Aktor Burt Lancaster meninggal

Aktor Burt Lancaster meninggal



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Pada tanggal 20 Oktober 1994, Burt Lancaster, mantan pemain sirkus yang menjadi terkenal sebagai pria terkemuka Hollywood dengan sekitar 70 film untuk kreditnya, termasuk Dari Sini ke Keabadian dan Kota Atlantik, dalam karir yang membentang lebih dari empat dekade, meninggal karena serangan jantung pada usia 80 di Century City, California.

Lancaster lahir pada 2 November 1913, di New York City dan dibesarkan di East Harlem. Setelah bertugas di Universitas New York, yang dia hadiri dengan beasiswa atletik, dia berhenti untuk bergabung dengan sirkus, di mana dia bekerja sebagai akrobat. Cedera memaksa Lancaster untuk meninggalkan sirkus pada tahun 1939, dan dia melakukan serangkaian pekerjaan sampai dia direkrut menjadi Angkatan Darat pada tahun 1942. Tiga tahun kemudian, saat cuti, karir akting Lancaster diluncurkan setelah dia pergi mengunjungi wanita yang akan menjadi istri keduanya di kantor teater tempat dia bekerja dan diminta oleh asisten produser untuk mengikuti audisi untuk drama Broadway. Dia mendapat peran, sebagai sersan Angkatan Darat, dan segera diperhatikan oleh Hollywood. Pada tahun 1946, Lancaster membuat debut layar peraknya di hadapan Ava Gardner di Pembunuh, berdasarkan cerita pendek Ernest Hemingway. Lancaster berperan sebagai The Swede, mantan petinju yang terlibat dengan massa dan menunggu untuk dibunuh oleh pembunuh bayaran.

Dia melanjutkan untuk membintangi film biografi tahun 1951 Jim Thorpe: Semua-Amerika, tentang Olimpiade Penduduk Asli Amerika, dan 1952's bajak laut merah tua, di mana ia menempatkan keterampilan akrobatiknya untuk digunakan sebagai karakter judul swashbuckling. Pada tahun 1953, ia membintangi bersama Deborah Kerr dan Frank Sinatra di Dari sini hingga keabadian, sebuah film Perang Dunia II berlatar di Hawaii tepat sebelum serangan di Pearl Harbor. Film tersebut, yang berisi adegan ikonik di mana Lancaster dan Kerr terkunci di tepi pantai saat ombak menggulung mereka, membuat Lancaster mendapatkan nominasi Aktor Terbaik Oscar pertamanya. Di antara kredit film Lancaster lainnya selama tahun 1950-an adalah Apache (1954), di mana ia berperan sebagai prajurit asli Amerika; Bau Manis Kesuksesan (1957), di mana ia berperan sebagai kolumnis gosip yang kejam; dan Baku tembak di O.K. Kandang ternak (1957), di mana ia memerankan Wyatt Earp ke Doc Holliday karya Kirk Douglas.

Selama tahun 1960-an dan 1970-an, Lancaster muncul di film-film seperti tahun 1960-an Elmer Gantry, yang membuatnya mendapatkan Oscar Aktor Terbaik untuk penampilannya sebagai penipu yang berubah menjadi pengkhotbah; tahun 1961-an Penghakiman di Nuremberg, tentang pengadilan kejahatan perang Nazi Perang Dunia II; 1962-an manusia burung dari Alcatraz, yang didasarkan pada kisah nyata seorang pembunuh terpidana yang menjadi ahli burung saat berada di balik jeruji besi dan mendapatkan nominasi Aktor Terbaik Oscar untuk Lancaster; Drama sejarah 1963 sutradara Italia Luchino Visconti macan tutul, di mana Lancaster berperan sebagai bangsawan tua; 1968-an Perenang, berdasarkan cerita John Cheever; film bencana tahun 1970 Bandara; dan 1979-an Zulu Fajar, dengan Peter O'Toole dan Bob Hoskins.

Pada tahun 1980, Lancaster ikut membintangi sutradara Louis Malle's Kota Atlantik dan penampilannya sebagai gangster yang menua membuatnya mendapatkan nominasi Aktor Terbaik Academy Award keempatnya. Dia juga tampil di Pahlawan lokal (1983), di mana ia berperan sebagai pemilik perusahaan minyak eksentrik; dan 1989-an Lapangan Impian, dibintangi oleh Kevin Costner. Lancaster membentuk perusahaan produksi dengan agennya, Harold Hecht, pada 1950-an, menjadi salah satu aktor pertama di Hollywood yang melakukannya. Di antara kredit produksinya adalah tahun 1955-an Marty, yang memenangkan Academy Awards untuk Film Terbaik, Sutradara Terbaik, Skenario Terbaik dan Aktor Terbaik (Ernest Borgnine).


Hal-Hal yang Kami Pelajari Tentang Burt Reynolds Hanya Setelah Kematiannya

Burt Reynolds — aktor ikonik yang membuat kita terpesona dengan senyumnya yang menawan, kumis lebat khasnya, dan bahkan dadanya yang lebih berbulu — meninggal pada 6 September 2018 pada usia 82 tahun. Meskipun dia menghadapi masalah kesehatan, keponakannya, Nancy Lee Hess , diberi tahu Kami Mingguan bahwa kematiannya "benar-benar tidak terduga". TMZ kemudian dikonfirmasi bintang legendaris meninggal di sebuah rumah sakit Florida setelah menderita serangan jantung. Mengingat kehidupan aktor pemenang penghargaan berarti merayakan dekade kontribusinya pada industri hiburan, termasuk perannya yang tak terlupakan dalam Smokey dan Bandit, Malam Boogie, dan Pekarangan terpanjang.

Reynolds bekerja bersama bintang muda yang tak terhitung jumlahnya dan menghancurkan lebih dari beberapa hati di sepanjang jalan, termasuk ketika pernikahannya dengan WKRP di Cincinnati bintang Loni Anderson berakhir ketika ia jatuh cinta dengan seorang pramusaji bernama Pam Seals, per Berita ABC. Itu adalah hubungannya yang gagal (dan mahal) yang membombardir berita utama selama masa kejayaannya, dan setelah kematiannya, lebih banyak informasi terungkap tentang kehidupan pribadi aktor - teh yang telah terbukti sama memukaunya dengan beberapa penampilannya di layar.

Inilah yang kami pelajari tentang Burt Reynolds hanya setelah kematiannya.


Usia, Tinggi & Pengukuran

Burt Lancaster telah meninggal pada 20 Oktober 1994 (usia 80). Ia lahir di bawah horoskop Scorpio karena tanggal lahir Burt adalah 2 November. Tinggi Burt Lancaster 7 Feet 0 Inches (Perkiraan) & berat 113 lbs (51,2 kg) (Perkiraan). Saat ini kita tidak tahu tentang ukuran tubuh. Kami akan memperbaruinya di artikel ini.

Tinggi5 Kaki 1 Inci (Perkiraan)
Berat144 lbs (65,3 kg) (Perkiraan)
Pengukuran Tubuh
Warna mataCoklat tua
Warna rambutHitam
Ukuran pakaianXL
Ukuran sepatu6,5 (AS), 5,5 (Inggris Raya), 39,5 (UE), 25 (CM)

Kirk Douglas, Salah Satu Bintang Terakhir yang Bertahan Hidup di Zaman Keemasan Hollywood, Meninggal pada 103

Aktor ikonik ini mungkin meninggalkan jejaknya yang paling tak terhapuskan di bioskop dengan membela mereka yang masuk daftar hitam di Era McCarthy dengan "Spartacus" pada tahun 1960.

Oliver Jones

AFP/Getty

Kirk Douglas menyukai pertarungan yang bagus. “Dia berkelahi dengan istrinya, dia berkelahi dengan pelayannya, dia berkelahi dengan si juru masak,” Burt Lancaster, mendiang lawan mainnya, teman dan mitra larinya pernah berkata. “Tuhan tahu, dia telah bertarung denganku.”

Maka tidak mengherankan bahwa Douglas, yang meninggal pada hari Rabu, hampir dua dekade setelah menderita stroke pada tahun 1996 yang membuatnya mengalami gangguan bicara, berjuang sampai akhir. Aktor itu, salah satu dari sedikit orang yang kepribadiannya yang luar biasa tampak sama besarnya dalam kehidupan nyata seperti yang terjadi di layar lebar dan salah satu utas terakhir yang menghubungkan kita dengan pabrik impian Zaman Keemasan Hollywood, berusia 103 tahun.

"Dengan kesedihan yang luar biasa, saya dan saudara-saudara saya mengumumkan bahwa Kirk Douglas meninggalkan kami hari ini pada usia 103 tahun," kata Michael Douglas dalam sebuah pernyataan. “Bagi dunia, dia adalah seorang legenda, seorang aktor dari zaman keemasan film yang hidup dengan baik di tahun-tahun emasnya, seorang kemanusiaan yang komitmennya pada keadilan dan tujuan yang dia yakini menetapkan standar bagi kita semua untuk bercita-cita.”

