dan "menolak untuk tinggal di tempat yang sama dengan seorang wanita lebih dari yang dia bisa bantu.. . dan segera setelah aksesinya, ratu didirikan di Rumah Denmark, jarang menemaninya dalam kemajuannya yang berkelanjutan." (3)

Seperti yang telah ditunjukkan Jenny Wormald: "Hampir ada bahaya untuk melupakan bahwa, bahkan jika aktivitas homoseksual yang bertentangan dengan perasaan homoerotik dianggap berasal dari raja, setidaknya, James adalah biseksual, dan berhasil, di mana tiga pendahulunya telah gagal. , dalam memberikan ahli waris takhta, yang setelah setengah abad sebelumnya datang sebagai melegakan". (4)

Salah satu abdi dalemnya, Anthony Weldon, mengklaim James memiliki beberapa "kekasih laki-laki" dan bersalah karena mengungkapkan perasaannya di depan umum: "Raja mencium mereka setelah mode yang begitu mesum di depan umum, dan di atas teater, seperti, dari dunia, mendorong banyak orang untuk membayangkan beberapa hal yang dilakukan di rumah pensiunan yang melebihi ekspresi saya tidak kurang dari pengalaman saya." (5)

James menemukan Villiers sangat menarik dan dianggap "cantik seperti macan tutul berburu". (6) Uskup Godfrey Goodman berkomentar bahwa Villiers adalah "pria bertubuh paling tampan di seluruh Inggris; anggota tubuhnya begitu padat, dan percakapannya begitu menyenangkan, dan wataknya begitu manis." (7)

Pada saat dia bertemu Villiers, sang Raja terlibat asmara dengan Robert Carr. Dia menjadi favorit Raja ketika dia berusia 20 tahun dan tahun berikutnya menjadi pengantin pria di kamar tidur. Raja, dilaporkan, akan "mencubit pipi Carr di depan umum, merapikan pakaiannya, dan menatapnya dengan penuh kasih, bahkan saat berbicara dengan orang lain". Selama delapan tahun berikutnya Carr terus mengumpulkan imbalan materi dari kegilaan kerajaan dan diberikan perkebunan besar di seluruh Inggris. (8)

Pada 1613 Carr mulai membuat rencana untuk menikahi Frances Howard, putri Laksamana Thomas Howard, putra Thomas Howard, Adipati Norfolk ke-4. Keluarga Howard memiliki pengaruh yang berkembang atas Raja James. Ini termasuk Henry Howard, 1st Earl of Northampton, Thomas Howard, Earl of Arundel dan Charles Howard, Lord of Effingham, Mereka semua bersimpati kepada gereja Katolik Roma dan menginginkan aliansi dengan Raja Philip III dari Spanyol. Menurut John Philipps Kenyon, penulis Stuart (1958): "Mereka (keluarga Howard) mendesak James untuk menikahi putranya dengan putri Philip III dari Spanyol dan menggunakan maharnya yang besar untuk melunasi hutangnya, dengan tujuan akhir mendamaikan gereja Inggris dengan Roma." (9)

Sir Thomas Overbury, dengan sengit menentang pernikahan itu karena dia khawatir tentang pengaruh yang semakin besar dari keluarga Howard. Dia mengungkapkan perasaannya kepada James. Dia menolak keluhannya dan menawarinya menjadi duta besar, yang berarti dia tinggal di luar negeri. Ketika dia menolak untuk mengambil jabatan itu, dia ditangkap pada 21 April 1613, dan dibawa ke Menara London. Overbury mengancam, dalam sebuah surat yang ditulis kepada Carr, bahwa dia akan mengungkapkan informasi tentang kehidupan masa lalu Francis Howard. Overbury meninggal pada 15 September 1613. Sepuluh hari kemudian Carr menikahi Howard. (10)

Pada 1614 Carr diangkat sebagai Lord Chamberlain dan memberinya gelar, Earl of Somerset. Namun, dia juga menunjukkan cintanya pada Villiers dengan memberinya pekerjaan sebagai pembawa piala kerajaan dan pada tahun 1615 dianugerahi gelar kebangsawanan dan menjadi pria terhormat di kamar tidur. Dia juga diberi pensiun tahunan sebesar £1.000. Carr mengeluh tentang saingan barunya. James menanggapi dengan menulis surat yang menjelaskan bahwa dia tidak mau melepaskan cintanya pada Villiers. Dia menegur Carr untuk "aliran aneh dari kegelisahan, gairah, kemarahan dan kebanggaan kurang ajar" dan untuk "menarik diri dari berbaring di kamar saya, meskipun saya berkali-kali dengan sungguh-sungguh meminta Anda untuk sebaliknya". (11)

Pada Agustus 1615, Villiers dan James menempati ranjang yang sama di Kastil Farnham, tempat raja sedang berlangsung. Roger Lockyer berpendapat bahwa ini sendiri tidak membuktikan bahwa kedua pria itu memiliki hubungan homoseksual: "Berbagi tempat tidur bukanlah hal yang aneh di awal abad ketujuh belas, dan tidak selalu menyiratkan keintiman fisik. Namun ada setiap indikasi bahwa hubungan antara raja dan Villiers telah memasuki fase baru, dan hari-hari yang disukai Somerset telah dihitung." (12)

Penulis Keluarga Stuart (1958) menunjukkan: "Pada usia dua puluh dua George Villiers memiliki daya tarik maskulin yang agak terlalu matang yang gemetar di ambang feminitas: tinggi dan proporsional indah, dia memiliki wajah berbentuk hati yang dibingkai dalam rambut cokelat gelap. dan janggut pendek, mulut melengkung yang indah, dan mata biru tua dari orang yang berjenis kelamin tinggi... Kecerdasannya, meskipun ada pada tingkat rendah, tidak diragukan lagi ada... Kegenitan Buckingham yang kekanak-kanakan memungkinkan dia untuk melewati James tanpa dihukum. " (13)

Villiers juga mendapat dukungan dari Sir Francis Bacon, Lord Chancellor raja. Dia juga takut pengaruh tumbuh dari keluarga Howard dan mendorong James untuk memerintahkan penyelidikan atas kematian Thomas Overbury. Akhirnya, Robert Carr dan istrinya, Frances Carr, muncul di pengadilan untuk menghadapi tuduhan pembunuhan. Frances membuat pengakuan penuh tetapi Robert mengklaim dia tidak ada hubungannya dengan kematian Overbury. Pengadilan tidak mempercayainya dan pasangan itu dijatuhi hukuman mati. James menolak untuk membiarkan kekasihnya dieksekusi dan mereka berdua dipenjara di Menara London. (14)

Villiers berada dalam posisi yang baik untuk mendapatkan keuntungan dari pencopotan Robert Carr dari kekuasaan. Pada Januari 1616, James mengangkatnya menjadi penguasa kuda dan pada 27 Agustus, dia memberinya Viscount Villiers dan memberinya tanah mahkota senilai £30.000. Dia juga menjadi juru tulis kepala untuk pendaftaran permohonan di pengadilan bangku raja, senilai sekitar £ 4000 setahun. Pada tanggal 6 Januari 1617, ia diangkat menjadi earldom Buckingham, dan pada bulan berikutnya ia menjadi anggota Dewan Penasihat. Raja tidak merahasiakan perasaannya terhadap favoritnya. (15)

Pada bulan September 1617 Raja membela persahabatannya dengan Buckingham: "Saya bukan Tuhan atau malaikat, tetapi manusia seperti yang lain. Oleh karena itu saya bertindak seperti seorang pria, dan mengaku mencintai mereka yang saya sayangi lebih dari pria lain. yakin bahwa saya mencintai Earl of Buckingham lebih dari siapa pun, dan lebih dari Anda yang berkumpul di sini. Saya ingin berbicara atas nama saya sendiri, dan tidak menganggapnya cacat, karena Yesus Kristus melakukan hal yang sama, dan oleh karena itu saya tidak dapat disalahkan. Kristus memiliki John-nya, dan saya memiliki George saya." (16)

James sangat mencintai Buckingham yang memanggilnya "Steenie" (mengacu pada St Stephen yang dalam Alkitab digambarkan memiliki "wajah malaikat"). Menurut John Philipps Kenyon, dia juga memanggilnya "kekasih", "anak dan istrinya yang manis". Pada satu kesempatan, ketika Buckingham sedang berlibur singkat, James menulis kepadanya memintanya untuk kembali: "Anakku satu-satunya yang manis dan tersayang. aku nyaman dan bahagia bersamamu malam ini." (17)

James bersimpati kepada gereja Katolik Roma dan sampai pada kesimpulan bahwa putranya, Charles harus menikahi Maria Anna, putri bungsu Raja Philip III dari Spanyol. Buckingham mendukung kebijakan ini tetapi ditentang oleh Parlemen Inggris dan pada tahun 1621 ia menyerukan penegakan hukum recusancy, kampanye angkatan laut melawan Spanyol, dan pernikahan Protestan untuk Pangeran Wales. (18)

