Segregasi di Amerika Serikat

Segregasi di Amerika Serikat


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Segregasi adalah praktik yang membutuhkan perumahan, pendidikan, dan layanan lain yang terpisah untuk orang kulit berwarna. Segregasi dibuat hukum beberapa kali di Amerika abad ke-18 dan 19 karena beberapa orang percaya bahwa orang kulit hitam dan kulit putih tidak mampu hidup berdampingan.

Menjelang pembebasan orang-orang yang diperbudak di bawah Amandemen Ketigabelas, para abolisionis berdebat tentang bagaimana nasib budak setelah mereka dibebaskan. Satu kelompok berpendapat untuk kolonisasi, baik dengan mengembalikan orang-orang yang sebelumnya diperbudak ke Afrika atau menciptakan tanah air mereka sendiri. Pada tahun 1862 Presiden Abraham Lincoln mengakui negara-negara bekas budak Haiti dan Liberia, berharap untuk membuka saluran untuk kolonisasi, dengan Kongres mengalokasikan $600.000 untuk membantu. Sementara rencana kolonisasi tidak berjalan dengan baik, negara, sebaliknya, mengambil jalur pemisahan yang diamanatkan secara hukum.

Kode Hitam dan Jim Crow

Langkah pertama menuju segregasi resmi datang dalam bentuk “Kode Hitam.” Ini adalah undang-undang yang disahkan di seluruh Selatan mulai sekitar tahun 1865, yang mendikte sebagian besar aspek kehidupan orang kulit hitam, termasuk di mana mereka dapat bekerja dan tinggal. Kode juga memastikan ketersediaan orang kulit hitam untuk tenaga kerja murah setelah perbudakan dihapuskan.

Pemisahan segera menjadi kebijakan resmi yang ditegakkan oleh serangkaian hukum Selatan. Melalui apa yang disebut undang-undang Jim Crow (dinamai setelah istilah menghina untuk orang kulit hitam), legislator memisahkan segala sesuatu dari sekolah ke daerah perumahan ke taman umum ke teater ke kolam renang ke kuburan, rumah sakit jiwa, penjara dan rumah tempat tinggal. Ada ruang tunggu terpisah untuk orang kulit putih dan orang kulit hitam di kantor profesional dan, pada tahun 1915, Oklahoma menjadi negara bagian pertama yang bahkan memisahkan bilik telepon umum.

Perguruan tinggi dipisahkan dan institusi kulit hitam yang terpisah seperti Howard University di Washington, D.C. dan Fisk University di Nashville, Tennessee diciptakan untuk mengimbanginya. Institut Hampton Virginia didirikan pada tahun 1869 sebagai sekolah untuk pemuda kulit hitam, tetapi dengan instruktur kulit putih mengajarkan keterampilan untuk menurunkan orang kulit hitam dalam posisi pelayanan kepada orang kulit putih.

BACA LEBIH BANYAK: Bagaimana Kode Hitam Membatasi Kemajuan Afrika Amerika Setelah Perang Saudara

Mahkamah Agung dan Segregasi

Pada tahun 1875 DPR dan Senat yang dikuasai Partai Republik mengeluarkan undang-undang hak-hak sipil yang melarang diskriminasi di sekolah, gereja, dan transportasi umum. Tapi RUU itu hampir tidak ditegakkan dan dibatalkan oleh Mahkamah Agung pada tahun 1883.

Pada tahun 1896, Mahkamah Agung memutuskan di Plessy v. Ferguson pemisahan itu konstitusional. Putusan itu menetapkan gagasan "terpisah tetapi setara." Kasus ini melibatkan seorang pria ras campuran yang dipaksa duduk di gerbong kereta yang ditunjuk Hitam di bawah Undang-Undang Mobil Terpisah Louisiana.

Pemisahan Perumahan

Sebagai bagian dari gerakan segregasi, beberapa kota melembagakan undang-undang zonasi yang melarang keluarga kulit hitam pindah ke blok yang didominasi kulit putih. Pada tahun 1917, sebagai bagian dari Buchanan v. Warley, Mahkamah Agung menemukan zonasi tersebut tidak konstitusional karena mengganggu hak milik pemilik.

Menggunakan celah dalam keputusan itu pada tahun 1920-an, Sekretaris Perdagangan Herbert Hoover membentuk komite zonasi federal untuk membujuk dewan lokal agar mengeluarkan peraturan yang mencegah keluarga berpenghasilan rendah pindah ke lingkungan berpenghasilan menengah, upaya yang menargetkan keluarga kulit hitam. Richmond, Virginia, memutuskan bahwa orang-orang dilarang tinggal di blok mana pun di mana mereka tidak dapat menikahi mayoritas penduduk secara sah. Ini memanggil undang-undang pernikahan ras campuran anti-Virginia dan secara teknis tidak melanggar keputusan Mahkamah Agung.

Pemisahan Selama Migrasi Besar

Selama Migrasi Besar, periode antara 1916 dan 1970, enam juta orang Afrika-Amerika meninggalkan Selatan. Sejumlah besar bergerak ke timur laut dan melaporkan diskriminasi dan segregasi serupa dengan apa yang mereka alami di Selatan.

Sampai akhir tahun 1940-an, masih mungkin untuk menemukan tanda "Hanya Kulit Putih" pada bisnis di Utara. Sekolah dan lingkungan terpisah ada, dan bahkan setelah Perang Dunia II, aktivis kulit hitam melaporkan reaksi permusuhan ketika orang kulit hitam berusaha pindah ke lingkungan kulit putih.






The Green Book: The Black Travelers' Guide to Jim Crow America

Segregasi dan Administrasi Pekerjaan Umum

Upaya Administrasi Pekerjaan Umum untuk membangun perumahan bagi orang-orang yang terlantar selama Depresi Hebat berfokus pada rumah bagi keluarga kulit putih di komunitas kulit putih. Hanya sebagian kecil rumah yang dibangun untuk keluarga kulit hitam, dan itu terbatas pada komunitas kulit hitam yang terpisah.

Di beberapa kota, komunitas yang sebelumnya terintegrasi dihancurkan oleh PWA dan digantikan oleh proyek-proyek terpisah. Alasan yang diberikan untuk kebijakan tersebut adalah bahwa keluarga kulit hitam akan menurunkan nilai properti.

Lapisan Merah

Mulai tahun 1930-an, Dewan Bank Pinjaman Rumah Federal dan Perusahaan Pinjaman Pemilik Rumah bersekongkol untuk membuat peta dengan area yang ditandai yang dianggap berisiko buruk untuk hipotek dalam praktik yang dikenal sebagai "garis merah." Area yang ditandai dengan warna merah sebagai "berbahaya" biasanya menggambarkan lingkungan Hitam. Pemetaan semacam ini terkonsentrasi pada kemiskinan karena penduduk (kebanyakan Hitam) di lingkungan bergaris merah tidak memiliki akses atau hanya akses pinjaman yang sangat mahal.

BACA LEBIH BANYAK: Bagaimana Program Perumahan Kesepakatan Baru Menegakkan Segregasi

Praktek ini tidak mulai berakhir sampai tahun 1970-an. Kemudian, pada tahun 2008, sebuah sistem "reverse red-lining", yang memberikan kredit secara tidak adil dengan pinjaman subprime, menciptakan tingkat penyitaan yang lebih tinggi di lingkungan Hitam selama krisis perumahan.

Pemisahan Perumahan

Pada tahun 1948, Mahkamah Agung memutuskan bahwa keluarga kulit hitam memiliki hak untuk pindah ke rumah mereka yang baru dibeli di lingkungan yang tenang di St. Louis, meskipun ada perjanjian sejak tahun 1911 yang melarang penggunaan properti di daerah tersebut dengan “ siapa pun yang bukan dari ras Kaukasia.” Dalam Shelley v. Kramer, pengacara dari National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), yang dipimpin oleh Thurgood Marshall, berargumen bahwa mengizinkan perjanjian real estat khusus kulit putih seperti itu tidak hanya salah secara moral, tetapi juga salah arah secara strategis di saat negara itu mencoba untuk mempromosikan agenda anti-Soviet yang bersatu di bawah Presiden Harry Truman. Aktivis hak-hak sipil melihat kasus penting sebagai contoh bagaimana memulai perangkap segregasi yang tidak semestinya di tingkat federal.