"Tetapi bagi saya dan saudara laki-laki saya Joel dan Peter dia hanyalah Ayah, bagi Catherine, ayah mertua yang luar biasa, bagi cucu dan cicitnya kakek mereka yang penuh kasih, dan bagi istrinya Anne, seorang suami yang luar biasa," tulis Michael Douglas. .

“Biarkan saya mengakhiri dengan kata-kata yang saya katakan padanya pada hari ulang tahunnya yang terakhir dan yang akan selalu tetap benar. Ayah- aku sangat mencintaimu dan aku sangat bangga menjadi putramu.”

Sementara menderita stroke dan dengan berani dan publik berjuang kembali dari itu mungkin telah melunakkan citra Douglas jauh ("Sejujurnya, [dia] orang yang jauh lebih baik," adalah bagaimana putranya yang terkenal Michael mengatakannya), Douglas mempertahankan reputasi sebagai salah satu tokoh yang lebih kontroversial dalam sejarah Hollywood. Tidak peduli lawannya, dia adalah pejuang yang hampir konstan, berjuang untuk apa pun yang dia pikir benar, terbaik atau benar-benar paling mewakili dirinya yang sebenarnya.

“Saya tertarik dan terpesona oleh betapa sulitnya menjadi seorang individu,” katanya kepada Roger Ebert pada tahun 1969. “Hal yang disebut bintang film merugikan Anda. Tentu, Anda selalu dapat membuat gambar yang menarik, gambar petualangan, tetapi ketika Anda mencoba sesuatu yang berbeda mereka membuang Anda karena Anda seorang bintang. Namun tema individu itu, berjuang melawan masyarakat— selalu membuatku terobsesi.”

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"Aktor AS Michael Douglas (kiri) mencium ayahnya aktor AS Kirk Douglas (tengah) di samping aktor Burt Lancaster (kanan) selama Penghargaan Akademi Tahunan ke-57, pada 25 Maret 1985, di Hollywood, California. AFP PHOTO ROB BOREN (Sumber foto harus dibaca ROB BOREN/AFP/Getty Images)"

ROB BOREN

Seperti yang dikatakan Michael, anak tertua dari empat putra Douglas Pameran Kesombongan pada tahun 2010, “Dia adalah seorang survivalist yang sangat intens dan berbakat. Dia dikonsumsi dengan mencakar dan membuat sesuatu dari dirinya sendiri ... "

Banyak—terutama, Douglas sendiri—menelusuri intensitas ini kembali ke masa kecilnya, sang aktor menggunakan kisah hidupnya yang mirip Horatio Alger sebagai dasar dari 11 bukunya, termasuk otobiografi terlarisnya dari tahun 1988, Putra Ragman.

Lahir Issur Danielovich di Amsterdam, New York, Douglas pergi oleh Izzy Dempsky sebelum menemukan namanya ketika ia pindah ke New York City. (Douglas adalah untuk Douglas Fairbanks dan Kirk hanya karena "kedengarannya manis.") Orang tuanya adalah orang Yahudi Rusia yang buta huruf yang telah melarikan diri dari Komunis ke Pulau Ellis Douglas dan enam saudara perempuannya tumbuh berbicara bahasa Yiddish. Aman untuk mengatakan, beberapa aktor tumbuh lebih miskin.

“Orang sering menjadi aktor karena itu adalah bentuk pelarian dari dunia nyata,” kata Douglas. “Dan saya punya banyak hal untuk melarikan diri, percayalah. Itu adalah perjuangan yang luar biasa dan ada kalanya kami tidak tahu kapan makanan berikutnya datang.” Dia menemukan panggilannya sebagai anak berusia 5 tahun ketika dia membaca puisi di depan orang tua kelas satu dan menjadi terpesona oleh tepuk tangan. "Seorang aktor lahir," katanya.

Setelah sekolah menengah, Douglas berhasil masuk ke Universitas St. Lawrence, tempat dia berakting, menjadi bintang di tim gulat, dan bekerja sebagai petugas kebersihan. Selepas kuliah, ia berbicara manis tentang beasiswa dari American Academy of Dramatic Arts di New York City. Di sana ia berkencan dengan Betty Pepske dan calon istri pertamanya Diana Dill. Betty akhirnya akan mengubah namanya menjadi Lauren Bacall dan merekomendasikan kekasih lamanya ke Hal Wallis Paramount untuk tes layar.

Douglas memukul Hollywood seperti kelelawar keluar dari neraka. Ketika seseorang di studio ingin dia memperbaiki lesung pipinya yang khas, dia menjadi balistik: "Jika Anda tidak menyukai lubang di dagu saya, saya akan kembali ke Broadway!" Dalam perjuangan untuk mendapatkan kendali yang akan menandai seluruh karirnya, dia memutuskan kontrak lima kontrak gambar dengan Paramount setelah debutnya pada tahun 1946 melawan Barbara Stanwyck di Cinta Aneh Martha Ivers.

Pada tahun 1947, ia memulai kemitraan lamanya dengan Burt Lancaster dengan Aku berjalan sendirian. Itu adalah pasangan yang sempurna— Matt dan Ben dari hari itu kolumnis gosip Sheilah Graham menjuluki mereka, "Si Kembar yang Mengerikan." Kata Lancaster bertahun-tahun kemudian, “Kami berdua masih muda, sombong, sombong. Kami tahu segalanya. Tidak ada yang menyukai kami.” (Mereka tidak lebih menyukai Douglas: Photoplay menamainya orang yang paling dibenci di Hollywood selama beberapa tahun berturut-turut.)

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"Aktor AS Kirk Douglas (kiri) dan Martin Sheen (kanan) berfoto selama Festival Film Internasional Cannes ke-32, pada 14 Mei 1979. AFP PHOTO RALPH GATTI / AFP / RALPH GATTI (Sumber foto harus dibaca RALPH GATTI/AFP/Getty Images )"

RALPH GATTI

Pada saat ia mendapatkan nominasi Oscar pertamanya — tepat, itu karena bermain sebagai petinju di Champion tahun 1949 — ayah dua anak itu bercerai dari Diana dan mengembangkan reputasi epik sebagai seorang wanita pria. Dia berkencan, antara lain, Rhonda Fleming, Evelyn Keyes, Ava Gardner, Gene Tierney, Rita Heyworth, Joan Crawford, Marlena Dietrich dan Pier Angeli, yang sempat bertunangan dengannya.

Itu adalah penghitungan yang cukup mengesankan bahwa reputasi itu akan menghantuinya sepanjang hidupnya terlepas dari kenyataan bahwa dia menikahi Anne Buydens di Vegas pada tahun 1957 dan mereka tetap setia satu sama lain sampai kematiannya. “Ya, untuk seorang pria yang Anda sebut seorang penggoda wanita, saya sudah menikah selama 57 tahun,” katanya pada 2011. “Dan saya masih menulis puisi cintanya. Saya menulis beberapa puisi untuknya. Dalam satu, saya berkata, 'Romantis dimulai pada 80.'”

Dengan Stanley Kubrick's Spartacus pada tahun 1960, Douglas mungkin akan meninggalkan jejaknya yang paling tak terhapuskan di bioskop baik sebagai aktor maupun sebagai produser yang bersikeras bahwa penulis skenario yang masuk daftar hitam Dalton Trumbo dikreditkan dengan benar untuk naskahnya.

"Itu adalah waktu yang mengerikan dalam sejarah Hollywood," katanya kepada Wawancara. “Seharusnya itu tidak pernah terjadi. Kita seharusnya melawannya. Tapi itu sudah berakhir dan saya, di usia tua saya, merasa terhibur dengan kenyataan yang saya ingat.” (Beberapa berpendapat bahwa Douglas, yang menerbitkan I Am Spartacus!: Membuat Film, Mendobrak Daftar Hitam pada tahun 2012 mungkin telah melebih-lebihkan perannya dalam memecahkan daftar hitam.)


Dari Arsip: Pemenang Oscar Burt Lancaster Meninggal pada usia 80

Burt Lancaster, pemain, produser, pesenam dan ikonoklas—yang sejak awal selalu menjadi bintang—telah meninggal, istrinya mengumumkan Jumat.

Pemenang Academy Award berusia 80 tahun dan pernah menjadi atlet papan atas itu mengalami penurunan kesehatan sejak menderita stroke hampir empat tahun lalu. Dia meninggal Kamis malam karena serangan jantung di kondominium Century City mereka, kata Susan Lancaster, menambahkan bahwa tidak akan ada pemakaman dan pemakaman akan dilakukan secara pribadi.

Lancaster relatif mengasingkan diri sejak dia dirawat di rumah sakit di Los Alamitos pada November 1990. Dia menderita stroke saat mengunjungi temannya di Orange County dan akhir-akhir ini menolak pengunjung, bahkan teman lama seperti Kirk Douglas.