Francis Bacon, Lord Chancellor, memimpin kampanye menentang pernikahan yang diusulkan dan bersama dengan anggota parlemen lainnya menyarankan agar Charles menikah dengan seorang putri Protestan. James bersikeras bahwa House of Commons hanya peduli dengan urusan dalam negeri dan tidak boleh terlibat dalam pengambilan keputusan tentang kebijakan luar negeri. (19)

Pendukung raja menanggapi dengan menuduh Bacon melakukan suap dan korupsi dan dia dimakzulkan di depan House of Lords. Tidak sejak abad kelima belas seorang perwira besar mahkota digulingkan di Parlemen. (20) Bacon didenda £40.000 dan "penjara sesuai keinginan raja". Dia juga dilarang dari kantor atau pekerjaan apa pun di negara bagian dan dilarang duduk di parlemen atau berada di ambang (12 mil) pengadilan. Denda tidak pernah ditagih dan pemenjaraannya di Menara London hanya berlangsung tiga hari. (21)

James menolak untuk menerima kekalahan dan dia mengatur agar Charles diajari bahasa Spanyol dan langkah-langkah tarian kontinental terbaru. Pada bulan Februari 1623, Charles melakukan perjalanan penyamaran dengan Duke of Buckingham, ke Madrid, untuk bertemu dengan anggota keluarga kerajaan Spanyol. Dia digambarkan telah "tumbuh menjadi pria yang baik" tetapi juga diamati bahwa dia tampak tidak istimewa dan tingginya hanya lima kaki empat inci. (22) Selama periode ini Charles sangat dipengaruhi oleh ide-ide politik Buckingham. (23)

John Morrill telah menunjukkan: "Keputusan Charles untuk melakukan pacaran pribadi sebagai cara untuk memecahkan kebuntuan diplomatik merupakan indikasi kepercayaan dirinya yang tumbuh. Dia sekarang umumnya bertindak sebagai agen politik, bertemu dengan anggota dewan rahasia, duta besar asing , dan Duke of Buckingham, terkadang di bawah instruksi ayahnya, terkadang secara mandiri. Keputusan untuk melakukan perjalanan ke Spanyol dan melakukan negosiasi tatap muka untuk menyimpulkan pernikahannya merupakan langkah lebih lanjut dalam pendewasaannya." (24)

Negosiator Spanyol menuntut agar Charles masuk Katolik Roma sebagai syarat pertandingan. Mereka juga menuntut toleransi umat Katolik di Inggris dan pencabutan hukum pidana. Setelah pernikahan, Maria Anna harus tinggal di Spanyol sampai Inggris memenuhi semua persyaratan perjanjian. Charles tahu bahwa Parlemen tidak akan pernah menerima kesepakatan ini dan dia kembali ke Inggris tanpa seorang pengantin wanita. (25)

Sekarang diputuskan untuk mengubah kebijakan luar negeri dan James sekarang membuka pembicaraan tentang kemungkinan aliansi dengan Louis XIII dari Prancis yang melibatkan pernikahan Charles dengan Henrietta Maria, saudara perempuan raja. Belum pernah terjadi sebelumnya bagi seorang putri Katolik untuk menikah dengan seorang Protestan. Paus Urbanus VIII hanya memberikan izinnya ketika dia yakin bahwa perjanjian itu mencakup "komitmen tentang hak-hak agama ratu, anak-anaknya, dan rumah tangganya; sementara dalam dokumen rahasia terpisah Charles berjanji untuk menangguhkan pelaksanaan hukum pidana terhadap umat Katolik". (26)

Pada bulan Februari 1624, Duke of Buckingham, berhasil membujuk sebagian besar anggota Parlemen untuk kebijakan anti-Spanyol yang baru dan untuk merundingkan sebuah perjanjian dengan Prancis. Namun, tidak dijelaskan kepada Parlemen bahwa pernikahan yang diusulkan akan melibatkan peningkatan toleransi bagi umat Katolik Roma. (27)

Negosiasi ini mengakibatkan Parlemen kehilangan kepercayaan pada Raja James. Mereka tidak lagi mempercayainya dan dia terpaksa membuat beberapa konsesi. Ini termasuk Undang-Undang Monopoli, yang melarang pemberian monopoli kerajaan kepada individu. James juga setuju untuk bekerja sama dengan Parlemen untuk menangani krisis ekonomi yang dialami negara itu saat itu. (28)

James I meninggal pada 27 Maret 1625. Buckingham sekarang menjadi penasihat raja yang paling penting. Charles menikahi Henrietta Maria yang berusia lima belas tahun melalui kuasanya di pintu gereja Notre Dame pada tanggal 1 Mei. Charles bertemu dengannya di Dover pada 13 Juni dan digambarkan bertubuh kecil dan mungil dan "untuk anak seusianya agak kecil". (29) Sumber lain mengatakan dia adalah "remaja canggung, mata besar, pergelangan tangan kurus, gigi menonjol, dan sosok minimal". (30) Caroline M. Hibbard memberikan citra yang lebih positif dengan alasan bahwa dia memiliki "rambut coklat dan mata hitam dan kombinasi manis dan kecerdasan yang dikomentari oleh hampir setiap pengamat." (31)

Banyak anggota House of Commons menentang pernikahan raja dengan seorang Katolik Roma, karena khawatir hal itu akan merusak pendirian resmi Gereja Inggris yang direformasi. Orang-orang Puritan sangat tidak senang ketika mereka mendengar bahwa raja telah berjanji bahwa Henrietta Maria akan diizinkan untuk menjalankan agamanya secara bebas dan akan memiliki tanggung jawab untuk membesarkan anak-anak mereka sampai mereka mencapai usia 13 tahun. Ketika raja dimahkotai pada tanggal 2 Februari 1626 di Westminster Abbey, istrinya tidak berada di sisinya karena dia menolak untuk berpartisipasi dalam upacara keagamaan Protestan. (32)

Pada saat ini Raja Louis XIII sedang terlibat dalam perang saudara melawan kaum Protestan (Huguenots) di Perancis. Parlemen ingin membantu Huguenot tetapi Charles menolak karena dia tidak ingin mengecewakan istri atau saudara iparnya. Akhirnya disepakati untuk mengirim armada delapan kapal ke Prancis. Namun, pada saat terakhir Charles mengirim perintah bahwa orang-orang harus berjuang, bukan melawan, Louis XIII. Para kapten dan kru menolak untuk menerima perintah ini dan berperang melawan Prancis. (33)

Charles bersedia menyatakan perang terhadap Spanyol. Daripada terlibat langsung dalam perang darat Eropa, Parlemen Inggris lebih memilih serangan angkatan laut yang relatif murah di koloni Spanyol di Dunia Baru, berharap untuk menangkap armada harta Spanyol dan hanya memberikan subsidi sebesar £ 140.000, yang merupakan jumlah yang tidak mencukupi. untuk rencana perang Charles. (34)

Charles kecewa dengan keputusan ini dan dia memanggil Parlemen lain. Kali ini Duke of Buckingham, membuat pidato panjang di mana "ia membela kebijakannya, meyakinkan mereka tentang komitmennya terhadap perang, termasuk serangan angkatan laut ke Spanyol, dan memberi mereka rincian kewajiban keuangan Raja". Namun, mereka menunjukkan bahwa negara tersebut tidak mampu membayar lebih banyak pajak pada saat resesi ekonomi. Charles menanggapi dengan membubarkan Parlemen. (35)

Pada musim panas 1627, Buckingham berusaha membantu sekutu Huguenot barunya yang terkepung di La Rochelle di Prancis. Pada 12 Juli, pasukan Inggris yang terdiri dari 100 kapal dan 6.000 tentara tiba di Sablanceau. Pasukan Prancis yang terdiri dari 1.200 infanteri dan 200 penunggang kuda di bawah Marquis de Toiras, Gubernur pulau itu, menolak pendaratan dari belakang bukit pasir, tetapi tempat berpijak Inggris tetap dipertahankan. Pengepungan berlanjut sampai Oktober, di mana ia kehilangan lebih dari 4.000 dari kekuatan 7.000 orang. (36)

Sir John Eliot, kritikus utama Buckingham di House of Commons, menghasut proses pemakzulan terhadap penasihat utama raja. Pada Mei 1626, Charles menominasikan Buckingham sebagai Rektor Universitas Cambridge untuk menunjukkan dukungan, dan menangkap Eliot di depan pintu Gedung. Pemenjaraannya menghasilkan banyak protes dan raja terpaksa memerintahkan pembebasan Eliot. Namun, Charles menolak untuk membubarkan Buckingham dan malah membubarkan Parlemen. (37)

Meskipun raja terus melindungi Buckingham dia dibenci oleh publik dan pada 23 Agustus 1628, dia ditikam sampai mati di Greyhound Pub di Portsmouth. Pembunuhnya adalah John Felton, seorang perwira tentara yang telah terluka dalam petualangan militer sebelumnya dan percaya bahwa dia telah dilewati untuk dipromosikan oleh Buckingham. Namun, dia menjelaskan bahwa tindakannya didasarkan pada keyakinannya pada House of Commons dan bahwa dengan "membunuh Duke dia harus melakukan pelayanan besar bagi negaranya". (38)

Pada usia dua puluh dua George Villiers memiliki daya tarik maskulin yang agak terlalu matang yang gemetar di ambang feminitas: tinggi dan proporsional dengan indah, dia memiliki wajah berbentuk hati yang dibingkai dengan rambut cokelat gelap dan janggut pendek, wajah yang sangat indah. mulut melengkung, dan mata biru tua dari wanita berjenis kelamin tinggi...