Tetapi sementara Mahkamah Agung memutuskan bahwa perjanjian hanya kulit putih tidak dapat ditegakkan, lapangan permainan real estat hampir tidak merata. Undang-Undang Perumahan tahun 1949 diusulkan oleh Truman untuk mengatasi kekurangan perumahan yang disebabkan oleh tentara yang kembali dari Perang Dunia II. Undang-undang tersebut mensubsidi perumahan hanya untuk orang kulit putih, bahkan menetapkan bahwa keluarga kulit hitam tidak dapat membeli rumah bahkan untuk dijual kembali. Program ini secara efektif mengakibatkan pemerintah mendanai penerbangan putih dari kota-kota.

Salah satu komunitas kulit putih yang paling terkenal yang diciptakan oleh Undang-Undang Perumahan adalah Levittown, New York, dibangun pada tahun 1949 dan diikuti oleh Levittown lainnya di lokasi yang berbeda.

Segregasi di Sekolah

Pemisahan anak-anak di sekolah umum dijatuhkan oleh Mahkamah Agung sebagai inkonstitusional pada tahun 1954 dengan Brown v. Board of Education. Kasus ini awalnya diajukan di Topeka, Kansas setelah Linda Brown yang berusia tujuh tahun ditolak dari sekolah kulit putih di sana.

Pendapat tindak lanjut menyerahkan pengambilan keputusan ke pengadilan lokal, yang memungkinkan beberapa distrik menentang desegregasi sekolah. Hal ini menyebabkan pertikaian di Little Rock, Arkansas, pada tahun 1957, ketika Presiden Dwight D. Eisenhower mengerahkan pasukan federal untuk memastikan sembilan siswa kulit hitam memasuki sekolah menengah setelah Gubernur Arkansas Orval Faubus memanggil Garda Nasional untuk memblokir mereka.

Ketika Rosa Parks ditangkap pada tahun 1955 setelah menolak menyerahkan kursi busnya kepada seorang pria kulit putih di Montgomery, Alabama, gerakan hak-hak sipil dimulai dengan sungguh-sungguh. Melalui upaya penyelenggara seperti Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. dan protes yang dihasilkan, Undang-Undang Hak Sipil ditandatangani pada tahun 1964, melarang diskriminasi, meskipun desegregasi adalah proses yang lambat, terutama di sekolah.

BACA LEBIH BANYAK: Bagaimana Boneka Membantu Memenangkan Brown v. Board of Education

Krisis Bus Boston

Salah satu insiden anti-integrasi terburuk terjadi pada tahun 1974. Kekerasan pecah di Boston ketika, untuk memecahkan masalah pemisahan sekolah kota, pengadilan mengamanatkan sistem bus yang membawa siswa kulit hitam dari sebagian besar Roxbury ke sekolah Boston Selatan, dan sebaliknya. .

Negara bagian telah mengesahkan undang-undang Penghapusan Keseimbangan Rasial pada tahun 1965, tetapi telah ditahan di pengadilan oleh oposisi Katolik Irlandia. Polisi melindungi mahasiswa kulit hitam saat beberapa hari terjadi kekerasan antara polisi dan warga Southie. Kerumunan kulit putih menyambut bus dengan penghinaan, dan kekerasan lebih lanjut meletus antara penduduk Southie dan membalas kerumunan Roxbury. Polisi negara bagian dipanggil sampai kekerasan mereda setelah beberapa minggu.

Segregasi di Abad 21

Segregasi tetap ada di abad ke-21. Studi menunjukkan bahwa sementara masyarakat sangat mendukung sekolah terpadu, hanya sepertiga orang Amerika menginginkan intervensi pemerintah federal untuk menegakkannya.

Istilah "sekolah apartheid" menggambarkan sekolah yang masih ada dan sebagian besar terpisah, di mana kulit putih membentuk 0 hingga 10 persen dari tubuh siswa. Fenomena tersebut mencerminkan segregasi perumahan di kota-kota dan komunitas di seluruh negeri, yang tidak diciptakan oleh undang-undang rasial yang terang-terangan, tetapi oleh peraturan lokal yang menargetkan minoritas secara tidak proporsional.

Sumber

Dicap Dari Awal: Sejarah Definitif Ide Rasis di Amerika oleh Ibrahim X. Kendi, diterbitkan oleh Bodley Head.
Kasus untuk Reparasi oleh Ta-Nehisi Coates, NS Atlantik.
Membongkar Desegregasi oleh Gary Orfield dan Susan E. Eaton oleh New Press.