Stroke menjadi yang terakhir dari sederet penyakit fisik yang menimpa bintang kejantanan dan serba bisa di lebih dari 70 film itu.

Pada tahun 1983 ia menjalani operasi bypass arteri koroner ganda, dan ia terus menderita penyakit jantung.

Meskipun ia memfilmkan "Little Treasure" enam bulan setelah operasi dan terus bekerja dengan mantap di film dan televisi, Lancaster ditolak peran judul dalam "Old Gringo" pada tahun 1988 karena kesehatannya. Columbia Pictures memutuskan bahwa asuransi untuknya akan terlalu mahal, dan memilih Gregory Peck sebagai gantinya.

Tapi Lancaster bangkit kembali dari kemunduran itu untuk memberikan kinerja yang digembar-gemborkan di "Field of Dreams" pada tahun 1989, menggambarkan Moonlight Graham, mantan pemain bola yang memiliki sikat singkat dengan kemuliaan atletik sebelum menjadi dokter.

Dengan peran itu, seperti lusinan orang lain sepanjang karir aktingnya yang panjang, Lancaster seolah-olah dilahirkan untuk pekerjaan pilihannya.

Beberapa aktor berjuang ke atas melalui peran kecil untuk memimpin kedua ke status bintang yang lain mengutip persiapan akademis, dimulai dengan kursus drama perguruan tinggi dan berkembang melalui Aktor Studio dan saham musim panas untuk pengakuan profesional.

Lancaster tidak mengambil kursus dan tidak memainkan peran kedua, tetapi merupakan bintang yang bonafide dari penampilan layar pertamanya pada tahun 1946 hingga beberapa tahun sebelum kematiannya.

Kadang-kadang prestasi karirnya tampak terlalu banyak untuk menjadi nyata, apalagi dikenang.

Penghargaan Akademi yang ia menangkan untuk "Elmer Gantry" pada tahun 1960 dan penghargaan Festival Film Venesia yang ia terima dua tahun kemudian untuk "The Birdman of Alcatraz" dikenang. Tapi banyak yang lupa Oscar sebelumnya yang dia bagikan dengan Harold Hecht sebagai co-produser "Marty," yang terpilih sebagai film terbaik tahun 1955.

Karya Lancaster dalam produksi drama besar seperti “Come Back, Little Sheba,” “From Here to Eternity,” “Judgment at Nuremberg,” “The Rainmaker,” “Seven Days in May” dan “Atlantic City” cenderung membayangi karyanya. dalam film-film seperti "Trapeze," "The Flame and the Arrow" dan "The Crimson Pirate," yang menampilkan sisi ringan dari sifatnya.

Diberitahu tentang kematian Lancaster, Kirk Douglas mengatakan hubungan 50 tahun mereka sangat berharga. Douglas mengatakan bahwa setelah dia selamat dari kecelakaan helikopter beberapa tahun yang lalu, dia menyadari "betapa pentingnya kehidupan dan teman-teman sebenarnya."

"Burt bukan hanya seorang aktor," tambah Douglas. “Dia adalah seorang intelektual yang ingin tahu dengan kecintaan abadi pada opera yang terus-menerus mencari karakter unik untuk digambarkan. . . . Elmer Gantry. . . Manusia Burung dari Alcatraz.”

Mengingat film-film yang dia dan Lancaster buat bersama dan lusinan gambar lain yang menampilkan tukang lantai dan penjual yang blak-blakan, Douglas berkata:

“Kau tahu, Burt tidak benar-benar mati. . . . Orang-orang bertahun-tahun dari sekarang masih akan melihat kami saling menembak. . . masih menontonnya di banyak film hebat lainnya. Setidaknya dia sudah tenang sekarang.”

Burton Stephen Lancaster lahir 2 November 1913, di bagian East Harlem di New York City, bersekolah di Public School 83 dan DeWitt Clinton High School, dan sering berkata bahwa dia mungkin telah “tumbuh menjadi polisi atau penjahat ( saudara laki-lakinya menjadi polisi, beberapa teman bermain masa kecilnya akan berakhir di Sing Sing) jika bukan karena atletik dan perpustakaan umum.”

Tingginya 6 kaki, 2 inci pada saat dia berusia 14 tahun, dengan fisik yang serak dan refleks yang cepat yang membuatnya mendapatkan beasiswa atletik ke Universitas New York. Pikiran yang waspada dan penuh perhatian memberinya kegemaran seumur hidup terhadap buku. Tetapi pendidikan formal mulai membuatnya bosan pada pertengahan tahun keduanya dan dia berhenti kuliah untuk bergabung dengan sirkus.

Dia bekerja sama dengan teman masa kecil dan mitra senam Nick Cravat—yang kemudian bergabung dengannya untuk aksi di depan kamera di “The Crimson Pirate” dan “The Flame and the Arrow”—dan membentuk tim akrobatik Lang dan Cravat, mendapatkan pekerjaan dengan pertunjukan Kay Bros. dengan gaji $3 per minggu dan makan tiga kali sehari.

“Saya tahu,” katanya di tahun-tahun berikutnya, “bahwa saya telah menemukan hal yang ingin saya lakukan selama sisa hidup saya—satu-satunya pertanyaan adalah bagian bisnis mana yang terbaik.”

Dari tahun 1932 hingga 1937, tim Lang dan Cravat bekerja dengan mantap: pertunangan Kay Bros digantikan dengan pertunangan serupa (namun dibayar lebih baik) dengan Gorman Bros. Circus. Ini diikuti dengan peralihan ke pertunjukan keliling Barnett Bros., dan akhirnya ke tur dengan Ringling Bros. dan Barnum & Bailey—kemudian, seperti sekarang, puncak dunia sirkus di Amerika Utara.

"Tapi rasanya kurang pas," katanya. “Saya merasa ada yang kurang. Astaga, aku ingin bicara. . . .”

Jadi dia berhenti berakting untuk sementara waktu untuk tampil dengan Proyek Teater Administrasi Kemajuan Pekerjaan era Depresi.

"Tapi itu tidak benar-benar berhasil untuk saya," katanya kepada pewawancara selama bertahun-tahun. “Saya telah membentuk kebiasaan makan tiga kali sehari, dan itu sulit dilakukan dengan kemampuan Proyek Teater. Jadi kembali saya pergi ke Lang dan Cravat.

Beberapa minggu setelah kembali ke sirkus, salah satu jarinya terinfeksi dan dokter memberinya pilihan: berhenti bermain akrobat profesional, atau amputasi wajah.

“Saya memutuskan untuk tetap menjaga jari saya,” katanya, “dan pergi mencari pekerjaan lain—di luar sirkus, bahkan di luar bidang hiburan.”

Selama tiga tahun berikutnya, dia secara bergiliran menjadi floorwalker di departemen pakaian dalam di toko Marshall Field di Chicago, seorang salesman di departemen pakaian di toko yang sama, seorang petugas pemadam kebakaran, seorang sopir truk, dan seorang insinyur untuk pabrik pengepakan daging.

Kembali ke New York, ia menemukan pekerjaan di Columbia Concerts Bureau (anak perusahaan jaringan CBS yang memasok musik ke kota-kota kecil di seluruh negeri). Namun sebelum dia dapat menjalankan tugas barunya sebagai agen pemesanan, dia menerima draft pemberitahuannya.

“Saya memiliki waktu yang menyenangkan,” katanya, “mengunjungi Afrika Utara, Italia, dan Austria sebagai pembalik halaman untuk seorang pianis tentara!”

Namun, tahun-tahun Perang Dunia II memang mengarah pada satu kontak penting.

Itu dengan penghibur USO bernama Norma Anderson. Mereka tetap berhubungan selama sisa perang, dan segera setelah perang berakhir, dia menggunakan cuti dan voucher perjalanan selama 45 hari untuk mencarinya di New York, tempat dia bekerja untuk produser radio.

Dia berada di lift, dalam perjalanan ke kantornya, ketika dia menyadari seorang penumpang sedang menatapnya.

"Ketika saya turun di lantai Norma," katanya, "pria itu mengikuti, dan saya harus mengakui bahwa dia benar-benar mulai mengkhawatirkan saya ketika dia mengeluarkan kartu nama."

Pria itu mengidentifikasi dirinya sebagai rekan produser panggung Irving Jacobs dan dia mengundang Lancaster untuk membaca bagian dari seorang sersan tangguh dalam drama baru berjudul "A Sound of Hunting."

Lancaster mendapat peran dan meskipun drama itu hanya bertahan selama lima minggu, pengulas dengan suara bulat memuji mereka. Mereka membawa pramuka film ke drama itu dan tujuh tawaran kontrak layar dihasilkan.

Tapi dia tidak menerima satupun dari mereka. Sebagai gantinya, dia menandatangani kontrak dengan Hecht, yang datang ke belakang panggung untuk membuat penawaran yang tidak dimiliki orang lain, memberi tahu Lancaster, "Dalam lima tahun kami akan membuat gambar kami sendiri."