Kecerdasannya, sementara itu ada pada tingkat rendah, tidak diragukan lagi ada ... Genit kekanak-kanakan Buckingham memungkinkan dia untuk melewati James dengan impunitas, muncul dengan pengaruh yang ditingkatkan; surat-suratnya menggelembung dengan pesona yang tidak masuk akal dan obrolan bayi kekasih, tetapi ada kecerdikan bahkan dalam ucapan selamatnya yang tidak berubah.

Aku, Yakobus, bukanlah Tuhan atau malaikat, tetapi manusia seperti yang lainnya. Kristus memiliki John-nya, dan saya memiliki George-ku.

Taktik Militer dalam Perang Saudara (Komentar Jawaban)

Wanita dalam Perang Saudara (Komentar Jawaban)

Potret Oliver Cromwell (Komentar Jawaban)

(1) Roger Lockyer, George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham ke-1: Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (2004-2014)

(2) Maurice Ashley, Kehidupan Raja dan Ratu Inggris (1975) halaman 182

(3) John Philipps Kenyon, Stuart (1958) halaman 41

(4) Jenny Wormald, King James I: Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (2004-2014)

(5) Anthony Weldon, Pengadilan dan Karakter Raja James I (1650)

(6) Diane Purkiss, Perang Saudara Inggris: Sejarah Rakyat (2007) halaman 15

(7) Pauline Gregg, Raja Charles (1984) halaman 49

(8) Alastair Bellany, Robert Carr, Earl of Somerset: Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (2004-2014)

(9) John Philipps Kenyon, Stuart (1958) halaman 47

(10) John Considine, Thomas Overbury: Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (2004-2014)

(11) Peter Ackroyd, Perang Saudara (2014) halaman 45

(12) Roger Lockyer, George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham ke-1: Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (2004-2014)

(13) John Philipps Kenyon, Stuart (1958) halaman 50

(14) Peter Ackroyd, Perang Saudara (2014) halaman 46

(15) Roger Lockyer, George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham ke-1: Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (2004-2014)

(16) Raja James I, pidato pada pertemuan Dewan Penasihat (September 1617)

(17) John Philipps Kenyon, Stuart (1958) halaman 50

(18) Christopher Hibbert, Charles I (1968) halaman 49-50

(19) Richard Cust, Charles I: Kehidupan Politik (2005) halaman 8

(20) Roger Lockyer, Tudor dan Stuart Inggris (1985) halaman 225

(21) Markku Peltonen, Francis Bacon: Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (2004-2014)

(22) Maurice Ashley, Kehidupan Raja dan Ratu Inggris (1975) halaman 187

(23) Richard Ollard, Clarendon dan Teman-temannya (1988) halaman 24

(24) John Morrill, King Charles I: Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (2004-2014)

(25) Pauline Gregg, Raja Charles I (1981) halaman 85-87

(26) Caroline M. Hibbard, Henrietta Maria: Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (2004-2014)

(27) John Philipps Kenyon, Stuart (1958) halaman 60

(28) Barry Pengecut, Zaman Stuart: Inggris 1603-1714 (1980) halaman 158

(29) John Morrill, King Charles I: Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (2004-2014)

(30) John Philipps Kenyon, Stuart (1958) halaman 63

(31) Caroline M. Hibbard, Henrietta Maria: Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (2004-2014)

(32) Charles Carlton, Charles I: Raja Pribadi (1995) halaman 76

(33) Gerald Howat, Kebijakan Luar Negeri Stuart dan Cromwellian (1974) halaman 35

(34) Pauline Gregg, Raja Charles I (1981) halaman 129

(35) Roger Lockyer, Tudor dan Stuart Inggris (1985) halaman 233

(36) Mark Charles Fissel, Perang dan Pemerintahan di Inggris, 1598-1650 (1991) halaman 123-125

(37) Charles Carlton, Charles I: Raja Pribadi (1995) halaman 149-151

(38) Roger Lockyer, Tudor dan Stuart Inggris (1985) halaman 238


Penerbitan The House of Lords, 1604-1629 pada bulan Januari tahun ini merupakan puncak dari sepuluh tahun penulisan dan penelitian oleh tim berdedikasi yang terdiri dari empat sarjana yang dipimpin oleh Dr Andrew Thrush. Terdiri dari dua jilid biografi yang panjangnya lebih dari 1.600.000 kata, dan Introductory Survey yang terpisah, tambahan terbaru untuk seri History of Parliament ini melengkapi dan menyempurnakan enam jilid yang ditetapkan pada Stuart House of Commons awal dan anggotanya yang diterbitkan pada tahun 2010 .

Di jantung volume terakhir History of Parliament adalah biografi 277 rekan yang berhak duduk di House of Lords antara 1604 dan 1629. (Sembilan biografi rekan sejawat yang tidak mampu duduk sebelum 1629 dan yang meninggal sebelum yang lain Parlemen berkumpul, pada tahun 1640, muncul dalam dua lampiran.)

Jumlah ruang terbesar secara alami dikhususkan untuk tokoh-tokoh politik terkemuka pada masa itu, termasuk Robert Cecil, pangeran pertama Salisbury, yang mencoba dengan sia-sia untuk memecahkan masalah keuangan mahkota dengan bantuan Parlemen George Villiers, adipati pertama Buckingham, orang kaya baru yang dominasi politik Inggris sebagai favorit dan menteri utama dua raja berturut-turut membuat marah anggota 'bangsawan kuno' dan menyebabkan pemakzulannya pada tahun 1626 George Abbot, uskup agung Canterbury, yang membantu Buckingham naik ke tampuk kekuasaan dan hidup untuk menyesalinya dan Thomas Howard, earl ke-21 Arundel, anggota terkemuka 'bangsawan kuno', yang awalnya menganggap dirinya di antara sekutu utama Buckingham. Banyak hal baru akan ditemukan dalam studi individu ini. Misalnya, dalam entri panjang tentang Pangeran Charles - calon Charles I - yang duduk di Lords sebagai Pangeran Wales pada tahun 1621 dan 1624, diklaim bahwa kegagapan Charles yang terkenal bukan akibat trauma psikologis tetapi lidah yang membesar, kondisi yang dikenal sebagai macroglossia, yang membuat berbicara di depan umum menjadi sulit.

Volume biografi tidak secara eksklusif diisi oleh tokoh-tokoh tinggi seperti Charles dan Buckingham, atau Salisbury dan Arundel, tetapi juga mencakup banyak rekan awam yang, karena alasan kemiskinan atau kepentingan politik kecil, telah lolos dari inklusi dalam Kamus Oxford Biografi Nasional: orang-orang seperti rekan Hampshire, William, Lord Sandys ke-3 dan bangsawan Anglo-Irlandia, George Tuchet, Lord Audley ke-11 dan earl ke-1 Castlehaven.

Namun, benih yang lebih kecil ini diperlakukan sama penuhnya dengan saudara-saudara mereka yang lebih terkenal. Di samping karir masing-masing pria di House of Lords (dengan asumsi dia duduk, tentu saja), pembaca akan menemukan rincian karir politik, urusan keuangan, keyakinan agama, minat budaya, karakter umum dan seksual. adat istiadat. Memang, volume ini kaya akan warna dalam detailnya. Kita mengetahui, misalnya, bahwa Buckingham kembali dari Spanyol pada tahun 1623 dengan penyakit gonore dan bahwa adiknya Christopher Villiers, pangeran pertama Anglesey, adalah pemabuk bejat bahwa Basil Feilding, Lord Newnham Paddockes, adalah seorang anti-Calvinis di masa mudanya daripada Calvinis yakin yang kita semua pikirkan dan bahwa Henry Clinton, pangeran ke-2 Lincoln, memiliki watak yang keras sehingga James I berpendapat bahwa dia diatur oleh pengaruh dunia bawah. Kami juga menemukan bahwa William Paulet, 4th marquess of Winchester konon sangat redup sehingga pada malam pernikahannya dia ternyata 'tidak tahu harus mulai dari mana' bahwa Thomas, Lord Cromwell ke-4, memihak gadis-gadis toko Dublin dan bahwa Henry, 7th Lord Berkeley begitu didominasi oleh istrinya sehingga pelayannya sendiri memberinya julukan 'Henry the Harmless'. Sejarawan non-parlemen akan menemukan minat yang sama besarnya dengan buku-buku ini seperti halnya para sarjana parlementer.