Pemisahan Ras di Militer AS

Perang Kemerdekaan Orang-orang keturunan Afrika telah berpartisipasi dalam setiap perang AS. Memang, Revolusioner kulit hitam bertugas sebelum koloni menjadi bangsa, dalam Perang Kemerdekaan. Budak dan orang bebas Afrika-Amerika akhirnya melayani di kedua sisi dalam konflik itu. Sekitar 5.000 tentara kulit hitam di koloni utara dan selatan diperkirakan telah melayani bahu-membahu dengan rekan-rekan kulit putih di Angkatan Darat Kontinental. Setidaknya 20.000 orang kulit hitam bertugas bersama Inggris. Orang kulit hitam bertugas di milisi utara pada awalnya, tetapi dilarang di Selatan, karena para budak takut mempersenjatai budak. Lord Dunmore, Gubernur Kerajaan Virginia, mengubahnya dengan mengeluarkan proklamasi emansipasi pada November 1775, yang memberikan kebebasan kepada pelarian yang akan berjuang untuk Inggris. Sir Henry Clinton, komandan Inggris di New York, mengeluarkan dekrit serupa pada tahun 1779. Lebih dari 100.000 budak melarikan diri ke garis Inggris, tetapi mungkin hanya seribu yang bertugas dengan senjata. Banyak orang lain mengisi peran non-tempur. Lebih dari setengah tentara kulit hitam di pasukan Inggris meninggal karena Cacar. Masih banyak lagi yang diusir ketika makanan hampir habis. Mayoritas tidak pernah diberikan kebebasan.* Karena kekurangan tenaga kerja, Jenderal George Washington mencabut larangan pendaftaran hitam di Angkatan Darat Kontinental pada Januari 1776. Unit serba hitam dibentuk di Rhode Island dan Massachusetts. Banyak budak melayani menggantikan tuan mereka. Satuan hitam lainnya tiba dari Haiti dengan pasukan Prancis. Relawan kulit hitam bertugas dengan unit gerilya Carolina Selatan -- termasuk "Swamp Fox" Francis Marion - terkadang terdiri dari setengah dari kekuatan pasukannya. Pejuang kulit hitam melanjutkan setelah banyak rekan kulit putih mereka ditumbangkan oleh malaria. Namun, yang pertama kebal terhadap penyakit itu, berkat sel-sel berbentuk sabit dalam aliran darah mereka. Perang 1812 Karena kekurangan tenaga kerja yang kronis selama Perang 1812, 25 persen skuadron angkatan laut diawaki oleh rekrutan Afrika-Amerika selama Pertempuran Danau Erie. Namun, undang-undang tahun 1792 yang melarang pendaftaran hitam di ketentaraan ada sampai tahun 1862. Orang Afrika-Amerika abad ke-19 yang terkemuka, termasuk pemimpin hak-hak sipil Frederick Douglass dan W.E.B. DuBois, mendorong sesama kulit hitam untuk mendaftar di militer untuk menunjukkan keberanian dan kesetiaan, dan meningkatkan posisi mereka dalam masyarakat Amerika. Perang Meksiko Selama Perang Meksiko, banyak tentara Afrika-Amerika menjabat sebagai pelayan perwira. Prajurit dari Batalyon Louisiana of Free Men berpartisipasi. Orang Afrika-Amerika juga bertugas di kapal angkatan laut. Perang Saudara Biasanya ditugaskan ke unit kerja non-tempur yang dipimpin kulit putih, tentara Afrika-Amerika tetap menjadi sukarelawan untuk tugas tempur dan lapangan medis. Freemen dan pelarian mendaftar di sisi Union. Lebih dari 186.000 orang Afrika-Amerika dilayani, terdiri dari 163 unit. Banyak lagi yang bertugas di Angkatan Laut Union. Resimen Infanteri Relawan Massachusetts ke-54 menjadi terkenal. Salah satu unit kulit hitam pertamanya, yang terdiri dari budak kulit hitam yang dibebaskan dari negara bagian Utara, mendapatkan ketenaran pada 18 Juli 1863 dalam Pertempuran Battery Wagner, sebuah benteng Konfederasi di sebuah pulau dekat Charleston, Carolina Selatan. Meskipun serangan Union yang gagal menimbulkan banyak korban, Kompi C berhasil merebut sebagian benteng. Pemimpin unit Kolonel Robert Gould Shaw tewas. Sersan berlambang warna juga terkena, tetapi Sersan William H. Carney mengambil bendera itu. Setelah diperintahkan untuk mundur, Carney membawa bendera sambil menghadapi tembakan besar dan memimpin orang-orang yang tersisa ke tembok pembatas di mana ia menanamnya sebelum jatuh kembali. Dia terluka dua kali, tetapi selamat untuk menjadi prajurit kulit hitam pertama yang dianugerahi Medal of Honor (23 Mei 1900). Di pihak Konfederasi, orang bebas dan budak bertugas di geng buruh. Apakah akan mempersenjatai mereka atau tidak masih menjadi perdebatan. Pada 13 Maret 1865, kongres Konfederasi memberlakukan undang-undang untuk mengizinkan pendaftaran Afrika-Amerika, tetapi hanya sedikit yang direkrut. Perang India Dari tahun 1870-an hingga 1900-an, unit Afrika-Amerika dikerahkan untuk melawan penduduk asli Amerika. Kongres telah mengizinkan pembentukan resimen Afrika-Amerika terpisah untuk tentara pascaperang, di bawah komando perwira kulit putih**: Resimen Kavaleri ke-9 dan ke-10 dan Resimen Infanteri ke-38 hingga ke-41. Mereka terutama ditempatkan di Southwest dan Great Plains untuk membangun benteng dan menjaga ketertiban di perbatasan yang penuh dengan penjahat dan diduduki oleh penduduk asli Amerika yang memerangi perampas tanah. Unit kavaleri hitam dikenal sebagai "Prajurit Kerbau". Pasukan itu dipanggil oleh Cheyenne karena kulit dan rambut mereka yang gelap, serta kemampuan bertarung mereka. Akhirnya, resimen bergabung menjadi Brigade Kavaleri ke-4, dipimpin oleh jenderal kulit hitam pertama Angkatan Darat, Benjamin O. Davis Sr. Brigade itu ada selama tiga tahun sebelum semua resimen kavaleri kuda dibubarkan. Tiga belas tamtama dan enam perwira dari empat resimen memperoleh Medal of Honor selama Perang India. Buffalo Soldiers juga bertugas dalam peran non-tempur. Perang Spanyol-Amerika Prajurit Kerbau juga berpartisipasi dalam Perang Spanyol-Amerika dan menjaga perbatasan Meksiko. Kedua resimen kavaleri bertempur di pulau Kuba, termasuk aksi di Bukit San Juan. John J. Pershing versus Pancho Villa Resimen Kavaleri ke-10 bertugas di bawah J.J. Pershing melawan revolusioner Meksiko Pancho Villa pada tahun 1916. Selama ekspedisi hukuman itu dan perang Filipina-Amerika, lima Medali Kehormatan diperoleh oleh orang Afrika-Amerika. perang dunia I Afrika Amerika tetap terpisah selama perang ini. Banyak orang kulit hitam masih menjadi sukarelawan. Lebih dari 350.000 orang Afrika-Amerika bertugas di Pasukan Ekspedisi Amerika di front barat. Sebagian besar unit kulit hitam diturunkan ke peran non-tempur. Namun, Infanteri ke-369 "Pejuang Neraka dari Harlem" bertugas enam bulan lebih lama daripada unit lainnya. Mereka memenangkan ketenaran karena keberanian dan kompetensi dalam pertempuran, dianugerahi penghargaan Croix de Guerre oleh sekutu Prancis. Seratus tujuh puluh satu tentara diperoleh Legiun Merit medali. Satu-satunya Medali Kehormatan yang diberikan kepada seorang prajurit kulit hitam diberikan secara anumerta kepada Freddie Stowers dari Resimen Infanteri ke-371 pada 24 April 1991. perang dunia II Saat Perang Dunia II menjulang, AS menentang rezim fasis dan ideologi rasis mereka, namun diperkirakan 10 persen warga Afrika-Amerika tidak memiliki hak dan peluang sipil dasar. Namun, dua setengah juta pria kulit hitam mendaftar untuk wajib militer. Lebih dari satu juta akan melayani di semua cabang, termasuk 125.000 di luar negeri. Selain itu, ribuan wanita Afrika-Amerika secara sukarela menjadi perawat tempur. Selama serangan [:Pearl Harbor], satu Doris Miller, petugas mess Angkatan Laut, mengawaki dan menembakkan (tidak terlatih) senjata antipesawat ke pesawat Jepang, yang membuatnya mendapatkan Salib Angkatan Laut pertama dari serangan itu. Orang Afrika-Amerika menekan pemerintah AS untuk kesetaraan ras di angkatan bersenjata. NAACP, Liga Perkotaan, dan organisasi lainnya berhasil mengimbau Gedung Putih dan militer untuk mengintegrasikan sekolah calon perwira dan memperluas peluang bagi unit kulit hitam. Sebagai tanggapan sebagian, pemerintah menciptakan program penerbangan militer serba hitam di Tuskegee Institute di Alabama, tetapi dikritik oleh orang Afrika-Amerika karena terus melakukan pemisahan. Namun demikian, dari tahun 1942 hingga 1946 hampir 1.000 pilot pesawat tempur dan pembom Afrika-Amerika dilatih di Lapangan Udara Angkatan Darat Tuskegee (Ala.) yang terpisah dan 450 bertugas di luar negeri. Pada Mei 1943, pilot terlatih Tuskegee dikirim ke Afrika Utara untuk bergabung dengan Sekutu. Mereka dipimpin oleh Kapten Benjamin O. Davis Jr. Mereka menerbangkan lebih dari 150.000 serangan mendadak di Afrika Utara, Mediterania, dan Eropa. Mereka mengawal pesawat pengebom Sekutu sambil menghancurkan lebih dari 250 pesawat musuh di udara dan 150 lainnya di darat. Prestasi Skuadron Tempur ke-99, terutama bekerja sama dengan Kelompok Tempur ke-79 yang serba putih pada Oktober 1943, membantu menyiapkan panggung untuk integrasi Angkatan Udara. Para Penerbang Tuskegee membedakan diri mereka dengan menjadi satu-satunya pengawal tempur yang tidak pernah kehilangan seorang pembom karena aksi musuh. Pada tanggal 29 Maret 2007, para penerbang Tuskegee menerima Medali Emas Kongres di Smithsonian Institution, penghargaan tertinggi yang diberikan Kongres kepada warga sipil. Banyak dokter hewan Tuskegee melakukan perjalanan ke Washington, D.C. untuk upacara tersebut. Presiden Bush dan Menteri Luar Negeri Powell memberikan komentar. Presiden mengakui para veteran untuk layanan mereka dalam menghadapi penghinaan rasial yang tak terhitung banyaknya. Sejarah unit sebagian besar tetap tidak diketahui, tetapi film 1995, Penerbang Tuskegee, melakukan banyak hal untuk mempopulerkan eksploitasi mereka. Menjelang akhir perang (1944-45) militer mulai bereksperimen dengan unit terpadu untuk memenuhi kekurangan tenaga kerja selama Pertempuran Bulge. Delapan puluh persen perwira kulit putih yang disurvei melaporkan bahwa tentara kulit hitam telah tampil "sangat baik" dalam pertempuran, 69 persen tidak melihat alasan mengapa prajurit infanteri Afrika-Amerika tidak berkinerja baik dengan pelatihan dan pengalaman yang sama. Presiden bertindak Namun, di Amerika Serikat, rasisme tetap ada. Ketika para veteran Afrika-Amerika yang kembali menjadi korban kekerasan di Carolina Selatan dan Georgia, Presiden Harry S. Truman mengirim paket reformasi hak-hak sipil ke Kongres, dan sebagai panglima tertinggi, dia memerintahkan desegregasi angkatan bersenjata. Pada akhir Perang Korea (1953), militer hampir terdesegregasi, termasuk sekolah dasar dan bus.