Mereka berjabat tangan untuk itu, dan memulai asosiasi bisnis yang menghasilkan pasokan film, jutaan, dan Oscar yang hampir tak terputus untuk seperempat abad berikutnya.

Langkah pertama Hecht adalah menandatangani kontrak dengan Lancaster dengan Hal Wallis yang meminta dua gambar setahun aktor pemula naik kereta ke Hollywood, siap untuk mulai bekerja sekaligus pada film berjudul "Desert Fury." Tetapi pada saat kedatangan dia menemukan bahwa naskahnya belum siap.

Produser Mark Hellinger, bagaimanapun, telah melihat tes layar Lancaster, dan menginginkan dia untuk peran pahlawan terkutuk dari Swedia dalam "The Killers," berdasarkan cerita pendek Ernest Hemingway.


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Burt Lancaster, seorang bintang Hollywood, meninggal pada usia 80 setelah serangan jantung pada tahun 1994

Burt Lancaster, putra seorang petugas pos East Harlem yang otak dan ototnya mengubahnya menjadi bintang Hollywood dengan daya tarik luar biasa, kemarin ditangisi sebagai "raksasa" setelah kematiannya pada usia 80 tahun.

Lancaster, yang menderita stroke empat tahun lalu yang membuatnya tidak dapat berbicara atau mengenali teman-temannya, meninggal Kamis karena serangan jantung di rumahnya di Los Angeles, kata istrinya, Susan Scherer.

"Dia membelai rambut saya dan menyentuh wajah saya, dan dia menghela nafas dan hanya itu," kata Scherer.

"Dia pergi dengan sangat, sangat damai. Kami bersama, terima kasih Tuhan," tambahnya. "Minggu terakhir ini dia lebih baik dari sebelumnya. Itu benar-benar kejutan."

Lancaster, lulusan DeWitt Clinton High School di Bronx, membawa stereotip kasar dari film pria tangguh ke pesawat baru, memperkaya kejantanan layarnya dengan kepekaan dan perhatian. Karirnya membentang lebih dari empat dekade dan 70 film, dari cemberut tangguh hingga pria terkemuka hingga aktor karakter. Bahkan di senja karirnya, perawakannya hanya dikonfirmasi oleh kepedihan penampilannya.

Dia memenangkan Oscar untuk film tahun 1960 "Elmer Gantry." Film kenangan lainnya termasuk "The Birdman of Alcatraz," "From Here to Eternity," "Smell of Success," "Atlantic City," "Judgement at Nuremberg," "The Rose Tattoo" dan "Local Hero."

"Ada banyak aktor bagus, tetapi hanya ada sedikit aktor yang unik. Seperti Cagney dan Bogart, Burt adalah salah satunya," kata lawan mainnya di "Elmer Gantry", Shirley Jones.

"Ini adalah kematian raksasa sekarang," kata teman dan lawan mainnya Kirk Douglas kemarin. "Tapi Burt tidak akan pernah mati. Kita akan selalu bisa melihatnya berayun dari yardarm di 'The Crimson Pirate' ... dan menembak bersamaku di 'Gunfight at the O.K. Kandang ternak.'"

"Saya merasa industri telah kehilangan orang yang luar biasa, orang yang selalu antusias dengan film yang dia buat. Tidak peduli apa materinya, dia selalu memberikan apa yang saya sebut 100% nyata," kata lawan main "Birdman" Karl Malden.

Setelah menjalankan tugas sebagai pemain akrobat sirkus dan penghibur Angkatan Darat, karier film Lancaster ditandai dengan peran fisik dan intens, tetapi ia juga tampil baik di bagian sensitif.

Tetapi bahkan sebagai seorang bintang, dia tidak pernah lupa dari mana dia berasal, menyumbangkan uang untuk amal East Harlem. Dia juga sangat percaya pada tujuan liberal dan pernah menjabat sebagai presiden American Civil Liberties Union.

Lahir sebagai Burton Stephen Lancaster pada 2 November 1913, di Third Ave. dan 106th St., aktor tersebut adalah putra seorang petugas pos East Harlem. Setelah sekolah menengah, ia kuliah di Universitas New York dengan beasiswa bola basket.

Tapi Lancaster keluar dari NYU di tahun keduanya untuk membentuk tim akrobatik dengan teman masa kecil Nick Cravat. Duo ini kemudian menghabiskan beberapa tahun tur dengan sirkus, vaudeville, dan klub malam.

Dirancang selama Perang Dunia II, Lancaster menghabiskan sebagian besar tur tugasnya menghibur pasukan. Pada tahun 1945 ia memulai karir aktingnya dengan tampil dalam produksi Broadway yang ditutup setelah dua pertunjukan.


Burton Stephen "Burt" Lancaster adalah seorang aktor film, sutradara dan produser yang lahir pada 2 November 1913 di Manhattan, New York City AS, dan merupakan nominasi Academy Award empat kali, menang untuk penampilannya dalam "Elmer Gantry" (1960). Untuk karyanya dalam "The Birdman of Alcatraz" (1962) dan "Atlantic City" (1980), ia menerima Golden Globe dan BAFTA Award, dan karya terkenal lainnya termasuk film seperti "Marty" (1955), "Trapeze ”(1956), “Bau Manis Sukses”(1957), “Tabel Terpisah”(1958) di antara banyak lainnya. Dia meninggal pada Oktober 1994.

Pernahkah Anda bertanya-tanya seberapa kaya Burt Lancaster? Menurut sumber, diperkirakan bahwa kekayaan bersih keseluruhan Burt Lancaster adalah $ 40 juta, terakumulasi selama hampir setengah abad karir aktingnya. Karena dia juga memiliki usaha mengarahkan dan memproduksi, mereka juga menambah kekayaan bersihnya.

Burt Lancaster Kekayaan Bersih $40 Juta

Terlahir sebagai salah satu dari lima bersaudara dalam keluarga, Burt membuktikan bakat atletik yang menonjol sebagai anak muda. Dia berusia 19 tahun ketika dia bergabung dengan sirkus untuk tampil dalam aksi akrobatik dengan teman seumur hidupnya Nick Cravat, yang kemudian ikut membintangi beberapa filmnya. Selama Perang Dunia II, Lancaster bertugas di ketentaraan dan sebagai hasil tampil di pertunjukan USO, ia mengembangkan minat dalam akting. Ketika perang usai, ia mendapatkan pekerjaan akting profesional pertamanya di drama Broadway "A Sound of Hunting" (1945), dan penampilannya diperhatikan oleh pencari bakat yang membawanya ke Hollywood.

Film debut Burt datang dua tahun kemudian dengan "Desert Fury", dan pertama kali mendapat perhatian publik dalam film klasik noir "The Killers" (1946). Lancaster menghindari typecasting Hollywood, dan segera mengambil kendali atas karirnya dengan mendirikan perusahaan produksi Hecht-Hill-Lancaster pada tahun 1948, dan dengan membangun reputasinya sebagai aktor serba bisa. Sepanjang karirnya, ia muncul dalam berbagai film berkualitas, mempertahankan puncak popularitas sepanjang akhir 40-an, 50-an dan 60-an berkat peran dalam film seperti "I Walk Alone", "All My Sons", "Maaf, Salah Number”, “Criss Cross”, “The Crimson Pirate”, “Come Back, Little Sheba” dan banyak lainnya. Dia mendapatkan nominasi Academy Award pertamanya untuk perannya dalam “From Here to Eternity” (1953), yang semuanya membantu peningkatan kekayaan bersihnya.

Serangkaian perannya berlanjut hingga tahun-tahun berikutnya, saat ia muncul di hits “Apache”, “Trapeze”, dan “Run Silent, Run Deep”. Untuk penampilannya yang karismatik dalam “Elmer Gantry” (1960), Burt memenangkan Academy Award, dan setahun kemudian, setelah memerankan penjahat perang Nazi dalam “Judgment at Nuremburg” (1961), ia dinominasikan untuk Oscar lainnya. Film terkenal lainnya selama tahun 60-an termasuk "Seven Days in May", "The Train", "The Professionals" dan "The Swimmer". Meskipun film pertamanya di tahun 70-an adalah bencana, Lancaster berakting dalam beberapa film terkenal selama dekade itu juga, termasuk perannya dalam "1900" karya Bertolucci. Pada tahun-tahun berikutnya, lebih banyak peran karakter datang, seperti dengan Kirk Douglas di “Tough Guys” (1986) dan penggambarannya yang mengharukan dari Doctor Graham di “Field of Dreams” (1989).

Dia memberikan penampilan terakhirnya di miniseri TV "Separate but Equal" (1991) setelah itu dia pensiun karena masalah kesehatan, muncul di hampir 80 film di layar lebar dan lebih dari selusin di TV. Dia diberi peringkat oleh American Film Institute sebagai bintang pria terbesar ke-19 dari sinema Hollywood klasik.