Melengkapi dua volume biografi adalah monografi 400 halaman di House of Lords itu sendiri. Dibagi menjadi enam bab besar, buku ini memandang Lords melalui lensa yang lebih luas daripada yang dilakukan Elizabeth Read Foster dalam studinya tahun 1983 tentang Majelis Tinggi. Sedangkan Foster menarik hampir secara eksklusif pada sumber-sumber parlementer, studi baru ini melihat melampaui Parlemen untuk memeriksa perkembangan di Lords. Beberapa temuan kunci muncul. Di antara yang paling penting adalah bahwa Lords mengalami sesuatu kebangkitan selama tahun 1620-an. Sebelum tanggal itu DPR semakin dikalahkan oleh Commons, yang anggotanya sendiri mengendalikan dompet parlemen.

Namun, mulai tahun 1621, kehidupan baru dihembuskan ke dalam Lords. Sebagian hal ini disebabkan oleh kebangkitan mendadak kekuasaan yudisial Lords yang telah lama terlupakan, terutama kekuasaan untuk melakukan pengadilan pemakzulan, yang menempatkan DPR di tengah panggung dan menimbulkan kecemburuan dari Commons. Namun, itu juga disebabkan oleh ketakutan di kalangan bangsawan bahwa hak istimewa mereka dirusak. Dipimpin oleh earl Arundel, para Lords membentuk komite hak istimewa pertama mereka, dengan demikian mengubah diri mereka menjadi semacam serikat pekerja untuk kaum bangsawan. Faktor lain dalam kebangkitan kembali kekayaan Lords adalah pertumbuhan faksionalisme, yang menyebar ke Parlemen. Sebelum tahun 1620-an, para bangsawan memandang peran utama mereka sebagai membela kepentingan raja. Kebangkitan Buckingham, dan penjualan gelar bangsawan, mengubah semua itu. Ini menyebabkan munculnya apa yang bisa disebut politik 'oposisi' di Lords. Dalam pikiran populer, banyak anggota Majelis Tinggi, seperti Earl Essex dan Warwick, dan Viscount Saye dan Sele, tidak dipandang sebagai tunduk pada mahkota tetapi sebagai juara kesejahteraan umum. Pada akhir 1620-an, tidak ada yang bisa meramalkan bahwa dua puluh tahun kemudian Majelis Tinggi, seperti monarki, akan dihapuskan.

House of Lords 1604-29 sekarang tersedia untuk dibeli melalui Cambridge University Press. Klik disini untuk informasi lebih lanjut.


George Villiers, Adipati Pertama Buckingham

Pada tahun 1614, Villiers, yang saat itu dikatakan sebagai "pria bertubuh paling tampan di Inggris", [1] diperkenalkan kepada Raja James, yang segera mengembangkan kasih sayang yang kuat untuknya, memanggilnya "anak dan istri yang manis". Dia awalnya didukung oleh mereka yang menentang favorit Raja saat ini, Robert Carr Earl dari Somerset. Selama beberapa tahun berikutnya dia dengan cepat diangkat menjadi ksatria, baron, viscount, earl, marquess, dan akhirnya adipati.

Restorasi Apethorpe Hall, Northamptonshire, pada 2004–2008 mengungkapkan bagian yang sebelumnya tidak diketahui menghubungkan kamar tidur Villiers dengan kamar tidur James. [2]

Villiers mengambil peran utama dalam banyak peristiwa politik dan militer pada masa pemerintahan James, banyak di antaranya menjadi sangat buruk, dan ia menjadi sangat tidak populer. Menurut beberapa akun ia menjadi kekasih Anne dari Austria, Ratu Prancis (yang suaminya, Louis XIII, dikatakan gay).

Setelah kematian James pada tahun 1625, Villiers tetap mendukung putra James, Charles I, tetapi dia dibunuh di Portsmouth pada tahun 1628.


Hari ini adalah yang pertama dari trio blog yang merayakan Bulan Sejarah LGBT+. Paul M. Hunneyball, Editor Asosiasi House of Lords 1604-1629 proyek, dimulai dengan sekuel blognya dari LGBTHM lalu, ‘James I dan favoritnya: seks dan kekuasaan di Pengadilan Jacobean’. Dalam blog baru ini ia mengeksplorasi evolusi posisi adipati Buckingham di pengadilan pada tahun 1610-an dan 1620-an, dan seluk-beluk hubungannya dengan James I…

George Villiers, adipati pertama Buckingham, mungkin paling dikenal saat ini karena hubungannya selama satu dekade dengan James I. Namun, dalam istilah sejarah ia sama-sama terkenal karena menjadi favorit istana utama dari dua raja berturut-turut, James dan putranya Charles I, sebuah prestasi yang tak tertandingi di Eropa selama era itu. Ketika seseorang mempertimbangkan sifat yang sangat berbeda dari hubungannya dengan kedua raja, pencapaian Buckingham tampaknya semakin luar biasa. Dia awalnya menjadi terkenal karena James yang homoseksual menganggapnya menarik secara fisik dan emosional, dan ini tetap menjadi pertimbangan penting yang menopang perselingkuhan mereka. Charles, sangat kontras dengan ayahnya, berbagi prasangka homofobik konvensional pada masanya, tidak menyetujui kemesraan gay James, dan pada awalnya sangat tidak menyukai Buckingham. Peran yang akhirnya diambil oleh sang duke bersamanya adalah sebagai orang kepercayaan, penasihat yang sangat diperlukan, dan menteri utama. Charles yang pendiam secara emosional mengembangkan kasih sayang yang dalam dan tak tergoyahkan untuk sang duke, tetapi persahabatan mereka sangat platonis dalam karakter. Fakta bahwa Buckingham mampu melakukan transisi ini dengan sukses menimbulkan beberapa pertanyaan menarik tentang sifat sebenarnya dari hubungannya dengan James.

Di istana Jacobean, faksi-faksi saingan secara terbuka mencari pengaruh dengan raja dengan mempromosikan para pemuda tampan yang mereka harap akan mendapatkan dukungannya. Buckingham sendiri memulai karir istananya sebagai klien George Abbot, uskup agung Canterbury dan William Herbert, earl ke-3 Pembroke, yang memanfaatkan pesonanya untuk menggantikan favorit kerajaan sebelumnya, Robert Carr, earl Somerset. Villiers muda, yang dilaporkan datang ke pengadilan untuk mencari pernikahan yang menguntungkan, mengambil peran barunya dengan penuh percaya diri. Menurut Godfrey Goodman, yang kemudian menjadi uskup Gloucester, 'dia adalah pria bertubuh paling tampan di Inggris, anggota tubuhnya begitu padat, dan percakapannya begitu menyenangkan, dan wataknya begitu manis' (G. Goodman, Pengadilan Raja James yang Pertama, i. 225-6). Pengamat lain, Sir Simonds D'Ewes, menemukan dia 'penuh kehalusan dan fitur tampan ya, tangan dan wajahnya tampak bagi saya, terutama, banci dan penasaran' (J.O. Halliwell (ed.), Autobiografi dan Korespondensi Sir Simonds D'Ewes, i. 166-7).


  • George Villiers, Adipati Buckingham ke-1, kr. 1616 (W. Larkin?)

  • George Villiers, Adipati Buckingham ke-1, 1625 (Peter Paul Rubens)

Kita dapat merasakan karakteristik ini dari potret yang dilukis untuk menandai kreasinya sebagai ksatria Garter pada tahun 1616, yang menunjukkan Buckingham dicukur bersih, dan dengan kakinya yang panjang dan elegan ditampilkan dengan jelas. Namun, sembilan tahun kemudian, setelah Charles naik takhta sebagai raja, sang duke ingin mempromosikan citra yang agak berbeda, seperti yang terlihat dalam potret berkuda karya Rubens ini. Di sini Buckingham berjanggut secara sadar memproyeksikan suasana kejantanan dan kekuatan, dan inilah cara dia memilih untuk menampilkan dirinya selama sisa kariernya.