*Saat ini, keturunan Loyalis kulit hitam tinggal di Kanada. **Pengecualian: Henry O. Flipper.


Isi

Pengeditan Latar Belakang

Budak Afrika pertama dibawa ke Amerika pada tahun 1619. [1] Ini hanya sembilan tahun setelah pemukim Inggris menciptakan pemukiman permanen pertama di Amerika, di Jamestown, Virginia. [2]

Abolisionis mulai mencoba membuat perbudakan ilegal pada pertengahan 1700-an. [4] Pada tahun 1804, semua negara bagian utara telah mengakhiri perbudakan. [4] Namun, tidak ada negara bagian Selatan yang memilikinya. [4] Negara bagian Selatan percaya bahwa perbudakan adalah hak mereka, dan mereka tidak ingin melepaskannya. Kapas telah menjadi tanaman yang sangat penting di Selatan. Pemilik perkebunan kapas besar terbiasa memiliki budak untuk bekerja secara gratis, yang membuat pemilik perkebunan lebih kaya karena mereka tidak perlu membayar siapa pun untuk bekerja. [5] hal.232–233

Akhirnya, Selatan mencoba meninggalkan Amerika Serikat. [5] hal. 278 Hal ini menyebabkan Perang Saudara Amerika. Utara menang, dan pada tahun 1865, Amandemen Ketigabelas Konstitusi Amerika Serikat membuat perbudakan ilegal di mana-mana di negara ini. [6] Pada tahun 1868 dan 1870, Amandemen Keempatbelas dan Kelimabelas memberikan kewarganegaraan Afrika-Amerika, dan memberi mereka hak untuk memilih. [6]

Pemisahan berlanjut di Sunting Selatan

Kalah dalam Perang Saudara tidak mengubah pandangan orang tentang orang Afrika-Amerika. Selama perbudakan, pemilik budak tidak melihat budak sebagai manusia. Mereka melihatnya sebagai properti, barang untuk dibeli dan dijual, seperti hewan yang akan Anda gunakan di peternakan. [2] Setelah Perang, banyak orang kulit putih masih tidak melihat orang Afrika-Amerika setara dengan orang kulit putih.

Mulai tahun 1890, badan legislatif kulit putih di negara bagian Selatan mulai mengesahkan undang-undang negara bagian yang mewajibkan pemisahan. [7] Hukum rasis ini dikenal sebagai hukum Jim Crow. Misalnya, orang kulit hitam tidak bisa: [8]

  • Pergi ke sekolah, restoran, atau rumah sakit yang sama dengan orang kulit putih
  • Gunakan kamar mandi yang sama dengan orang kulit putih, atau minum dari air mancur yang sama
  • Duduk di depan orang kulit putih di bus

Pada tahun 1896, dalam kasus yang disebut Plessy v. Ferguson, Mahkamah Agung memutuskan bahwa undang-undang ini sah. Mereka mengatakan bahwa segregasi baik-baik saja, selama semuanya "terpisah tetapi setara." [9] Di Selatan, semuanya terpisah. Namun, tempat-tempat seperti sekolah kulit hitam dan perpustakaan mendapat lebih sedikit uang dan tidak sebaik tempat untuk orang kulit putih. [9] [10] [11] Hal-hal yang terpisah, tetapi tidak sama.

Segregasi membuat orang Afrika-Amerika tidak memiliki hak dasar yang telah ditulis oleh para Founding Fathers ke dalam Konstitusi Amerika Serikat. Pembuat undang-undang, pejabat pemerintah, petugas pemungutan suara, dan petugas polisi semuanya berkulit putih. Ini mencegah orang Afrika-Amerika untuk memiliki suara apa pun di pemerintah mereka untuk bisa mendapatkan hak suara yang sama dengan orang kulit putih yang memiliki petugas polisi yang melindungi mereka atau bisa mendapatkan keadilan atas kejahatan terhadap mereka. Karena mereka tidak dapat mengandalkan pasukan polisi kulit putih untuk melindungi mereka, kekerasan terhadap orang Afrika-Amerika, terutama hukuman mati tanpa pengadilan, meningkat. [11] Karena orang Afrika-Amerika tidak dapat memilih, mereka juga tidak dapat menjadi juri. [12] [13] Ini berarti bahwa jika orang kulit hitam pernah diadili atas suatu kejahatan, juri akan sepenuhnya kulit putih.

Di seluruh Amerika Serikat Sunting

Masalah yang terburuk di Selatan. Namun, orang Afrika-Amerika mengalami berbagai jenis segregasi di tempat lain. [14]

Di seluruh Amerika Serikat, segregasi dalam perumahan menjadi masalah. Banyak orang Afrika-Amerika tidak bisa mendapatkan hipotek untuk membeli rumah. Realtors tidak akan menjual rumah orang kulit hitam di pinggiran kota, tempat orang kulit putih tinggal. Mereka juga tidak akan menyewa apartemen di area putih. [15] Sampai tahun 1950-an, pemerintah federal tidak melakukan apa-apa tentang hal ini. [15]

Ketika dia terpilih pada tahun 1913, Presiden Woodrow Wilson membuat kantor-kantor pemerintah dipisahkan. Dia percaya bahwa pemisahan adalah yang terbaik untuk semua orang. [16]

Orang kulit hitam bertempur di Perang Dunia I dan Perang Dunia II. Namun, militer itu memisahkan perwira kulit hitam bahkan harus memasuki beberapa pangkalan militer melalui pintu masuk yang terpisah dari perwira kulit putih. Prajurit kulit hitam juga tidak diberi kesempatan yang sama dengan tentara kulit putih. Akhirnya, pada tahun 1948, Presiden Harry Truman memisahkan militer. [17]

Aktivisme awal Sunting

Afrika Amerika mencoba untuk melawan diskriminasi dalam banyak cara. Sebagian besar, mereka mencoba menggunakan pengadilan untuk mendapatkan keadilan. Misalnya, pada tahun 1909, Asosiasi Nasional untuk Kemajuan Orang Kulit Berwarna (NAACP) dibentuk. Tujuannya adalah untuk mengakhiri diskriminasi ras melalui tuntutan hukum, pendidikan, dan lobi. [18]

Namun, akhirnya, banyak orang Afrika-Amerika menjadi frustrasi dan mulai tidak menyukai gagasan untuk menggunakan strategi hukum yang lambat untuk mencapai desegregasi. Sebaliknya, aktivis Afrika-Amerika memutuskan untuk menggunakan kombinasi protes, non-kekerasan, dan pembangkangan sipil. Dari sinilah Gerakan Hak Sipil 1954-1968 dimulai.