Ketika datang ke kehidupan pribadinya, Lancaster menikah tiga kali. Dua pernikahan pertamanya berakhir dengan perceraian, dengan June Ernst (1935-46) dan Norma Anderson (1946-69) ia menikahi istri ketiganya, Susan Martin pada tahun 1990 dan tinggal bersamanya sampai kematiannya pada 20 Oktober 1994 di Century City, Los Angeles, California, Amerika Serikat. Dia adalah ayah dari lima anak, semuanya bersama Norma.


Kehidupan dan biografi Burt Lancaster

Tanggal lahir : 1913-11-02
Tanggal kematian : 1994-10-20
Tempat Lahir : Kota New York, New York, AS
Kebangsaan: Amerika
Kategori : Tokoh Terkenal
Terakhir diubah : 2011-01-22
Dikreditkan sebagai: Aktor film, Elmer Gantry, The Birdman of Alcatraz (1962)

Burt Lancaster , salah satu bintang film paling populer sepanjang masa, tidak pernah ingin menjadi aktor. Jatuh ke dunia akting secara kebetulan, Lancaster kemudian menjadi bintang, meskipun ia tidak memiliki pelatihan dramatis. Dia membuat 85 film selama karirnya yang panjang dan memenangkan Academy Award.

Burton Stephen Lancaster, anak keempat dari lima bersaudara, lahir pada 2 November 1913 di New York City dari pasangan James Lancaster, seorang pekerja pos, dan Elizabeth Roberts Lancaster. Meskipun keluarga itu adalah keturunan dari keturunan Irlandia dan Inggris, mereka tinggal di Harlem Timur Italia. Ketika Lancaster dan saudara-saudaranya sudah cukup dewasa, mereka menyekop salju, menjual koran, dan menyemir sepatu untuk mendapatkan uang bagi keluarga. Sementara James Lancaster adalah ayah yang lembut dan hangat, Elizabeth adalah seorang disipliner yang ketat, menanamkan pada anak-anaknya nilai-nilai kejujuran dan kesetiaan, dengan cambuk jika perlu. Dia tidak memiliki prasangka terhadap banyak kelompok etnis yang berbeda di lingkungannya dan memperlakukan mereka semua dengan baik, yang membuat kesan yang kuat pada putranya.

Lancaster menghadiri Sekolah Umum 121 untuk kelas dasar yang lebih rendah. Di sana dia melakukannya dengan baik, terutama dalam membaca dan menulis. Dia kemudian dipindahkan ke Sekolah Umum 83, di mana dia menikmati bahasa Inggris dan sejarah, tetapi buruk dalam matematika. Lancaster suka membaca dan mengaku telah membaca setiap buku di perpustakaan 110th Street pada saat dia berusia 14 tahun. Dia juga menyukai film, terutama film Douglas Fairbanks, tetapi dia tidak ingin menjadi aktor. Sampai dia berusia 15 tahun, Lancaster ingin menjadi penyanyi opera. Sepanjang hidupnya ia mempertahankan kecintaannya pada opera dan musik simfoni.

Pada usia 13, Lancaster kehilangan lemak bayinya dan tumbuh menjadi pria muda yang tinggi dan atletis. Dia berlari di jalan-jalan dan taman dengan anak-anak tetangga, dan di Union Settlement House dia muncul dalam sebuah drama. Seorang sutradara terkenal, Richard Boleslavsky, melihatnya di pertunjukan dan sangat terkesan, dia mendiskusikan kemungkinan sekolah drama dengan Elizabeth Lancaster. Putranya, bagaimanapun, tidak bersedia, menyebut akting "hal banci."

Di kamp, ​​​​ketika dia berusia sembilan tahun, Lancaster bertemu teman seumur hidupnya, Nick Cravat, seorang lelaki kecil yang tangguh yang nantinya akan bekerja dengan Lancaster. Lancaster bersekolah di DeWitt Clinton High, sekolah akademik khusus laki-laki untuk siswa yang ingin melanjutkan ke perguruan tinggi. Di tahun terakhirnya, ibu Lancaster meninggal karena nefritis usus kronis. Dia lulus dari sekolah menengah pada tanggal 26 Juni 1930 dan masuk Universitas New York pada bulan September 1931. Dia berharap menjadi guru olahraga dan terlibat dengan senam. Lancaster meninggalkan perguruan tinggi di awal tahun keduanya dan bergabung dengan sirkus dengan temannya Cravat. Mereka mendapatkan tiga dolar seminggu sebagai akrobat.

Lancaster bertemu June Ernst, seorang akrobat, dan menikahinya pada tahun 1935 ketika dia berusia 21 tahun dan dia berusia 18 tahun. Mereka berpisah pada tahun 1937 dan bercerai pada tahun 1940. Pada tahun yang sama, ketika Lancaster melukai tangan kanannya dengan serius, dia memutuskan untuk berhenti bermain sirkus. Dia bekerja untuk sebuah department store, sebuah perusahaan pendingin, dan di beberapa pekerjaan lain, termasuk sebagai pelayan penyanyi, sampai dia direkrut menjadi Angkatan Darat AS pada tahun 1942.

Lancaster became part of Special Services, whose purpose was to entertain the soldiers and provide them with off-duty activities. He began as an athletic instructor, moving on to the job of entertainment specialist, where he wrote, directed and performed in skits.

While putting on shows for the troops in Italy in 1944, Lancaster met the woman who was to become his second wife, Norma Anderson, a United Service Organization (USO) entertainer. Later, in New York, Lancaster visited Anderson, who worked for ABC radio. In the building's elevator, a man asked him if he was an actor. Lancaster responded that he was a "dumb actor," meaning he performed without words, as an acrobat. A few minutes later, the man telephoned the office where Lancaster was visiting and asked him to audition for the play, A Sound of Hunting.

Lancaster got the part. After three weeks of rehearsals, the play opened on November 6, 1945 and closed three weeks later. Lancaster then got an agent, Harold Hecht, and signed a contract with Hal Wallis Productions, Inc. on January 8, 1946 to make two films a year for seven years. He was also able to work for other companies. Lancaster took the train to California with one set of clothes and thirty dollars.

Not only was Lancaster a capable actor, but he looked very good on camera. He stood six feet two inches tall, weighed 180 pounds, and had a large chest and a small waist. He looked younger than his thirty-two years and had a gorgeous smile and bright blue eyes. While waiting to make his first film for Hal Wallis, Lancaster signed a contract with Mark Hellinger to make one picture a year for up to five years. Lancaster was paid $2,500 a week for his work in The Killers, which became a big hit and launched Lancaster's film career. He later said of that time, as quoted in a Sidney Skolsky syndicated column of 1950, "I woke up one day a star. It was terrifying."

After finishing the film, Lancaster drove back east to be with Anderson, who had given birth to their first child, James, on June 30, 1946. Lancaster and Anderson had not yet married, but would do so on December 28, 1946 in Yuma, Arizona. Their second son, Billy, was born in November of 1947.

On Lancaster's second film, Desert Fury, the actor argued angrily with the director when he disagreed about how something should be done in the film. This was a habit he never lost and stemmed from his intense involvement with his work. In his third film, I Walk Alone, Lancaster starred with Kirk Douglas, with whom he would make other films, including Gunfight at the O.K. Kandang ternak. The two had a love-hate relationship until Lancaster's death.

In September 1947, the House Un-American Activities Committee subpoenaed 34 people from Hollywood to investigate the extent of Communist infiltration in the movie industry. To protest, several people in the industry, including Lancaster, formed the Committee for the First Amendment. This represented the beginning of his involvement with liberal political causes. In March 1948, Lancaster began work on Kiss the Blood off My Hands, the first project of his new company, Hecht-Norma Productions, that he had formed with Harold Hecht.

In July 1948, Lancaster bought his first home. Located in Bel-Air, the large colonial housed the Lancasters, Burt's father, and Burt's widowed sister-in-law, Julia. Over the years Lancaster added a pool, tennis court, guesthouse, projection room, gym, kennel, and a baseball diamond. Lancaster also began collecting modern French paintings. He loved playing bridge and took the game very seriously.

In 1949, Lancaster began an affair with actress Shelley Winters. His marriage to Norma had problems because of her drinking, and Lancaster was often unfaithful. Norma gave birth to their third child, Susan, in July 1949. In 1950, when Norma again became pregnant, Winters realized that her relationship with Lancaster had no future. She burned all her photos of him and ended the affair.

In 1952, Lancaster made the film Come Back, Little Sheba with actress Shirley Booth. Twenty years later, Lancaster would call Booth the finest actress he had ever worked with. His portrayal of a middle-aged alcoholic surprised audiences and displayed his acting abilities and willingness not to be typecast. Of this shift in his career, he later said, in an article in Films and Filming, "Suddenly they began to think of me as a serious actor."