Apa yang bisa dikatakan transformasi ini kepada kita tentang hubungannya dengan James? Selama tujuh atau delapan tahun, Buckingham cocok untuk menumbuhkan kepribadian yang lebih efektif. Raja tetap sepenuhnya terpikat padanya, dan memang menjadi tergantung secara emosional padanya. Dilihat dari korespondensi mereka yang masih hidup, Buckingham sangat menyukai kekasih kerajaannya. Tapi ada satu masalah mendasar. Ini bukan kemitraan gay gaya modern. James dalam arti tertentu adalah ayah gula abad ke-17, menghujani kekasihnya dengan kekayaan, gelar, dan pengaruh. Buckingham, yang berasal dari keturunan bangsawan kecil, naik ke puncak masyarakat, pangkat adipati saat ini biasanya diperuntukkan bagi anggota keluarga kerajaan. Dia mencapai tingkat keintiman informal dengan raja yang ditolak oleh abdi dalem lainnya. Namun demikian, dia tidak pernah diizinkan untuk melupakan bahwa James mengendalikan hubungan mereka. Raja suka menyombongkan Buckingham sebagai ciptaan terbaiknya, yang secara tersirat berarti bahwa dia bisa membatalkannya lagi. The duke’s lavish thanks for all the benefits that he received reflected his awareness that he had a lot to lose if circumstances changed, and he was painfully aware that his rivals at court sought his downfall by tempting James with other pretty young men. Over time Buckingham assumed the role of a surrogate son, and James took to signing his letters as ‘thy dear dad’. But the duke knew his place, and invariably described himself in reply as ‘your Majesty’s most humble slave and dog’ (D.M. Bergeron, King James & Letters of Homoerotic Desire, 177, 182). There was surely an element of humour in that moniker, but it also reflected the fundamental imbalance in their relationship, and Buckingham’s perennial insecurity.

The duke’s success in finally winning over Charles offered him a way out of that situation. Exactly how the two men became such close friends has never been fully explained, but by 1623 Charles and James were effectively competing for Buckingham’s attention. Charles gained the upper hand that year when he travelled to Spain in a misguided bid to finalise his marriage to a Spanish princess, and the duke went with him. Once there, Buckingham adopted a flamboyantly heterosexual image, and acquired a reputation for womanizing. By the end of that trip, he and the prince were virtually inseparable, the proof coming a few months after their return to England. Charles, smarting from his treatment in Madrid, had abandoned any thought of a closer alliance with Spain, and was now intent on war. James, who had spent his entire reign promoting Anglo-Spanish peace, naturally opposed this strategy. Buckingham, while as solicitous as ever of his royal master’s wellbeing, sided with Charles. The now ailing king complained loudly about his favourite’s behaviour, but, as Buckingham had no doubt calculated, could not bring himself to dismiss him. These conflicts further enhanced the duke’s standing with Charles, and when the latter finally became king in March 1625 it was generally acknowledged that, in political and social terms, Buckingham’s position was now stronger than ever. Indeed, it was only an assassin’s knife that finally ended his dominance three years later.

Assessing same-sex love and desire in the early modern period is fraught with difficulty, and Buckingham’s case is no exception. His ability to switch between two radically contrasting modes of behaviour may seem strange to a modern eye, but such sexual fluidity was arguably less exceptional at the time. The undeniable warmth of his correspondence with James indicates a fair degree of genuine mutual affection, and indeed it’s hard to see how the duke could have sustained his role as royal favourite for so long without this. Nevertheless, when he had to choose, Buckingham valued his long-term security above loyalty to James, and this suggests that for him, ultimately, their relationship was based not on love but on the pursuit of power and wealth.

R. Lockyer, Buckingham (1981)

M.B. Young, King James and the History of Homosexuality (2016)

Biographies of Buckingham, Prince Charles, Archbishop Abbot, the earls of Pembroke and Somerset and Bishop Goodman will appear in the History of Parliament’s forthcoming volumes on the House of Lords 1604-29. A biography of Sir Simonds D’Ewes is being prepared for the volumes on the House of Commons 1640-60.


3. His Friend Became Famous

Though the public did not yet know either of their names, the teenage traveling buddies would prove to be a duo for the history books. The young Villiers’ partner-in-crime, John Eliot, grew up to be an influential statesman famous for his support of the rights of Parliament—an opinion for which he was repeatedly imprisoned as an adult.

But of the two, Villiers would make the biggest splash by far.

Wikipedia

Айшие одственники

About George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham

George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham (28 August 1592 – 23 August 1628) (surname pronounced /ˈvɪlɚz/ ("villers"))[1] was the favourite, claimed by some to be the lover, of King James I of England[2] and one of the most rewarded royal courtiers in all history.

5 Relations with Parliament, 1621-1624

6.1 War with Habsburg Austria, France, and Spain

He was born in Brooksby, Leicestershire, in August 1592, the son of the minor gentleman Sir George Villiers (1550-1604). His mother, Mary (1570 - 1632), daughter of Anthony Beaumont of Glenfield, Leicestershire, who was left a widow early, educated him for a courtier's life, sending him to France with Sir John Eliot.

Villiers took very well to the training he could dance well, fence well, and speak a little French. In August 1614, Villiers, reputedly "the handsomest-bodied man in all of England," was brought before the king, in the hope that the king would take a fancy to him, diminishing the power at court of then-favourite Robert Carr, 1st Earl of Somerset.

Following Villiers' introduction to James during the king's progress of that year, the king developed a strong affection for Villiers, calling him his 'sweet child and wife' the personal relationships of James are a much debated topic, with Villiers making the last of a succession of favourites on whom James lavished affection and rewards. The extent to which there was a sexual element, or a physical sexual relationship, involved in these cases remains controversial. Villiers reciprocated the king's love and wrote to James: "I naturally so love your person, and adore all your other parts, which are more than ever one man had" and "I desire only to live in the world for your sake". Villiers gained support from those opposed to the current favourite, Robert Carr, 1st Earl of Somerset. However, restoration of Apethorpe Hall, undertaken 2004-2008, revealed a previously unknown passage linking the bedchambers of James and his favourite, George Villiers.

Under the king's patronage he prospered greatly. Villiers was knighted in 1615 as a Gentleman of the Bedchamber, and was rapidly advanced through the peerage: he was created Baron Whaddon and Viscount Villiers in 1616, Earl of Buckingham in 1617, Marquess of Buckingham in 1618 and finally Earl of Coventry and Duke of Buckingham in 1623. After the reductions in the peerage that had taken place during the Tudor period, Buckingham was left as the highest-ranking subject outside the Royal Family.[3]

In the 1620s, Villiers acquired York House, Strand, which, apart from an interlude during the English Civil War, remained in the family until George Villiers, 2nd Duke of Buckingham sold it to developers for ꌰ,000 in 1672. He made it a condition of the sale that his name and title be commemorated by George Street, Villiers Street, Duke Street, Of Alley, and Buckingham Street, some of which have survived into the twenty-first century.

Buckingham with his wife Katherine Manners, their daughter Mary and son George, 1628Buckingham married the daughter of the 6th Earl of Rutland, Lady Katherine Manners, later suo jure Baroness de Ros, on 16 May 1620 despite the objections of her father. Buckingham was happy to grant valuable royal monopolies to her family.

From 1616, Buckingham established a dominant influence in Irish affairs, beginning with the appointment of his client, Sir Oliver St John, as Lord Deputy, 1616-1622. Thence, he acquired control of the Irish customs farm (1618), dominated Irish patronage at court, particularly with the sale of Irish titles and honours, and (from 1618) began to build substantial Irish estates for himself, his family and clients - with the aid of a plantation lobby, composed of official clients in Dublin. To the same end, he secured the creation of an Irish Court of Wards in 1622. Buckingham's influence thus crucially sustained a forward Irish plantation policy into the 1620s.

The 1621 Parliament began an investigation into monopolies and other abuses in England and extended it later to Ireland in this first session, Buckingham was quick to side with the Parliament to avoid action being taken against him. However, the king's decision in the summer of 1621 to send a commission of enquiry, including parliamentary firebrands, to Ireland threatened to expose Buckingham's growing, often clandestine interests there. Knowing that, in the summer, the king had assured the Spanish ambassador that the Parliament would not be allowed to imperil a Spanish matrimonial alliance, he therefore surreptitiously instigated a conflict between the Parliament and the king over the Spanish Match, which resulted in a premature dissolution of the Parliament in December 1621 and a hobbling of the Irish commission in 1622. Irish reforms nevertheless introduced by Lionel Cranfield, Earl of Middlesex, in 1623-1624 were largely nullified by the impeachment and disgrace of the pacific Lord Treasurer in the violently anti-Spanish 1624 parliament - spurred on by Buckingham and Prince Charles.