Gerakan Hak Sipil Sunting

Dari sekitar tahun 1954 hingga 1968, banyak orang Afrika-Amerika – dan sekutu kulit putih – berjuang untuk mengakhiri segregasi rasial. Gerakan ini bergantung pada protes tanpa kekerasan, aksi duduk, pawai, pembangkangan sipil, dan tuntutan hukum. Kemenangannya meliputi: [1]

  • Brown v. Dewan Pendidikan (1954) yang membuat segregasi di sekolah menjadi ilegal
  • Boikot Bus Montgomery (1955-1956), yang mengakhiri semua pemisahan bus di Alabama
  • Mendapatkan tentara federal untuk memisahkan Sekolah Menengah Little Rock Central untuk sembilan siswa kulit hitam pertamanya (1957)
  • Sit-in (1958-1960), yang memisahkan beberapa toko, konter makan siang, dan tempat-tempat lain di seluruh negeri
  • Mendapatkan Tentara Amerika Serikat untuk memaksa Mississippi Southern College dan University of Alabama untuk membiarkan siswa kulit hitam pertama mereka masuk
  • De-segregasi bisnis di pusat kotaBirmingham, Alabama
  • Mendapatkan Undang-Undang Hak Sipil tahun 1964, Undang-Undang Hak Suara tahun 1965, dan Undang-Undang Hak Sipil tahun 1968 disahkan. Undang-undang federal ini membuatnya ilegal untuk mendiskriminasi orang kulit hitam, mencegah mereka memilih, dan mencegah mereka memiliki perumahan yang adil

Kemenangan-kemenangan ini tidak mudah. Para pengunjuk rasa sering diancam dan diserang. Rumah para pemimpin dibom. [1] Di Birmingham, polisi menyerang pengunjuk rasa, termasuk anak-anak, dengan anjing polisi dan selang pemadam kebakaran, lalu membawa mereka ke penjara. [19] Di kota-kota lain, polisi memukuli pengunjuk rasa dengan tongkat dan menembaki protes mahasiswa. [1] Tiga pemimpin gerakan – Martin Luther King, Jr., Malcolm X, dan Medgar Evers – dibunuh. [1]

Tidak ada yang tahu persis berapa banyak orang yang terbunuh selama Gerakan Hak Sipil. [20] Namun, setidaknya 37 orang dibunuh, baik karena mereka melakukan pekerjaan hak-hak sipil, atau karena kelompok kulit putih rasis seperti Ku Klux Klan dan Dewan Warga Kulit Putih ingin meneror orang kulit hitam. [a] [21] Dua belas dari orang-orang ini adalah anak-anak atau remaja ketika mereka dibunuh. [21]

Akhirnya, Gerakan berhasil menghapus undang-undang yang memungkinkan segregasi. Namun, sikap lebih sulit diubah, dan rasisme masih ada di Amerika Serikat.

Seorang pria kulit hitam minum dari air mancur minum "berwarna" di Oklahoma City (1939)

Menandatangani proyek perumahan di Detroit (1942)

Rosa Parks ditangkap karena menolak duduk di belakang orang kulit putih di dalam bus (1955)

Sebuah tanda di jendela restoran di Lancaster, Ohio

US Marshals melindungi Ruby Bridges yang berusia 6 tahun, satu-satunya anak kulit hitam di sekolah Louisiana (1960)

Pada awal 1800-an, Amerika Serikat tumbuh lebih jauh ke Selatan. Orang kulit putih Amerika menginginkan lebih banyak lahan untuk menanam kapas. Namun, banyak suku asli Amerika yang berbeda tinggal di tanah yang ingin diambil alih oleh Amerika Serikat. [22]

Andrew Jackson adalah pendukung besar "penghapusan India" - meyakinkan atau memaksa penduduk asli Amerika untuk meninggalkan Selatan dan pindah ke barat, di luar Amerika Serikat. Pertama sebagai Mayor Jenderal di Angkatan Darat Amerika Serikat, dan kemudian sebagai Presiden, dia memimpin program "penghapusan orang India" Amerika Serikat. [22]

Penghapusan India Edit

Program ini dimulai pada tahun 1814, ketika Jackson memimpin sekelompok tentara yang mengalahkan Indian Creek. Dia memaksa mereka untuk menandatangani perjanjian menyerahkan lebih dari 20 juta hektar tanah mereka ke Amerika Serikat. Selama sepuluh tahun berikutnya, Jackson meminta sembilan suku lain untuk menandatangani perjanjian menyerahkan tanah mereka. [22]

Pada tahun 1829, Jackson menjadi Presiden. Pada tahun yang sama, emas ditemukan di Georgia, yang menyebabkan demam emas. [23] Ini hanya membuat orang kulit putih di Amerika Serikat semakin ingin menguasai Selatan. Pada tahun 1830, Jackson meloloskan Indian Removal Act tahun 1830. [24] Undang-undang ini mengatakan Jackson dapat memberikan tanah di sebelah barat Sungai Mississippi kepada suku-suku Indian jika mereka setuju untuk menyerahkan tanah mereka di Selatan. Hukum menjanjikan suku-suku itu bahwa mereka bisa hidup di tanah baru mereka selamanya, dan dilindungi oleh pemerintah Amerika Serikat. [24] Pada saat kepresidenannya berakhir pada tahun 1837, Jackson telah membuat penduduk asli Amerika menandatangani hampir 70 perjanjian yang menyerahkan tanah mereka. Hampir 50.000 penduduk asli Amerika pindah ke "Wilayah India" di sebelah barat Sungai Mississippi. Namun, pemerintah sudah memiliki rencana untuk memaksa mereka ke wilayah yang lebih kecil, di tempat yang sekarang disebut Oklahoma timur. [22]

Jejak Air Mata Sunting

Bangsa Cherokee menolak untuk meninggalkan tanah mereka. Mereka bahkan meminta Mahkamah Agung Amerika Serikat untuk memutuskan bahwa mereka berdaulat dan tidak harus mengikuti hukum Amerika Serikat. [25] Jackson mengabaikan keputusan ini. Pada tahun 1835, ia meminta sekelompok kecil Cherokee untuk menandatangani perjanjian yang setuju untuk meninggalkan tanah mereka. [26] Bangsa Cherokee lainnya mencoba mempertahankan tanah mereka. Namun, pada tahun 1838, Angkatan Darat Amerika Serikat dan milisi Georgia memaksa mereka untuk meninggalkan tanah mereka. [27] Di tempat yang dikenal sebagai "Jejak Air Mata", sekitar 15.000 orang Cherokee terpaksa berjalan lebih dari 2.000 mil ke Oklahoma. [28] Sekitar 4.000 meninggal di sepanjang jalan. [29] [30]

Pada tahun 1840-an, kecuali beberapa orang Indian Seminole yang tinggal di Florida, tidak ada penduduk asli Amerika yang tersisa di Amerika Selatan. [22]

Reservasi Sunting

Pada tahun 1851, Kongres Amerika Serikat mengesahkan undang-undang yang menciptakan reservasi India di Oklahoma. [31] Pemukim kulit putih sudah mulai pindah ke tanah penduduk asli Amerika yang terpaksa pindah. Hal ini menyebabkan konflik antara kulit putih dan penduduk asli Amerika. Tujuan dari reservasi adalah untuk memisahkan penduduk asli Amerika dari pemukim kulit putih. [31]

Pada tahun 1868, Presiden Ulysses S. Grant memutuskan untuk membuat lebih banyak reservasi, dan memaksa suku asli Amerika yang tinggal di barat untuk pindah ke sana. [32] Seiring dengan memisahkan penduduk asli Amerika dan membersihkan tanah mereka untuk penggunaan kulit putih, Grant berencana untuk meminta pejabat gereja menjalankan reservasi sehingga mereka dapat mengajarkan agama Kristen kepada suku-suku tersebut. [33]

Kekuatan pemerintah [federal] atas sisa-sisa ras [yang] dulunya kuat ini. diperlukan untuk perlindungan mereka serta keselamatan orang-orang di antara mereka [tinggal].
– Mahkamah Agung, di AS v. Kagama [34]

Banyak suku menolak untuk meninggalkan tanah mereka, dan dipaksa melakukan reservasi oleh Angkatan Darat Amerika Serikat. Jika penduduk asli Amerika meninggalkan reservasi mereka, Angkatan Darat mengejar mereka untuk mencoba memaksa mereka kembali ke reservasi. Hal ini menyebabkan pembantaian penduduk asli Amerika, dan beberapa perang.