In 1953, Lancaster starred in From Here to Eternity as Sgt. Warden, a tough, serious soldier who falls in love with his commanding officer's wife. The film contains one of the most famous love scenes of all times, with Lancaster and his co-star Deborah Kerr kissing on a beach as waves wash over them. From Here to Eternity earned more money than any other film in the history of Columbia Pictures to that point. Lancaster won the New York Film Critics Circle Award for the best actor of 1953. He was nominated for, but did not win, the Academy Award for best actor of that year.

In 1954, Lancaster directed his first movie, The Kentuckian, in which he also starred. Directing had been a dream of his, but after the lukewarm reception the film received, Lancaster was terribly disappointed and directed only one other movie, The Midnight Man, in 1974.

Lancaster starred in Elmer Gantry, (1960), about a larger-than-life evangelist. Later Lancaster was to say that of all the roles he had played, Elmer Gantry was the most like himself. Gary Fishgall wrote in Against Type: The Biography of Burt Lancaster, "If one had to chose a single picture from the prime of Lancaster's career to define the essence of his stardom, Elmer Gantry would be that film." For his work in the film Lancaster won the New York Film Critics Award for best actor of 1960, the Golden Globe for best motion picture actor in a drama, for 1960, and the Academy Award for best actor of 1960.

In late 1960, Lancaster began filming Birdman of Alcatraz, in which he plays a prisoner who raises birds. Lancaster became very emotionally involved with his role. "One of the problems an actor faces, and it's a very dangerous thing, is to get so involved in a role he loses control of what he is doing. With Birdman of Alcatraz, I couldn't stop crying throughout the film," Lancaster explained in Take 22: Moviemakers on Moviemaking. He was nominated for an Academy Award for his portrayal of Robert Stroud.

Lancaster began filming Judgment at Nuremberg in early 1961. The movie detailed the 1948 war crimes trial of four Nazi judges. Lancaster played Ernst Janning, but was not popular in the role.

In September 1961, Lancaster's father died. James Lancaster had lived with his son since 1947. The two had been very close. In November of that year, the Lancaster's home burned to the ground in a fire that destroyed 456 homes in Bel-Air. Luckily Lancaster's art collection survived since it had been lent to the Los Angeles County Art Museum only the week before. The family rebuilt their home on the same site.

In 1964, Lancaster began filming The Hallelujah Trail in New Mexico. On the set he met a hairdresser named Jackie Bone, who would be his girlfriend for the next 20 years. Although Lancaster was still married to Norma, he fell very much in love with Bone. He and Norma finally separated in 1967, but did not divorce until 1969. The end of his marriage was hard on Lancaster, who considered himself a family man, but he could not deal with his wife's alcoholism. Lancaster's relationship with Bone was stormy. Once they argued in a restaurant and Bone broke a pitcher over his head.

As the 1970s began, Lancaster had not had a successful movie for three years. His good looks were fading, and he drank to excess. He became depressed. Although he made 14 films in the 1970s, they were not very popular. In 1973, Lancaster and Bone moved to Rome. He learned to speak some Italian, cook spaghetti and even grew his own herbs for cooking. Their relationship remained stormy, and he cheated on her, as he had with Norma. The couple moved back to the U.S. in 1976.

In late 1979, Lancaster began work on Atlantic City, a film about two elderly gangsters. It was the first film in which he played a senior citizen. For his work in the film, Lancaster earned several awards including the BAFTA Film Award for best actor, 1980 the Los Angeles Film Critics Association award for best actor, 1980 and the New York Film Critics Circle Award for best actor, 1980.

At a party in 1985, Lancaster met Susie Scherer, a legal secretary who began to work for him. They fell in love and married in September 1990. In 1988, Lancaster made the very popular film Field of Dreams, his last film for the big screen. Lancaster's last work was a television mini-series called "Separate But Equal."

In November 1990, Lancaster suffered a major stroke which left him with paralysis on his right side and difficulty speaking. Lancaster died in Century City, California on October 20, 1994, only two weeks away from his 81st birthday.

Fishgall, Gary, Against Type: The Biography of Burt Lancaster, Scribner, 1995.


The Coded Queer Lives of a Hollywood Classic

“The Cat’s in the Bag, the Bag’s in the River”

What were we meant to be feeling at the movies in the 1950s on hearing a line like this? What do we feel now? What is this insinuating rumor about the cat, the bag, and the river getting at? How did movies make such magic out of masked meanings?

We looked at the screen, and things there seemed so real or emphatic—the men, the women, the sky, the night, and New York. Di dalam Sweet Smell of Success (1957) you believed you could sniff the black-and-white stink of the city. Wasn’t that in the contract as light ate into film’s silver salts? But the things depicted were also elements in a dream—nothing else looks like black-and-white. And because we believe dreams have inner meanings, not meant to be understood so much as lived with, we guessed there might be a secret within the facts. Was it just a gorgeous, repellent mood in Sweet Smell, or was a larger odor hanging over the film?

“The cat’s in the bag, the bag’s in the river,” Sidney Falco says to J. J. Hunsecker as information or promise, even as endearment. Those two rats play a game together called bad mouth. In 1957 in Sweet Smell the line had the click of hard-boiled poetry or of a gun being cocked. It said that some secret business was in hand, cool, calm, and collected but also dirty and shaming until you dressed it up in swagger. We were sinking into rotten poetry. I felt for that cat, and wondered if its death was being signaled but I guessed the scrag of wet fur was alive still—it was a secret and secrets don’t die, they only wait. The very line said, What do you think I mean? And that’s what the best movies are always asking. Sometimes you revisit those 1950s movies and feel the cat’s accusing eyes staring at you through the bag and the rising river.

Some people treasure Sweet Smell of Success because it’s so unsentimental, so gritty. I don’t buy that. Long before its close the story becomes tedious and woefully moralistic. It shuts itself down, and then the wisecrack lines are stale garnish on day-old prawn cocktail. Admit it: after sixty years, a lot of “great” films can seem better suited to museums than packed places where people want to be surprised for the first time, sekarang. In museums, as on DVDs, the films can seem very fine, yet not much happens while you’re watching except the working of your self-conscious respect. But power in a movie should be instant and irrational it grabs at dread and desire and often involves more danger than contemplation.

Sweet Smell is that good or grabby for at least half an hour—and in 1957 that came close enough to horror or fascination to alarm audiences. Perhaps that’s why the scabrous movie had to ease back, turn routine, go dull, whatever you want to say. Would it have been too disturbing for the movie business—which includes us, the audience—if Sweet Smell of Success had gone all the way and let its cat out of the bag?

As written first by Ernest Lehmann, then rewritten by Clifford Odets, and directed by Alexander Mackendrick, Sweet Smell is set in the old newspaper world of New York City. J. J. Hunsecker is an indecently potent gossip columnist on the New York Globe. The hoardings in the city call him the Eyes of Broadway, with the image of his cold stare and armored spectacles. At the time, there was talk that Hunsecker was based on a real columnist, Walter Winchell. That’s not incorrect. But how many now know who Winchell was then? Whereas a lot of us still respond to the smothered hostility in Burt Lancaster and react to the gloating tension he has in the lm with Tony Curtis.

Lancaster played Hunsecker his own company (Hecht-Hill-Lancaster) produced the movie. So Burt was in charge, and he is filmed throughout the story as a monarch who sits still and orders the execution of others with the flicker of an eye or a hushed word. That verdict will be passed finally on Sidney Falco (Tony Curtis), a scuttling press agent who survives by getting items into Hunsecker’s column and so can be engaged to do whatever ugly deeds J.J. requires. A refined, codependent slavery exists between them: J.J. smiles and Sidney smiles, but not at the same time. It is the toxic pact between these two that makes the film disturbing for at least thirty minutes—but it might have been a greater film still if it could have seen or admitted that their mutual loathing is the only thing that keeps them from being lovers.

This was not admitted in 1957, and no one can blame a commercial movie of that era for lacking the courage or even the self-awareness that would have been so direct about a destructive homosexual relationship. If Burt had felt that subtext, his company would never have made the picture. But Burt the man and the actor cannot resist the allure of the secret. He looks at Sidney and at his own position like a charmer looking at a snake and seeing danger. Belum Sweet Smell plays out finally as one more melodrama of good people and bad people—the way Hollywood liked to tell us the world worked. The radical situation of the lm is that Sidney fears and needs J.J. while the columnist despises but needs Sidney. There’s no room for conventional affection, let alone love, but dependency is like cigarette smoke at the nightclubs where the two rats live. And it reaches poetry in the vicious zigzag talk that joins these men at the hip.

They know each other like a married couple.

The talk seems lifelike—you can believe you are hearing two cynical professionals whose venom is ink the insults feel printed. But it’s hard for movies to stop at that. In the conspiracy of close-ups and crosscutting, and in the pressure to hold audience attention, the talk becomes musical, rhythmic, a self-sufficient rapture, and even the subject of a film.