In 1623, Buckingham accompanied Charles I, then Prince of Wales, to Spain for marriage negotiations regarding the Infanta Maria. The negotiations had long been stuck, but it is believed that Buckingham's crassness was key to the total collapse of agreement the Spanish ambassador asked Parliament to have Buckingham executed for his behaviour in Madrid but Buckingham gained popularity by calling for war with Spain on his return. He headed further marriage negotiations, but when, in 1624, the betrothal to Henrietta Maria of France was announced, the choice of a Catholic was widely condemned. Buckingham's popularity suffered further when he was blamed for the failure of the military expedition under the command of Ernst von Mansfeld, a famous German mercenary general, sent to the continent to recover the Palatinate (1625), which had belonged to Frederick V, Elector Palatine, son-in-law of King James I of England. However, when the Duke of York became King Charles I, Buckingham was the only man to maintain his position from the court of James.

Buckingham led an expedition to repeat the actions of Sir Francis Drake by seizing the main Spanish port at Cฝiz and burning the fleet in its harbour. Though his plan was tactically sound, landing further up the coast and marching the militia army on the city, the troops were ill-equipped, ill-disciplined and ill-trained. Coming upon a warehouse filled with wine, they simply got drunk, and the attack was called off. The English army briefly occupied a small port further down the coast before reboarding its ships.

This was followed by Buckingham leading the Army and the Navy to sea to intercept an anticipated Spanish silver fleet from Mexico and Spanish Latin America. However, the Spanish were forewarned by their intelligence and easily avoided the planned ambush. With supplies running out and men sick and dying from starvation and disease, the fleet limped home in embarrassment.

Buckingham then negotiated with the French regent, Cardinal Richelieu, for English ships to aid Richelieu in his fight against the French Protestants (Huguenots), in return for French aid against the Spanish occupying the Palatinate. The aid never materialised, and Parliament was disgusted and horrified at the thought of English Protestants fighting French Protestants. The plan only fuelled their fears of crypto-Catholicism at court. Buckingham himself, believing that the failure of his enterprise was the result of treachery by Richelieu, formulated an alliance among the churchman's many enemies, a policy which included support for the very Huguenots whom he had recently attacked.

When the Commons attempted to impeach him for the failure of the Cฝiz Expedition (1625), the King dissolved Parliament in June to prevent his impeachment.

In 1627, Buckingham led another failure: an attempt to aid his new Huguenot allies besieged at La Rochelle in France. He lost more than 4,000 men out of a force of 7,000. While organizing a second campaign, he was stabbed and killed at Portsmouth on August 23, 1628 by John Felton, an army officer who had been wounded in the earlier military adventure. Felton believed he had been passed over for promotion by Buckingham.[4] Felton was hanged in November and Buckingham was buried in Westminster Abbey. Buckingham's tomb bears a Latin inscription translated as: "The Enigma of the World."

The memory of George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham, is held sacred by the Villiers Club, an exclusive dining and debating society at Oxford University.

A fictionalised Buckingham is one of the characters in Alexandre Dumas, père's The Three Musketeers, which paints him as a lover of Anne of Austria and deals with his assassination by Felton. In Arturo Pérez-Reverte's novel, El capitán Alatriste, Buckingham appears briefly while on his expedition to Spain in 1623 with Charles I. He is also a central character in novels by Philippa Gregory, Earthly Joys, and Evelyn Anthony, "Charles, The King. He also appears, played by Marcus Hutton, in the Doctor Who audio drama The Church and the Crown, in which he leads an aborted English invasion of France in 1626.

Buckingham's daughter, Lady Mary Villiers, was the wife of the Royalist 1st Duke of Richmond. Richmond was the grandson of the 1st Duke of Lennox of the Seigneurs d'Aubigny Stuarts. His elder son Charles (1626 - 1627) died as an infant and the title was inherited by his younger son George.


George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham

George Villiers, Earl of Buckingham, became the favourite of James I after they first met in 1614. Villiers succeeded Robert Carr, Earl of Somerset, as the king’s favourite after Carr’s fall from grace after the murder of Sir Thomas Overbury.

Villiers was born on August 28 th 1592 at Brooksby in Leicestershire. His father was a minor noble who had remarried and Villiers was born to his second wife, Mary Beaumont. He knew that in future years he would have to compete with his half-brothers for a share of his father’s modest estate. His mother was an ambitious woman and she saved enough for him to be educated in France. Here Villiers learned to dance, duel and ride with a degree of expertise. By all accounts Villiers was an athletic and well-built man. One contemporary described him as “no one dances better, no man runs or jumps better.”

James first met Villiers at Apethorpe in August 1614. James was forty-seven.

“He (James) was of middle stature, more corpulent through his clothes than his body, yet fat enough, his clothes ever being made large and easy, the doublets quilted for stiletto proof, his breeches in pleats and full stuffed……his eye was large, ever rolling after any stranger that came into his presence, in so much as many for shame have left the room, as being out of countenance….his legs were very weak….and that weakness made him ever leaning on other men’s shoulders his walk was ever circular, his fingers ever in that walk fiddling about his codpiece.”

James was immediately taken in by Villier’s appearance. In 1615, Villier’s was made a Gentleman of the Bedchamber. His advance after this was swift. In 1616, Villiers was appointed Master of the Horse, made a Knight of the Garter and became Viscount Villiers. In 1617, he became Earl of Buckingham and in 1619, he was made a Marquess.

Such a swift advance up the social order was bound to provoke negative thoughts with regards to both James and Buckingham and the latter certainly made enemies. It was not unusual for a king to have favourites – but the speed with which Villiers climbed the social ladder and was promoted was too much for many.

Their public displays of affection only served to bring the court into more disrepute. James referred to him as “my sweetheart”, “my sweet child and wife” and “my only sweet and dear child”. In response to this, Buckingham flattered the king at every opportunity. There can be little doubt that Buckingham knew what he was doing (he ended his letters to the king with “Your majesty’s most humble slave and dog”) and that by pandering to James he knew that he was enhancing his own position within the royal court. In 1617, James explained to the Lords why he was making Villiers Earl of Buckingham:

“I, James, am neither God nor an angel, but a man like any other. Therefore I act like a man, and confess to loving those dear to me more than other men. You may be sure that I love the Earl of Buckingham more than anyone else, and more than you who are here assembled. I wish to speak in my own behalf, and not to have it thought to be a defect, for Jesus Christ did the same, and therefore I cannot be blamed. Christ had his John, and I have my George.”

One casualty of the rise of Buckingham was the demise in political terms of the Howard’s. In 1618, the Star Chamber, spurred on by Buckingham, prosecuted the Lord Treasurer, the Earl of Suffolk, leader of the Howard faction, for embezzlement. It ended any political influence the Howard’s may have had – but it also removed from power one of the few rivals Buckingham had in 1618. Buckingham used his influence over James to get Francis Bacon appointed to be the country’s senior law officer as Lord Chancellor. This suited James as Bacon was a strong supporter of the royal prerogative and he was now in a position to support the king when James had to justify its use. It also suited Buckingham as Bacon had the Duke to thank for his social and political advancement.

Buckingham was a shrewd manipulator of the king. He also knew the value of patronage – appointing his own men to positions of responsibility. They would support him and be grateful to Buckingham for their elevated status in society. One described Buckingham as thus:

“(A man of) a kind, liberal and free nature and disposition – to those that applied themselves to him, applauded his actions, and were wholly his creatures.”

In 1620, Buckingham married Lady Catherine Manners, the daughter of the Duke of Rutland. He swiftly became a very rich man as he built up a large clientage network of office holders and monopolists. He put his own supporters and family in positions of responsibility and during all of this self-advancement he had the full support of the doting James. Christopher and John Villiers both benefited from their brother’s position in society despite their own limitations. Buckingham’s mother became a countess in 1618, a marchioness in 1619 and a duchess in 1623.

However, far more damaging to James was the fact that he allowed Buckingham to involve himself in policy matters and decision-making. This was bound to alienate powerful groups in Parliament who felt more and more alienated from both the king and decision-making.

The Parliament of January 1621 to January 1622 started to reverse the trend towards Buckingham’s ever-expanding power base. Two men who had gained office via the patronage of Buckingham – Sir Giles Mompesson and Sir Francis Mitchell – were impeached by Parliament for monopoly offences. Lord Chancellor Bacon was also impeached for accepting bribes.

Buckingham was also a supporter of a marriage between Charles and the daughter of Spain’s Philip III – a policy that the majority of Parliamentarians did not support. In December 1621, Parliament produced the ‘Protestation’. This was deemed by James to be a sign that Parliament believed that it had the right to discuss foreign policy issues – something that he was adamant that they did not. James physically tore out the ‘Protestation’ from the House of Commons Journals with his own hands such was his anger.

Buckingham accompanied Prince Charles to Spain (1623) on what was to be a failed marriage mission. From this embarrassing failure, the nation witnessed a complete volte-face by James. War was declared on Spain and in May 1625 and Charles married Henrietta Maria of France.

The influence Buckingham had over James did not decline even in the king’s final months. In one of the last letters written by James to Buckingham in December 1624, James signed off with:

“And so God bless you my sweet child and wife and grant that ye may ever be a comfort to your dear dad and husband.”