Pada tahun 1887, Kongres mengesahkan Undang-Undang Dawes. [35] Undang-undang ini berhenti memberikan tanah kepada seluruh suku, dan membagi tanah itu menjadi potongan-potongan kecil untuk digunakan oleh masing-masing keluarga untuk bertani. Orang India yang mengambil tanah itu, mulai hidup sendiri daripada bersama suku mereka, dan mulai bertani dipandang sebagai "beradab", dan mereka dijadikan warga negara Amerika Serikat. [35] Orang-orang India yang menolak untuk memisahkan diri lebih jauh lagi di sebidang tanah kecil tidak diizinkan menjadi warga negara. Tanah apa pun yang tersisa dijual kepada pemukim kulit putih, yang membuat pemesanan semakin kecil. [35]

Baru pada tahun 1975 Mahkamah Agung memutuskan bahwa suku berdaulat atas tanah suku dan anggota suku. [36]

Pada 2015, semua reservasi India di Amerika Serikat, bersama-sama, membentuk 87.800 mil persegi - area seukuran Idaho. [37] However, Native Americans are now allowed to live or work anywhere they want to, and as of 2016, more than half have left the reservations. [37]


The Forgotten History of How Our Government Segregated the United States

By Richard Rothstein

Racial segregation characterizes every metropolitan area in the United States and bears responsibility for our most serious social and economic problems — it corrupts our criminal justice system, exacerbates economic inequality, and produces large academic gaps between white and African American schoolchildren. We’ve taken no serious steps to desegregate neighborhoods, however, because we are hobbled by a national myth that residential segregation is de facto — the result of private discrimination or personal choices that do not violate constitutional rights. In truth, however, residential segregation was created by racially explicit and unconstitutional government policy in the mid-20th century, including the racially explicit federal subsidization of whites-only suburbs in which African Americans were prohibited from participating. Only after learning the history of these policies can we be prepared to undertake the national conversations necessary to remedy our unconstitutional racial landscape.

Such a national conversation is now possible. Without minimizing the terrible dangers of today’s resurgent white supremacist activity, we also should take hope from the reaction to it: a widespread willingness to confront, in many cases for the first time, the history of African American subjugation. Our previous failure, even refusal to do so, has impeded our ability to eliminate the racial caste conditions that permeate U.S. society.

Not to be underestimated is the wave of Confederate monument removals across the South, and the acknowledgement that these monuments were erected not after the Civil War to commemorate the misguided heroism of Confederate soldiers, but rather during the Jim Crow and post-Brown v. Board of Education eras, for the purpose of celebrating slavery and its residues in second-class citizenship. Who could have imagined, even a few years ago, that a white elected politician in the South, presiding over the removal of a Robert E. Lee statue, would proclaim that Confederate monuments celebrated a system “where hundreds of thousands of souls were bought, sold, and shipped up the Mississippi River to lives of forced labor of misery, of rape, of torture.”

Speaking to his fellow citizens in New Orleans of how we mis-celebrate our history, Mayor Mitch Landrieu continued:

America was the place where nearly 4,000 of our fellow citizens were lynched, 540 alone in Louisiana where the courts enshrined “separate but equal” where Freedom Riders coming to New Orleans were beaten to a bloody pulp. So when people say to me that the monuments in question are history, well, what I just described is real history as well, and it is the searing truth.

And it immediately begs the questions, why there are no slave ship monuments, no prominent markers on public land to remember the lynchings or the slave blocks nothing to remember this long chapter of our lives the pain, the sacrifice, the shame. . . all of it happening on the soil of New Orleans. So for those self-appointed defenders of history and the monuments, they are eerily silent on what amounts to this historical malfeasance, a lie by omission. There is a difference between remembrance of history and reverence of it.

Recognition of historic wrongs is an essential predicate of the resolve to correct them. As another Southern white politician, Joseph Riley Jr., mayor of Charleston, South Carolina from 1975 to 2016, recently put it, only after we “acknowledge the burden so many were forced to bear, and set the table for a deeper inquiry into the past we all share, [can] we begin to heal the wounds of racial injustice, bridge the gulf that divides us still and come together at last around a common understanding of who we truly are as American people.”

My recent book, The Color of Law, has become relevant only because of this new willingness to confront the reality of our racial history — as a first step toward remedy. It tells a “forgotten history of how our government segregated America,” resulting in the concentration of African Americans in segregated neighborhoods in every metropolitan area of the nation, not only in the South, but in the North, Midwest, and West as well. The book explains that the Constitution requires knowledge of this history before we can enact policies to integrate our communities.

That’s because the Supreme Court has made a distinction between de facto dan de jure segregation. De facto segregation is racial concentrations that result from private prejudice, discriminatory practices of rogue real estate agents, personal choices to live with same-race neighbors, or income differences that have kept low-income families from moving to middle-class communities. De jure segregation, in contrast, results not from private activity but from government law and policy that violated the Fifth, Thirteenth, and Fourteenth amendments to the federal constitution.

The Supreme Court has said that if segregation is de facto, there is little we can do to correct it. What happened by accident can only be undone by accident. But if segregation has been created de jure, by government’s explicit racial policies, not only are we permitted to remedy it, we are required to do so.

We share a national myth that residential segregation is de facto. It is a myth embraced not only by conservatives, but by liberals as well. It is perpetuated by our standard high school history curriculum, in which commonly used textbooks routinely describe segregation in the North as de facto, mysteriously evolved without government direction. Yet, as The Color of Law recounts, the myth is false. Federal, state, and local governments deliberately segregated residential areas of every metropolitan area of the nation, designed to ensure that African Americans and whites would have to live separately.

For example, the federal government purposefully placed public housing in high-poverty, racially isolated neighborhoods to concentrate the black population. And it created a whites-only mortgage insurance program to shift the white population from urban neighborhoods to exclusively white suburbs. The Internal Revenue Service granted tax exemptions for charitable activity to organizations that openly enforced neighborhood racial homogeneity. Government-licensed realtors, with the open support of state regulators, enforced a “code of ethics” that prohibited the sale of homes to African Americans in white neighborhoods. In thousands of cases, police forces organized and supported mob violence to drive black families out of homes on the white side of racial boundaries. Federal and state regulators sanctioned the refusal of the banking, thrift, and insurance industries to make loans to homeowners in other-race communities.

By the time the federal government reversed its policy of subsidizing segregation in 1962, and by the time the Fair Housing Act banned private discrimination in 1968, the residential patterns of major metropolitan areas were set. White suburbs that had been affordable to the black working class in the 1940s, 50s, and 60s were now no longer so, both because of the increase in housing prices (and whites’ home equity) during that period, and because other federal policies had depressed black incomes while supporting those of whites. At the beginning of the New Deal the National Recovery Act established industrial wages at lower levels for industries where black workers predominated later, Social Security and Fair Labor Standards legislation excluded from coverage occupations in which African Americans predominated, for example, agriculture and domestic service. It was not until 1964 that the National Labor Relations Board for the first time refused to certify a union’s exclusive bargaining status because it openly refused to represent black workers.

Open housing demonstration in Seattle, October 20, 1963. Image: Seattle Post-Intelligencer Collection.

I’ve summarized some of these policies on Terry Gross’s radio program, Fresh Air. But my articles and The Color of Law are not the only sources for correcting the de facto myth. Ta-Nehisi Coates, for example, in “The Case for Reparations” and other articles in The Atlantic, also tells part of this story. Several scholars have done the same.

We promote the myth of de facto segregation by mis-teaching our young people about our past. When I was researching The Color of Law, I examined high school history textbooks that were commonly in use during the early years of this decade, and was shocked by their mendacity in describing racial history. For example, in the more than 1,200 pages of the widely used high school textbook The Americans, a single paragraph was devoted to 20th-century “Discrimination in the North.” That paragraph included one sentence on residential segregation, stating that “African Americans found themselves forced into segregated neighborhoods,” with no further explanation of how this happened or how public policy was responsible.

Another widely used high school textbook, Pearson’s United States History, also attributed segregation to mysterious forces: “In the North, too, African Americans faced segregation and discrimination. Even where there were no explicit laws, de facto segregation, or segregation by unwritten custom or tradition, was a fact of life. African Americans in the North were denied housing in many neighborhoods.” The passive voice construction — “were denied” — is not just bad writing, it hides who exactly denied housing to African Americans.