Sidney goes to the 21 Club, sure that J.J. will be there, in his element. They know each other like a married couple. JJ is at his table, holding court—he is a little like Vito Corleone at the start of The Godfather, but not as warm or amiable. Hunsecker is receiving a U.S. senator—a weak officeholder he has known for years—a groveling talent agent, and a blonde woman the agent is touting (and providing for the senator’s pleasure). The blonde is named Linda James. She maintains she is a singer. She is played by an actress named Autumn Russell who had a dozen movie credits before fading away she is good here as a woman past youthful freshness, attractive yet desperately preserved, painfully available, and about to be humiliated.

Sidney sits down at the table, beside but a little behind Hunsecker. JJ begins to order him away, but Sidney has a password, a way into J.J.’s need—he has something to tell him about Hunsecker’s sister. So the powerful man relents and Sidney stays. Then Miss James, trying to be pleasant, wonders out loud if Sidney is an actor.

“How did you guess it, Miss James?” asks Hunsecker, scenting revenge.

“He’s so pretty, that’s how,” she responds. And let it be said, Tony Curtis in 1957 was “pretty,” or a knockout, or gorgeous… The list of such words is not that long, and it’s nearly as problematic now as calling a woman “beautiful.” Let’s just say “pretty” fits, even if Sidney is torn between pleasure and resentment at hearing the word.

Then Hunsecker speaks—and in a few words we know it is one of the killer speeches of 1957.

Mr. Falco, let it be said, is a man of forty faces, not one, none too pretty and all deceptive. See that grin? That’s the charming street urchin’s face. It’s part of his “helpless” act—he throws himself on your mercy. He’s got a half a dozen faces for the ladies, but the real cute one to me is the quick, dependable chap—nothing he won’t do for you in a pinch, so he says! Mr. Falco, whom I did not invite to sit at this table, tonight, is a hungry press agent and fully up on all the tricks of his very slimy trade!

That speech is as cruel as it is literary. It helps us recognize how uncasual or nonrealistic movie talk can be. Of course Hunsecker is a writer, though it’s easier to believe he dictates his column instead of putting pen to paper. But the speech relishes words and their momentum. In life, it was one of the speeches that Clifford Odets hammered out on his typewriter in a trailer parked on a Manhattan street hours ahead of the shooting. Odets had been a revered playwright in the 1930s, the husband or lover to famous actresses, and here he was, at fifty, a Hollywood writer and rewriter for hire, doctoring a screenplay for immediate performance. He knew self-loathing from the inside observers said he was “crazed” by the shift in going from being the next Eugene O’Neill to just another script doctor. Yet Odets was good enough to build to this moment: as he concludes his assassination, Hunsecker picks up a cigarette, and says, quietly, “Match me, Sidney.”

This is an ultimate humiliation it is the blade slipping between the bull’s shoulder blades but it is a proposal, too, or an admission that a terrible wounding marriage exists between the two men, one that cannot be owned up to or escaped. The line is poison for Sidney to taste, and Tony Curtis has played the scene, in close-up, like a man with a sweet tooth for poison, on the edge of nausea. (Later on in the film, Hunsecker tells Sidney he’s “a cookie filled with arsenic.”)

But even a destroyed wife can sometimes get a line back. “Not just this minute, J.J.,” Falco answers, and now we know there is a level between them, beneath professional cruelty and self-abasement. It is a horrible kind of love. Hunsecker smiles at the refusal, as if to admit that the wretched Falco can stick around.

There is more talk like this, and in 1957 it was courageous or even reckless: the film was never a popular success—it had rentals a million dollars less than its costs, so Burt the businessman suffered, which meant others would feel the pain. One obvious risk in the film was giving offense to real Hunsecker-like figures and undermining the integrity of what was still called “the press.” But there’s a deeper implication in the scene and the talk: these two men need each other they might exchange insult and subjugation forever. Indeed, as an audience we don’t want them to stop talking.

Alas, Sweet Smell cannot act on that realization. A complicated plot intervenes. JJ is obsessed with his sister, Susan. This is asserted, but never explored: does he simply need to control her, or does he have a physical desire for her that he cannot express or admit? It should be added that there is no other woman in Hunsecker’s life. He is disturbed that Susie seems to be in love with a young jazz musician, Steve—maybe the cleanest, whitest, dullest jazzman in all of cinema. These two characters, played by Susan Harrison and Martin Milner, are embarrassments who drag the lm down. This is not an attack on the actors but despair over the concept that lets the lm dwell on them. Why is J.J. obsessed? We never discover an answer. I don’t necessarily want to see his incestuous yearnings I accept his need for power and fear in others. But I want chemistry between J.J. and Susan if the threat of losing her is to be dramatic.

As it is, Sweet Smell degenerates into a tortured intrigue in which Sidney contrives to frame Steve on drug charges, just to make Susan turn against her guy. This leads to an ending in which two bad men get their just desserts. But that is banal and lacks feeling for “the young lovers,” who trudge off together into a new day. We do learn more about Sidney’s conniving nature, and the film becomes a showcase for Curtis. (That he was not nominated for his work speaks to how far Sidney unsettled Hollywood.) But we do not get enough of the two caged men clawing at each other with spiteful words. I don’t think anyone could contemplate a remake of the film today without seeing that there has to be a gay relationship between columnist and press agent, a reliance that excludes the rest of life.

As the film ends, Susie has found the strength to leave her brother. “I’d rather be dead than living with you,” she says. The odious cop, Kello, has beaten up Sidney on the street and carried his limp body away. Is he dead? Or would it be possible for J.J. to come down to the street to reclaim the broken body, carry it upstairs, and put it in the room left free by Susie’s departure? That is not an enviable future for a very odd couple. Maybe Sidney lives in a wheelchair, crippled and needing to be looked after. Just so long as he can exchange barbed lines with J.J.

This is less film criticism—as in a review of a new film—than a reflection on the history of the medium and the way a dream evolves if it is potent enough. I can find no evidence that anyone on the picture intended the undertone I am describing, or was aware of it. I am confident that director Mackendrick and writer Odets were not homosexual, though I’m less sure that they didn’t understand the possibility of that relationship and see an underground life in the casting. Tony Curtis (born Bernard Schwartz in 1925) really was a very good-looking kid, though as a Bronx boy and then a young man in the Pacific war (in submarines), he was only ordinarily good-looking. It was in the late 1940s, as he thought of a show business career, that he started working hard on his looks and his body, and when he felt people in the neighborhood were thinking he might be gay.

In those late 1940s—and still today—there is a widespread feeling that a lot of people in show business are gay. That notion exists above and beyond the fact that there are more homosexuals in show business than in most other professions. Curtis was a fascinating case, with a well-earned reputation as a ladies’ man, with six marriages and six children.

I n watching pretense we acquire a deeper sense of our reality but a growing uncertainty over our psychic integrity. What else are movies for?

Curtis was also funny, candid, and quite bold. He could sit there on screen as Sidney while other characters considered how “pretty” he was. Many lead actors of that era would not have stood for that—I’m sure Lancaster would not have sat there, absorbing it (which doesn’t mean he was deaf to the undertones as he administered the lashing). Curtis grew up in the movie business with a corps of very good-looking guys, many of whom were clients of the agent Henry Willson, who cultivated gay actors who did not come out of the closet on screen—one of them was Rock Hudson, a contemporary of Curtis’s at Universal.

Maybe most important of all, Curtis had the courage to play Josephine in Billy Wilder’s radical film, Some Like It Hot. How much courage? Well, it’s fair to say that Jack Lemmon played Daphne in the spirit of farce and slapstick. It’s not likely, watching Some Like It Hot, in 1959 or now, to believe that Daphne is a girl. But Curtis went for it. Josephine adalah an attractive woman. Curtis is candid in his book, American Prince, about the shyness he felt in wearing female clothes and then being on show in front of the crew. “After all these years of putting up with guys coming on to me and hearing rumors about my own sexuality, dressing like a woman felt like a real challenge to my manhood.” So he told Wilder that Josephine needed better clothes.

Not that it matters now, but I don’t believe Tony Curtis was gay, ever. Of course, that would have nothing to do with his ability as an actor to imagine or pretend to gay experience. And if Curtis was that good then he was admitting millions of people in his audience into the same experiment. One principle in this book—and it has been of enormous influence in our lives as a whole—is that in watching pretense we acquire a deeper sense of our reality but a growing uncertainty over our psychic integrity. What else are movies for? We thought we were identifying with characters for fun, but perhaps we were picking up the shiftiness of acting—for life.