James died on March 27 th , 1625. This could have left Buckingham in a void both socially and politically, but he had spent time winning over Charles when he was a prince. Now that Charles was king, Buckingham neatly moved over to his new master and became his chief minister.

Charles and Parliament fell out nearly from the start of his reign. Whereas Parliament had been happy to give James a clean start, the same was not true for his son. Parliament attacked the religious policies of Charles – especially the relaxation of the penal laws against Catholics. With regards to Buckingham they vented their spleen at his foreign policy. His foreign policy was openly criticised as incompetent. Buckingham had signed treaties with Denmark and Holland for English participation in the Danish phase of the Thirty Years War where 8,000 men out of 12,000 died on board their ships without even landing in the Netherlands he had also masterminded the marriage of Charles to Henrietta Maria, a French Catholic, that was far from popular he had also lent Cardinal Richilieu eight boats which were used to attack the Huguenot stronghold at La Rochelle. However, he failed to get France to commit herself to greater involvement in the Thirty Years War. Parliament voted through only limited taxation to finance Buckingham’s foreign policy and this lack of money was a major reason for its failures. As an example, Buckingham wanted an armada to attack Cadiz. 15,000 men were gathered together for this venture in October/November 1625. It was a dismal failure due to the poor training that was given and the poor equipment. Buckingham took the blame for this.

In 1626, Parliament, led by radicals such as Sir Edward Coke, became even more critical of the king’s chief minister and started impeachment proceedings against him. Charles responded by dissolving Parliament. Buckingham reversed his previous foreign policy. Now in support of the Huguenot defenders at La Rochelle, he led 6,000 men to the Isle de Rhé in July 1627. He left in November 1627 having achieved nothing except the loss of nearly half his force. “Since England was England, it received not so dishonourable a blow.” (Denzil Holles)

In 1628, Parliament continued to attack Buckingham and Coke called him the “grievance of grievances”. Parliament sent a remonstrance to Charles in 1628 that declared that they feared for England’s religion, her standing in Europe and her success in the Thirty Years War if Buckingham continued in power. Charles merely prorogued Parliament (June 1628).

Clearly protected by the king, Buckingham confidently went to Portsmouth to start organising another sea-going venture. Here, John Felton, who had taken part in the disastrous Cadiz and Isle de Rhé ventures, murdered him on August 23rd, 1628. Buckingham’s funeral was held at Westminster Abbey where soldiers formed an armed guard to protect the coffin from the cheering crowds.


George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham

This highly ambitious son of a Leicestershire knight rose to be the favourite of James I, and of his son Charles I, on the strength of his charm and good looks. He was full of brave schemes, but lacked the good sense to carry them out effectively. As Lord High Admiral he bungled expeditions to Cadiz and La Rochelle, and his diplomatic incompetence led him to become the House of Commons' 'grievance of grievances'. At the age of 36 he was assassinated by a fanatic while in Portsmouth. This portrait, which shows him in his garter robes, almost certainly commemorates his installation as a Knight of the Garter in 1616.

Linked publications back to top

Handsome and ambitious, George Villiers became the most notorious of James I's favourites. He was a younger son from a minor Leicestershire gentry family and caught the king's attention during a hunt at Apethorpe in Northamptonshire. Opponents of Robert Carr, Earl of Somerset, saw an opportunity to replace him with Villiers in the king's favour and secured Villiers' appointment as Royal Cupbearer. He flourished and was elevated by the king with astonishing speed through the ranks of the aristocracy, being made Duke of Buckingham in 1623. He became one of the king's leading ministers but was widely regarded as corrupt and extravagant, and although his influence continued under Charles I, he was blamed for a number of military failures while serving as Lord High Admiral he was assassinated in Portsmouth in 1628 by a soldier who had served under him in France. This portrait celebrates Villiers' installation as a Knight of the Garter and elevation to the peerage in the summer of 1616, which was an important indication of his intimacy with the king. His luxurious robes are drawn back to focus attention on his legs, and he wears the garter, bearing the Order's motto Honi soit qui mal y pense ('Shame be he who thinks evil of it'), below his left knee.

This splendid portrait has undergone some changes. Acquired by the Gallery with the background curtains painted green, it was so displayed until 1985, when close examination revealed fragments of paint of the present colour which under analysis proved to be the original. Skilfuly restored to its full glory, by removing the green paint and matching the garments, we can now enjoy the voluptuous splendour of its original colour scheme.

George Villiers was the most notorious of James I&rsquos favourites: men admired by the King, with whom he developed what some regarded as unhealthily close and dangerously dependent relationships. Handsome and charming, Villiers was promoted rapidly at court and as a duke and one of James&rsquos leading ministers, he had considerable power. An effective administrator in some areas and a knowledgeable collector of art, he was widely regarded as corrupt and extravagant, and was blamed for various military failures. He was assassinated by a disenchanted soldier at the age of thirty-six.

William Larkin (d.1619) was one of the most accomplished portrait artists of the Jacobean period. He and his studio painted a large number of dramatic full-length portraits, often including spectacular textiles, as well as more intensely focused head-and-shoulders portraits. Buckingham is depicted here in his lavish robes as a Knight of the Garter.


Meet the English nobleman who may have been King James’ boyfriend

What it’s about: Born in England in 1592 as the son of a “minor gentleman,” George Villiers may have gone through life as merely a handsome rich guy, had he not attracted the notice of James I (also called James VI, as he was the king to unite the Scottish and English crowns, and was the sixth King James of the former, and first of the latter). Villiers was a favorite of the king, and shot through the aristocratic ranks, becoming a knight, baron, viscount, earl, marquess, and then duke in rapid succession between ages 21 and 30. (The title of duke had been retired some time earlier, so this promotion made Villiers the highest-ranking person outside the royal family.) His close relationship with the king sparked speculation, then and now, that the two men were lovers, despite the 26-year age gap.

Biggest controversy: As James heaped title upon title upon Villiers, he also gave him jobs of increasing importance at court. At age 21, members of the court pushed for Villiers to become Royal Cupbearer, hoping he would supplant the King’s previous favorite, Robert Carr . (He did). The following year, Villiers was knighted and named Gentleman Of The Bedchamber . (There’s nothing ambiguous about the name of the role, which was to serve in intimate duties like helping the king dress.) A year after that, Villiers became Master Of Horse and a Knight Of The Garter . The year after that he was made an earl, and the year after that he was named Lord Admiral Of The Fleet. And that’s when the trouble began.

In 1623, after becoming the official Duke Of Buckingham, he was charged with helping arrange the Prince Of Wales’ (the future Charles I ) marriage to Maria, the Spanish Infanta. The plan collapsed, and “Buckingham’s crassness” may have been the cause. The Spanish ambassador insisted Buckingham be executed for his (unspecified here) behavior, but Villiers called for war on Spain instead. He tried to shore up relations with France by betrothing Charles to Henrietta Maria, King Henry IV’s youngest daughter, but the idea of the English king marrying a Catholic was wildly unpopular. To make things worse, Villiers gave military aid to France’s Catholic Chief Minister, Cardinal Richelieu , against his Protestant enemies, in return for help attacking Spain.

That attack failed—an attempt to burn down Spain’s main port was aborted when the sailors captured a warehouse full of wine and got drunk instead of attacking. The Spanish fleet escaped a planned ambush. And Villiers had to retreat from a naval skirmish he fought alongside the French. He blamed Richelieu, and soon sided against him and with the French Protestants he had only recently been fighting against. Through the whole mess, Villiers’ popularity with the English people plummeted, although he never lost the support of James or Charles.

Strangest fact: We don’t know for certain whether Villiers and James I were lovers because of 17th-century England’s love of flowery prose. Our ideas on masculinity have changed dramatically in the last 400 years. It wasn’t uncommon for platonic male friends of the era to speak and write of their friendship in ornate language that, in modern times, would only be used for a romantic overture, and even then seen as a bit much. The King ended a letter to Villiers with, “God bless you, my sweet child and wife.” The Duke responded, “I naturally so love your person, and adore all your other parts, which are more than ever one man had.” Apparently we weren’t doing “phrasing” in 1623.

Thing we were happiest to learn: Villiers was quite a patron of the arts , commissioning paintings (including two Rubens ), financing plays, and buying collections of rare books (including the first book in Chinese to be donated to Cambridge’s library). However, a good deal of his patronage seems to be self-serving—the play he financed was an anti-Spanish satire he intended as propaganda. And the paintings he commissioned were mostly of himself, looking regal, in an attempt to impress and remind people of his standing.

Thing we were unhappiest to learn: Villiers was corrupt as all get-out. He almost immediately used his various positions of influence to “prodigiously enrich his relatives.” He had his friend Francis Bacon appointed Lord Chancellor, but threw him under the bus when Parliament investigated the bribery and “financial peculation” the two men engaged in.