The popular high school textbook History Alive! also teaches a distorted view by suggesting that segregation was only a problem in the South. “Even New Deal agencies,” it says, “practiced racial segregation, especially in the South,” failing to explain that the New Deal’s Public Works Administration initiated the nationwide civilian public housing program by demolishing integrated neighborhoods even in the North to build segregated projects in their place, or that the New Deal’s Federal Housing Administration denied loan guarantees to developers of suburbs wherever the danger of “infiltration” of “incompatible racial groups” was present.

Such indoctrination of today’s high school students minimizes the possibility of progress toward equality when these students become our country’s leaders. As New Orleans’ Mayor Landrieu put it, referring to the South’s glorification of Confederate leaders, “We justify our silence and inaction by manufacturing noble causes that marinate in historical denial.” This is equally true of the de facto myth we have manufactured about how our nation became segregated. The next generation will do no better a job than our generation has done of progressing toward a better future, unless we teach our young people a less-sanitized version of the past.

This article is part of the Zinn Education Project’s If We Knew Our History series.

© 2017 The Zinn Education Project, a project of Rethinking Schools and Teaching for Change.

Richard Rothstein is a research associate of the Economic Policy Institute (EPI) and senior fellow of the Chief Justice Earl Warren Institute on Law and Social Policy at the University of California (Berkeley) School of Law. He is the author of numerous books including The Color of Law.

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Isi

Background

The first African slaves were brought to America in 1619. Ώ] This was just nine years after British settlers created the first permanent settlement in America, at Jamestown, Virginia. ΐ]

Abolitionists started trying to make slavery illegal in the mid-1700s. Β] By 1804, all of the northern states had ended slavery. Β] However, none of the Southern states had. Β] The Southern states believed that slavery was their right, and they did not want to give it up. Cotton had become a very important crop in the South. Owners of large cotton plantations were used to having slaves to do work for free, which made the plantation owners richer because they did not have to pay anybody to work. Γ] pp.𧇨–233

Eventually, the South tried to leave the United States. Γ] p.𧈖 This caused the American Civil War. The North won, and in 1865, the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution made slavery illegal everywhere in the country. Δ] In 1868 and 1870, the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments gave African-Americans citizenship, and gave them the right to vote. Δ]

Segregation continues in the South

Losing the Civil War did not change people's ideas about African-American people. During slavery, slave owners had not seen slaves as humans. They saw them as property, things to buy and sell, like animals you would use on a farm. ΐ] After the War, many white people still did not see African-Americans as equal to whites.

Starting in 1890, the all-white legislatures in the Southern states began to pass state laws that required segregation. Ε] These racist laws became known as Jim Crow laws. For example, blacks could not: Ζ]

  • Go to the same schools, restaurants, or hospitals as whites
  • Use the same bathrooms as whites, or drink from the same water fountains
  • Sit in front of whites on buses

In 1896, in a case called Plessy v. Ferguson, the Supreme Court ruled that these laws were legal. They said that segregation was fine, as long as things were "separate but equal." Η] In the South, everything was separate. However, places like black schools and libraries got much less money and were not as good as places for whites. Η] ⎖] ⎗] Things were separate, but not equal.

Segregation kept African-Americans from having the basic rights that the Founding Fathers had written into the Constitution of the United States. Law-makers, government officials, voting officials, and police officers were all white. This prevented African-Americans from having any say in their government being able to get the same voting rights as white people having police officers protect them or being able to get justice for crimes against them. Because they could not count on all-white police forces to protect them, violence against African-Americans, especially lynchings, increased. ⎗] Because African-Americans could not vote, they also could not serve on juries. ⎘] ⎙] This meant that if a black person was ever on trial for a crime, the jury would be all-white.

Across the United States

Problems were worst in the South. However, African-Americans went through different kinds of segregation in other places. ⎚]

Across the United States, segregation in housing was a problem. Many African-Americans could not get mortgages to buy houses. Realtors would not sell black people houses in the suburbs, where white people lived. They also would not rent apartments in white areas. ⎛] Until the 1950s, the federal government did nothing about this. ⎛]

When he was elected in 1913, President Woodrow Wilson made government offices segregated. He believed that segregation was best for everyone. ⎜]

Black people fought in both World War I and World War II. However, the military was segregated black officers even had to enter some military bases through separate entrances from white officers. Black soldiers also were not given the same opportunities as white soldiers. Finally, in 1948, President Harry Truman de-segregated the military. ⎝]

Early activism

African Americans tried to fight back against discrimination in many ways. Mostly, they tried to use the courts to get justice. For example, in 1909, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) was created. Its goal was to end race discrimination through lawsuits, education, and lobbying. ⎞]

However, eventually, many African Americans became frustrated and began to dislike the idea of using slow, legal strategies to achieve desegregation. Instead, African American activists decided to use a combination of protests, nonviolence, and civil disobedience. This is how the Civil Rights Movement of 1954-1968 began.

Civil Rights Movement

From about 1954 to 1968, many African-American people – and white allies – fought to end racial segregation. The movement depended on non-violent protests, sit-ins, marches, civil disobedience, and lawsuits. Its victories included: Ώ]

  • Brown v. Board of Education (1954) which made segregation in schools illegal
  • The Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955-1956), which ended all bus segregation in Alabama
  • Getting federal soldiers to de-segregate Little Rock Central High School for its first nine black students (1957)
  • Sit-ins (1958-1960), which de-segregated some stores, lunch counters, and other places throughout the country
  • Getting United States Soldiers to force the Mississippi Southern College and the University of Alabama to let in their first black students
  • De-segregating businesses in downtownBirmingham, Alabama
  • Getting the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965, and the Civil Rights Act of 1968 passed. These federal laws made it illegal to discriminate against black people, keep them from voting, and keep them from having fair housing

These victories were not easy. Protesters were often threatened and attacked. Leaders' homes were bombed. Ώ] In Birmingham, the police attacked protesters, including children, with police dogs and fire hoses, then took them to jail. ⎟] In other cities, police beat protesters with clubs and fired into student protests. Ώ] Three of the movement's leaders – Martin Luther King, Jr., Malcolm X, and Medgar Evers – were murdered. Ώ]

Nobody knows exactly how many people were killed during the Civil Rights Movement. ⎠] However, at least 37 people were murdered, either because they were doing civil rights work, or because racist white groups like the Ku Klux Klan and the White Citizens' Council wanted to terrorize black people. [a] ⎡] Twelve of these people were children or teenagers when they were murdered. ⎡]

Eventually, the Movement was successful in removing the laws that allowed segregation. However, attitudes are harder to change, and racism still exists in the United States.

A black man drinks from a "colored" drinking fountain in Oklahoma City (1939)

Sign at a housing project in Detroit (1942)

Rosa Parks is arrested for refusing to sit behind a white person on a bus (1955)

A sign on a restaurant window in Lancaster, Ohio

U.S. Marshals protect 6-year-old Ruby Bridges, the only black child in a Louisiana school (1960)


History of Racial Segregation in The United States

Racial segregation in the United States, as a general term, included the racial segregation or hypersegregation of facilities, services, and opportunities such as housing, medical care, education, employment, and transportation along racial lines. The expression refers primarily to the legally or socially enforced separation of African Americans from other races, but can more loosely refer to voluntary separation, and also to separation of other racial or ethnic minorities from the majority mainstream society and communities.

Racial segregation in the United States has meant the physical separation and provision of separate facilities (especially during the Jim Crow era), but it can also refer to other manifestations of racial discrimination such as separation of roles within an institution, such as the United States Armed Forces up to the 1950s when black units were typically separated from white units but were led by white officers.

Racial segregation in the United States can be divided into de jure dan de facto segregation. De jure segregation, sanctioned or enforced by force of law, was stopped by federal enforcement of a series of Supreme Court decisions after Brown v. Board of Education in 1954. The process of throwing off legal segregation in the United States lasted through much of the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s when civil rights demonstrations resulted in public opinion turning against enforced segregation. De facto segregation — segregation "in fact" — persists to varying degrees without sanction of law to the present day. The contemporary racial segregation seen in America in residential neighborhoods has been shaped by public policies, mortgage discrimination and redlining among other things.