The case of Burt Lancaster is more complex. He was married three times, and he had five children. But we are past believing that such credentials settle all interests. The best biography on Lancaster, deeply researched and written with care and respect by Kate Buford, does not believe he had an active gay life. That book was published in 2000. On the way to a celebration of its publication at Lincoln Center, I had dinner with an old friend, George Trescher, a man who did nothing to conceal his own homosexuality, and he assured me that in fact Lancaster had led a gay life. Later still, some documents were released from the F.B.I. and the Lancaster family that did not name names but that revealed that Lancaster had often been “depressed,” that he was bisexual, and that he had had several gay relationships, though never on more than a short-term basis.

With that in mind, you might look at Lancaster’s strangest film, The Swimmer (1968), directed by Frank Perry and taken from a John Cheever story. It’s a fable about an apparent Connecticut success, Ned Merrill, who takes it into his head to swim home one summer Sunday by way of all the pools owned by his acquaintances. Cheever, who had a tormented gay life, watched the filming with awe and amusement, as Burt, at fifty-five, in simple trunks, made Ned’s way from sunlight to dusk and dismay. Why did they make that movie? you’ll wonder. Because Burt wanted to do it.

For much of his career, Lancaster was called a he-man or a hunk. Trained in the circus and proficient as an acrobat, he loved athletic and adventurous roles in movies for which he frequently did his own stunts. As a boy, I thrilled to him as Dardo in The Flame and the Arrow (1950), about a twelfth-century Robin Hood figure from Lombardy. His sidekick in that picture was played by Nick Cravat, a circus partner who kept company with Burt for decades. They made nine films together, including The Crimson Pirate (1952), with Burt as an archetypal grinning rogue, beautiful and physically commanding, in what went from being a straight pirate adventure to a camp romp in which Lancaster is blond, bright, and comically cheerful—in other words, the hero is a parody of himself.

There was another Lancaster, darker and more forbidding: you can see that actor in The Killers, Brute Force, dan Criss Cross, and he emerged fully as Sergeant Warden in From Here to Eternity. That Lancaster became a good actor, but for decades he was determined to stay athletic and heroic: as late as The Train (1964), when he was fifty, he was doing his own stunts. But his work in Sweet Smell is the more interesting for being so repressed. Was he at ease like that? Orson Welles had been the original casting as J.J., but Welles was in a run of ops so Lancaster the producer elected to play the monster himself. He made the role in a way that would have been beyond Welles. It’s in Hunsecker’s stealth and stillness that we feel his evil—or call it a darker inner life than Burt was accustomed to showing. Only a couple of years before Sweet Smell, he had played with Curtis in Trapeze, a conventional circus film that took advantage of his own physical skills.

Tony Curtis reported in his book that Lancaster was often very tense during the filming: he was at odds with Mackendrick, so that they sometimes came close to physical conflict. In one scene, Mackendrick wanted Burt to shift over on a bench seat to let Curtis sit at the table. Burt insisted that Hunsecker would not have moved for anyone—it was a good insight—and he nearly fought the director. Mackendrick was taking too long the picture’s costs were mounting. But the physical actor in Lancaster was both determined on and pressured by the role’s tensions.

The film’s composer, Elmer Bernstein, said, “Burt was really scary. He was a dangerous guy. He had a short fuse. He was very physical. You thought you might get punched out.” Yet Lancaster was supposedly in charge, as both character and producer. Was he afraid of his own film commercially? Did he bridle at his required stillness? Was he in control of Hunsecker’s blank rage? Did he guess that Tony Curtis had the more vivid role? Or was he oppressed by the implications of the film’s central relationship? Did he feel the movie was a plot against him? These questions are not just gossip they enrich one’s experience of J.J.’s paranoia. Lancaster’s authority and Hunsecker’s power are twinned and destructive.

If we see a gay subtext in Sweet Smell, then the hobbled nature of its women characters becomes clearer. It is not just that pliant singer on a senator’s arm. Susan is an emotional wreck, attractive in outline but drained of romantic confidence or stability. At one point Sidney tells her to start thinking with her head not her hips. Hunsecker has a secretary who has no illusions about him. Sidney has a girl who is his humbled slave. There is a well-drawn betrayed wife (nicely played by an uncredited Lurene Tuttle). And then there is the Barbara Nichols character, Rita, an illusionless hooker so degraded she will do whatever Sidney requires of her. There isn’t a woman in the lm with appeal or self-respect. This bleak elimination of heterosexual potential is part of the dankness in Sweet Smell and one more contrast with the exhilarated sparring between the male leads. Hatred or antagonism is their idiom, and we can’t stop hanging on the tortured double act.

Dari Sleeping with Strangers: How the Movies Shaped Desire. Used with permission of Knopf. Copyright © 2019 by David Thomson.


Prolific Character Actor Ed Lauter Dies at 74

Ed Lauter, the always working character actor who played the butler/chauffeur of Berenice Bejo&rsquos character Peppy in the best-picture Oscar winner Artis, died Wednesday. He was 74.

Lauter discovered in May that he had contracted mesothelioma, a terminal form of cancer most commonly caused by exposure to asbestos, publicist Edward Lozzi diberi tahu The Hollywood Reporter.

Lauter recently played a baseball scout opposite Clint Eastwood di dalam Trouble With the Curve (2012) and had recurring roles on Showtime drama Shameless as Dick Healey and on USA Network&rsquos Pysch as Deputy Commissioner Ed Dykstra. Earlier, he recurred on ER, playing Fire Captain Dannaker.

A native of Long Beach, N.Y., Lauter made his TV debut on a 1971 episode of Mannix and arrived on the big screen for the first time in the Western Dirty Little Billy (1972). One of those character actors whose name is unknown but is instantly recognizable, he is listed with an incredible 204 credits as an actor on IMDb.

Di dalam Alfred Hitchcock&rsquos final film, Family Plot (1976), the balding, angular Lauter played Maloney, the dangerous, blue-collar man who knows too much about dapper jewel thief and kidnapper Arthur Adamson (William Devane). Hitchcock cast Lauter after seeing him play Captain Wilhelm Knauer, the sadistic leader of the guards who go up against Burt Reynolds&rsquo convict football team, in the classic The Longest Yard (1974).

&ldquoHitchcock came out of his screening room, walked back into the office and said, &lsquoHe&rsquos very good, isn&rsquot he?&rsquo&rdquo Lauter recalled in a 2003 interview. &ldquo[His assistant Peggy Robertson], thinking that he meant Burt Reynolds, said, &lsquoYes, he is.&rsquo &rdquo

&ldquoHitchcock said, &lsquoWhat&rsquos his name again?&rsquo Now, Peggy&rsquos lost he doesn&rsquot know who Burt Reynolds is? Then, Hitchcock said, &lsquoEd something &hellip&rsquo and when Peggy told him, &lsquoEd Lauter,&rsquo he said, &lsquoYes, we&rsquove got our Maloney.&rsquo He had actually told Peggy that he wasn&rsquot going to do the film unless he first cast Maloney, the antagonist.&rdquo

His film résumé also includes The New Centurions (1972), The Last American Hero (1973), French Connection II (1975), King Kong (1976), Sihir (1978), Cujo (1983), Lassiter (1984), Death Wish 3 (1985), The Rocketeer (1991), Trial by Jury (1994), Leaving Las Vegas (1995), Mulholland Falls (1995), Biskuit laut (2003), the 2005 remake of The Longest Yard, Seraphim Falls (2006) and The Number 23 (2007).

It only seems as if he was in every TV crime drama in history, with parts in Cannon, Ironside, The Streets of San Francisco, Kojak, Baretta, Police Story, File Rockford, Charlie&rsquos Angels, Hawaii Five-0, Simon & Simon, Magnum, P.I., The A-Team, Miami Vice, Walker, Texas Ranger, Homicide: Life on the Street, NYPD Blue, Cold Case dan CSI.

Lauter, who went to college on a basketball scholarship at C.W. Post on Long Island and worked as a stand-up comic, made his Broadway debut in the original 1968 stage production of The Great White Hope starring James Earl Jones dan Jane Alexander.

He has three movies in the can yet to be released: The Town That Dreaded Sundown, Becker&rsquos Farm dan The Grave.

&ldquoHe was a pal, not just a PR client,&rdquo recalled Lozzi. &ldquoHis former stand-up comedy days would always entertain us behind the scenes with his most incredible impersonations. He called me as Clint Eastwood from the set of Trouble With the Curve last year. We really thought it was Eastwood!&rdquo

Lauter also was known to do excellent impersonations of Burt Lancaster, George C. Scott, James Cagney dan Humphrey Bogart.

The Ed Lauter Foundation and a scholarship fund is being established to honor his work, and the scholarship will be awarded annually to aspiring young actors. His family, which includes his wife of eight years, Mia, asks that donations be made to the foundation.

In the 2003 interview, Lauter recalled: &ldquoSomeone once said to me, &lsquoEddie, you&rsquore a &ldquoturn&rdquo actor.&rsquo What&rsquos that? He said, &lsquoThat&rsquos when a story is going along and your character shows up and the story suddenly takes a major turn.&rsquo That&rsquos kind of neat.&rdquo


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