Villiers also abused Britain’s habitual abuse of Ireland, selling Irish titles, controlling Irish customs (the import/export kind, not the step-dancing kind), and prolonging England’s plantation policy (more on that in the next section) for his own financial gain. Twice, Parliament tried to impeach Villiers, but in both instances, he convinced the King to dissolve Parliament for ostensibly unrelated reasons.

Three years after James’ death, Villiers (still supported and employed by the new king, Charles I) was stabbed to death by John Felton , an army officer who had been wounded in one of Buckingham’s campaigns, and believed he had been passed over for a promotion unfairly. Villiers was so disliked by that point that Felton was a national hero, even after he was hanged for murder.

Also noteworthy: Britain’s plantation policy toward Ireland had devastating short- and long-term effects. While ruling over the Emerald Isle, Britain seized property from Irish landowners and gave it to English settlers, creating an English, protestant ruling elite, and an Irish population who were essentially serfs who weren’t allowed to own land in their own country, and in some cases weren’t even allowed to rent it as tenant farmers. At one point, less than 10 percent of the island was owned by Irish Catholics, and Parliament once proposed moving the entire Irish population to the western third of the country, an idea that failed only because of a lack of willing English settlers to re-fill the other two-thirds.

As it is, so many Irish were forced out of the northern part of the country, mostly to be replaced by Scots, that upon Irish independence, those Protestant-majority counties remained part of the U.K., which led to partition of the island and a 30-year guerrilla war .

Best link to elsewhere on Wikipedia: So, back to Villiers’ job as Gentleman Of The Bedchamber . From 1650 to 1837, it was an official office, usually held by a member of the peerage (according to the timeline here, the positions seems to have originated with Villiers, although his own page doesn’t mention that). Duties included attending to the king when he ate in private, helping him dress, and insuring he wasn’t disturbed while asleep or using the bathroom. As unglamorous as this all sounds, it was a sought-after position, as it naturally made the office-holder a close confidant to the monarch. But just so we’re clear on how unglamorous it was, it was quickly combined with an older title, the Groom Of The Stool , who was, as Wikipedia delicately puts it, “responsible for assisting the king in excretion and ablution,” although in practice, the Groom Of The Stool acted more as the king’s personal secretary.

Further down the Wormhole: Villiers was a notorious figure in both history and fiction. He’s met Dokter yang (in 2002 audio drama The Church And The Crown , not the TV series), has appeared in numerous historical fictions of the era (most recently in Howard Brenton’s 2010 play Anne Boleyn), and shows up as a character in Les Trois Mousquetaires , known to American audiences as The Three Musketeers. The book describes him as “the favourite of two kings, immensely rich, all-powerful in a kingdom which he disordered at his fancy and calmed again at his caprice,” and called his life, “one of those fabulous existences which survive, in the course of centuries, to astonish posterity.” No less astonishing was the life of the book’s author, Alexandre Dumas , the grandson of a slave, the son of one of Napoleon’s generals, and one of the most widely read French author of all time. We’ll hear his story next week.

Host of the podcast Why Is This Not a Movie? His sixth book, The Planets Are Very, Very, Very Far Away is due in fall 2021. He tells people he lives in New York, but he really lives in New Jersey.


English Historical Fiction Authors

Katherine Manners was the daughter of Francis Manners, 6th Earl of Rutland and Frances Knyvett. After the death of his first wife Rutland married Cecily, the daughter of Sir John Tufton, who bore him two sons who died in apparently mysterious circumstances which were the centre of a notorious witchcraft case. Their deaths resulted in Katherine becoming the heir not only to the Knyvett property from her mother, but also to the unentailed estates in Yorkshire and Northamptonshire.

Portraits of Katherine show her to have been a rather plain woman, but doubtless her inheritance more than made up for her lack of beauty, and Buckingham and his mother opened negotiations. However, there were complications: Rutland was a Roman Catholic and the king would only permit his favourite to marry a Protestant, therefore pressure was brought to bear upon Katherine to abandon her religion. Rutland may well also have heard the talk and speculation about the exact nature of King James’s intense relationship with his handsome young favourite the Earl was often at court and must have witnessed the very public display of kissing and caressing. The amount of dowry demanded, too, was exorbitant and Rutland was offended. The negotiations floundered, but Buckingham and Mary’s solution to the deadlock was a plan which reflects badly on them both.

In March 1620 Mary visited the Countess of Rutland in the absence of the Earl, and invited Katherine to dine with her, promising to bring her back home before night-fall. It has been commonly assumed that the invitation was to Mary’s Leicestershire home at nearby Goadby Marwood. However, Mary brought the innocent girl to her lodgings at the Gatehouse in Whitehall. Even worse, Katherine stayed overnight, and so did her suitor, despite the fact that his own lodgings were within walking distance. The next day Katherine was returned home, but her outraged and furious father refused to receive her at Belvoir. The fact that Buckingham had also slept under the same roof ensured that Katherine’s reputation was ruined. Rutland was now forced into the position of insisting that Buckingham marry his daughter to save both her and the family’s honour.

The affair caused great scandal and despite Buckingham’s importance, the marriage did not take place at court with the usual lavish and lengthy entertainments, instead the couple were married privately in 1620, witnessed only by the Earl and the King.

The Buckinghams lived a lavish life-style, but it seems clear that this was not the fairy-tale life which Katherine had imagined. Perhaps she had unrealistically believed that Buckingham would leave his life at court and devote himself exclusively to her, and in a bitter, reproachful letter in 1627 she told him that, ‘… there is none more miserable than I am, and till you leave this life of a courtier which you have been ever since I knew you, I shall think myself unhappy.’

Buckingham again outraged convention and stretched Katherine’s devotion to the uttermost when he travelled to Paris in May 1625 to escort England’s new Queen, Henrietta Maria, to her new home. The English favourite scandalised the French court by blatantly making love to the French Queen Anne of Austria, giving scant thought to his pregnant wife at home. The Duke’s obsession with Anne, which he did not try to disguise, must have caused Katherine great heartache, and he made determined attempts to see the queen again.

The evidence suggests that although Buckingham was never in love with his wife he nonetheless genuinely cared for her, and notwithstanding his inability to remain faithful, treated her well. When he discovered that Katherine had been ill, perhaps seriously, while he was in Madrid, he seems to have been genuinely alarmed, confessing his adultery and asking for forgiveness, and even telling her he would return home if she was still sick. Katherine was aware of her husband’s weakness, and comforted by his concern for her, she was able to be sufficiently magnanimous to tell him that he was a good man save for his one sin of "loving women so well."

The increasing attacks upon the Duke during the first three years of Charles I’s reign, and the attempts by Parliament to impeach him in 1626 caused Katherine serious alarm. The Duke survived because of the King’s deep attachment to him, but Katherine and his mother and sister were devastated to hear that Buckingham intended to command a naval expedition to La Rochelle to relieve the Protestant Huguenots in the summer of 1627. Such was Katherine’s distress that Buckingham promised her that he would not accompany the fleet, and she wrote to him several times reminding of his promise to her, telling him in one letter that, "I hope you will not deceive me in breaking yours, for I protest if you should, it would half kill me."

However, Buckingham lied and left without saying goodbye. When she realised that he had really gone, Katherine told him she could almost wish herself dead, but although she had failed to keep her husband at home, her letters indicate her continued attempts to control his behaviour.

Buckingham and Charles planned another attempt to liberate La Rochelle, but this time Katherine refused to allow him to quietly slip away, determinedly accompanying him to Portsmouth in August 1628. Fortunately she was still in her bedchamber when the Duke was stabbed to death by John Felton.

The Duchess returned to her Catholic faith after Buckingham’s death. The king, whose devotion to the Duke had matched her own, removed his beloved friend’s children from her care and had them brought up with his own children. Katherine again occasioned the king’s wrath when she married the Irish Randal MacDonnell, then Viscount Dunluce, in 1635 to general censure. Katherine’s second marriage was equally eventful but seems to have been a far more equal partnership, with Katherine playing a leading role. MacDonnell was deeply distressed when she died in November 1649.

Living through a time of political upheaval and the tumultuous events of the Civil War, Katherine Manners was fiercely loyal and passionately devoted to her two husbands, even to the extent of defying convention and incurring the displeasure of her father and the king to marry the men of her choice.

Pamela J. Womack is the author of Darling of Kings, published by Hayloft Publishing Ltd., an historical novel which tells the tragic story of the friendship between Charles I and George Villiers, First Duke of Buckingham. She has also written An Illustrated Introduction to the Stuarts, published by Amberley Publishing Ltd. She is currently writing the Duke of Buckingham’s biography.


Tonton videonya: Memoirs of King George V, 1910 - 1928 1928