Hypersegregation is a form of racial segregation that consists of the geographical grouping of racial groups. Most often, this occurs in cities where the residents of the inner city are African Americans and the suburbs surrounding this inner core are often white European American residents. The idea of hypersegregation gained credibility in 1989 due to the work of Douglas Massey and Nancy A. Denton and their studies of "American Apartheid" when whites created the black ghetto during the first half of the 20th century in order to isolate growing urban black populations by segregation among inner-city African-Americans.

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[. ] On the 2nd of July 1964, what is probably the most important law against discrimination ever voted in the United States was declared. The Civil Rights Act, implemented by President Johnson, officially affirmed that any form of discrimination, at school, at work, in the army, in public transportion and public places was forbidden. It was the beginning of the Affirmative Action, whose aim was to integrate blacks into professional world, by imposing quotas. Almost a year later, in July 1965, Johnson signed the Voting Rights Act, which allowed black people to vote in every state of America, without any condition. [. ]

[. ] Today, in the USA percent of the population is black percent of the people in prison are black percent of the people given the death sentence are black percent of the black people are#poor. The amount of deaths of black babies at birth is two times larger than whites'. Life expectancy is 6 years longer for white people. " This somehow shows that people aren't yet equal years after the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of Citizen. [. ]

[. ] During the national anthem, they raised their hand, wearing a black glove, symbolizing the protest American blacks were fighting for. The black glove is the symbol of an organization called the Back Panthers, engaged against racism. After the incindent, they weren't allowed to run anymore in international competitions for having shown a politic sign. " Though King's fight changed some people's minds, a lot of people still think that it is normal for the blacks not to have the same rights as white people. [. ]

[. ] Sadly, racial segregation has a long history in the United States. The seperation between blacks and whites is deeply-rooted in American history because of its constitution, which established in 1787 that the weight of a black man was three-fifths of a white man. It also marked slavery as a constitutional fact. " Concretely, racial segregation touched colored people in as various fields as education, transports, employement and access to culture. It was based on the fact that black and white people didn't have the same rights. [. ]

[. ] The boycott lasted for 382 days, the situation becoming so tense that King's house was bombed. King was arrested during this campaign, which ended with a United States Supreme Court decision outlawing racial segregations on all public transport. ! In 1957, a group called SCLC (Southern Christian Leadership Conference) was created by Martin Luther King to lead non-violent protests in order to make black and white people equal. This year, he walked more than kilometers and gave 208 speeches all over the USA. [. ]


When Did Segregation Start and End?

Legal segregation began in 1896 when the Supreme Court sanctioned legal separation of the black and white races in the ruling H.A. Plessy v. J.H. Ferguson, but the decision was overruled in 1954. The Supreme Court in 1896 stated that separate but equal facilities did not violate the 14th Amendment however, it changed its mind thanks to the decision stemming from Brown v. Board of Education in 1954.

After the United States abolished slavery, the country passed three new Constitutional amendments to give newly freed African Americans legal status. The 13th Amendment abolished slavery, while the 14th Amendment provided citizenship to the newly freed slaves. The 15th Amendment guaranteed the right to vote. However, the Supreme Court handed down a series of judgments and rulings that put blacks in a different category from whites by law. This made the African Americans second-class citizens. They were forced via private action to separate themselves from the white people in areas such as transportation, public accommodations, recreational facilities, prisons, schools and even the armed forces.

The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) was formed in 1909. The NAACP began a struggle for the elimination of racial discrimination and segregation that was prevalent in the American life, which culminated in the Supreme Court's landmark decision in 1954.


Segregation in the United States - HISTORY

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The Civil Rights Act of 1964: A Long Struggle for Freedom The Segregation Era (1900&ndash1939)

As segregation tightened and racial oppression escalated across the United States, some leaders of the African American community, often called the talented tenth, began to reject Booker T. Washington’s conciliatory approach. W. E. B. Du Bois and other black leaders channeled their activism by founding the Niagara Movement in 1905. Later, they joined white reformers in 1909 to form the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Early in its fight for equality, the NAACP used the federal courts to challenge disenfranchisement and residential segregation. Job opportunities were the primary focus of the National Urban League, which was established in 1910.

During the Great Migration (1910&ndash1920), African Americans by the thousands poured into industrial cities to find work and later to fill labor shortages created by World War I. Though they continued to face exclusion and discrimination in employment, as well as some segregation in schools and public accommodations, Northern black men faced fewer barriers to voting. As their numbers increased, their vote emerged as a crucial factor in elections. The war and migration bolstered a heightened self-confidence in African Americans that manifested in the New Negro Movement of the 1920s. Evoking the “New Negro,” the NAACP lobbied aggressively for a federal anti-lynching law.

In 1933, President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal provided more federal support to African Americans than at any time since Reconstruction. Even so, New Deal legislation and policies continued to allow considerable discrimination. During the mid-thirties the NAACP launched a legal campaign against de jure (according to law) segregation, focusing on inequalities in public education. By 1936, the majority of black voters had abandoned their historic allegiance to the Republican Party and joined with labor unions, farmers, progressives, and ethnic minorities in assuring President Roosevelt’s landslide re-election. The election played a significant role in shifting the balance of power in the Democratic Party from its Southern bloc of white conservatives towards this new coalition.

NAACP Founder William English Walling

William English Walling (1877&ndash1936) was a prominent socialist and journalist. He was a founder of the Intercollegiate Socialist Society, the Women’s Trade Union League, the Social Democratic League, and the NAACP. In 1908 he traveled to Springfield, Illinois, to investigate a recent race riot in which whites had targeted blacks. In his article, The Race War in the North, Walling declared: “the spirit of the abolitionists, of Lincoln and Lovejoy, must be revived and we must come to treat the negro on a plane of absolute political and social equality.” He appealed for a “large and powerful body of citizens to come to [blacks] aid.” The article aroused the conscience of Mary White Ovington, who wrote a letter to Walling offering her support.

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NAACP Founder Mary White Ovington

Mary White Ovington (1865&ndash1951), a social worker and freelance writer, was a principal NAACP founder and officer for almost forty years. Born in Brooklyn, New York, into a wealthy abolitionist family, she became a socialist while a student at Radcliffe College. Ovington befriended W.E.B. Du Bois in 1904, when she was researching her first book, Half a Man (1911), about black Manhattan. In 1906 she covered the Niagara Movement and the Atlanta anti-black riot for the New York Evening Post. Ovington played a crucial role in the NAACP’s evolution. She recruited women into the ranks, mediated disputes, and guided the transition to black leadership. She served as secretary (1911&ndash1912), acting secretary, treasurer, and board chairman.

Mary White Ovington, ca. 1910. Reproduction. NAACP Collection, Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (318.00.00)

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The Founding of the NAACP

William English Walling’s (1877&ndash1936) exposé about a bloody race riot in Springfield, Illinois, Abraham Lincoln’s hometown and burial site, resulted in the assembly of an interracial group to discuss proposals for an organization that would advocate the civil and political rights of African Americans in January 1909. The group issued a “call” resulting in the first National Negro Conference held in New York on May 31 and June 1, 1909. At the second annual meeting on May 12, 1910, the Committee adopted the formal name of the organization&mdashthe National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). The NAACP’s goals were the abolition of segregation, discrimination, disenfranchisement, and racial violence, particularly lynching.

Platform adopted by the National Negro Committee. Printed document, 1909. NAACP Records, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (019.00.00)

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The Pink Franklin Case

The NAACP undertook its first major legal case in 1910 by defending Pink Franklin, a black South Carolina sharecropper accused of murder. When Franklin did not show up for work after receiving an advance on his wages, a warrant was sworn for his arrest. Armed policemen arrived at Franklin’s cabin before dawn to serve the warrant and shots were fired, killing one officer. Franklin, who claimed self-defense, was convicted and sentenced to death. The NAACP interceded and Franklin’s sentence was commuted to life in prison. He was set free in 1919. In this letter, Albert Pillsbury, an attorney and NAACP founder, recommends an appeal to South Carolina Governor Martin F. Ansel.

Albert Pillsbury to NAACP Secretary Mary White Ovington, July 26, 1910. Typed letter. NAACP Records, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (021.00.00)