Mausoleum Moulay Ismail

Mausoleum Moulay Ismail


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Mausoleum Moulay Ismail di Meknes adalah tempat peristirahatan terakhir dari salah satu sultan paling terkenal di Maroko.

Sejarah Mausoleum Moulay Ismail

Moulay Ismail adalah anggota Dinasti Alaouite dan penguasa negara dari tahun 1672 hingga 1727. Berlawanan dengan tradisi, ia menjadikan kota Meknes sebagai ibu kotanya, dan memulai beberapa proyek pembangunan besar-besaran.

Pada masanya sebagai sultan, Moulay Ismail mendapatkan reputasi untuk kekejaman, diperoleh karena pembersihan dari siapa pun tidak mau mendukung dia dan untuk megalomania, terutama ketika datang untuk menciptakan monumen dan istana dengan mengorbankan menghancurkan yang dibangun oleh orang lain. Salah satu korban terkenal Moulay Ismail adalah Istana El Badi di Marrakesh, yang dihancurkan karena materialnya.

Namun demikian, Moulay Ismail juga dikenal sebagai pemimpin yang sangat efektif, dan prestasinya termasuk mengambil daerah-daerah seperti Tangier dan al-Mamurah dari Inggris dan Spanyol masing-masing. Dia mengakhiri upaya Ottoman untuk mendapatkan pijakan di Maroko dan menjalin hubungan diplomatik yang lebih erat dengan Eropa melalui tebusan tawanan Kristen di istananya.

Dibuat oleh massa budak dan tahanan kriminal, sultan mengawasi pembangunan awal makamnya. Mausoleum Moulay Ismail adalah contoh yang baik dari kemewahan gaya bangunan sultan. Dibangun di sekitar halaman besar dan air mancur adalah kamar dengan ubin rumit dan dinding plesteran yang dihiasi dengan benda-benda halus seperti jam yang diberikan kepada sultan oleh temannya, raja Prancis, Louis XIV.

Moulay Ismail dimakamkan di makam bersama dengan salah satu (lima ratus) istrinya dan dua (delapan ratus) anaknya. Makam itu dipugar dan dibuka untuk umum oleh Sultan Mohammed V pada abad ke-20.

Mausoleum Moulay Ismail hari ini

Kompleks mausoleum bisa dibilang merupakan daya tarik utama Meknes, dan layak untuk dikunjungi. Non-Muslim tidak dapat memasuki makam yang sebenarnya, tetapi dapat menjelajahi aula masuk dan halaman depan. Anda harus berpakaian sopan, dan wanita disarankan untuk menutupi kepala mereka.

Kompleks ini sedang menjalani pekerjaan restorasi besar dari 2016 dan seterusnya: sebaiknya periksa sebelum mengunjungi apa yang sebenarnya buka dan tersedia untuk dikunjungi.

Mendapatkan ke Mausoleum Moulay Ismail

Mausoleum berada di Avenue Bab Marrah, di distrik Cite Imperiale di Meknes, sekitar 20 menit berjalan kaki dari madrasah utama. Tergantung dari kota mana Anda berasal, taksi bisa sangat nyaman.


Mausoleum Moulay Ismail

Peringkat kami Rue Palais, Dar el Kebira, Medina Jam Kerja Sabtu-Kamis 08:30-siang dan 14:00-18:00 Harga Tiket masuk gratis, meskipun sumbangan 10 jam dihargai

Tempat peristirahatan yang damai dan spiritual dari Sultan Moulay Ismail ini adalah salah satu dari sedikit situs suci di Maroko yang terbuka untuk non-Muslim. Dibangun selama masa hidupnya, Ismail memilih lokasi ini karena pernah menjadi tempat Palais de Justice (gedung pengadilan) Meknes, dan dia berharap mati untuk diadili di pengadilannya sendiri oleh rakyatnya sendiri. Meski dari luar merupakan bangunan yang tidak mencolok, ketenangan rangkaian halaman kuning pucat yang mengarah ke makam itu kontras dengan pemerintahan Ismail yang bergejolak dan kejam saat ia masih hidup. Di sudut paling kiri dari halaman terakhir adalah sebuah pintu yang mengarah ke tempat suci - direnovasi sepenuhnya pada tahun 1950 oleh Raja Mohammed V - di mana sultan dimakamkan. Lepaskan alas kaki Anda dengan hormat sebelum masuk. Ruang depan makam memiliki dinding dengan serangkaian tingkat yang terdiri dari indah zelij, kayu dicat enamel, plester berukir rumit, lengkungan anggun, dan kolom marmer. Ini adalah ruangan yang sangat sejuk dan tenang, dan tikar rumput di lantai memungkinkan untuk istirahat dan kontemplasi yang tenang. Di sebelah kanan ini adalah makam itu sendiri, yang tidak dapat diakses oleh non-Muslim, tetapi terlihat dari ruang depan melalui pintu Moor. Dua jam antik, satu di setiap sisi pintu, adalah hadiah dari Louis XIV, yang konon dikirim oleh raja ketika dia menolak permintaan Ismail untuk menambahkan putrinya, Putri de Conti, ke harem sultan.

Catatan: Informasi ini akurat saat dipublikasikan, tetapi dapat berubah tanpa pemberitahuan. Pastikan untuk mengkonfirmasi semua tarif dan detail secara langsung dengan perusahaan yang bersangkutan sebelum merencanakan perjalanan Anda.


Mausoleum Moulay Ismail

Sultan Almohad yang agung, Moulay Ismail menjadikan Meknes sebagai ibu kota kekaisarannya dan di sanalah ia dimakamkan. Meskipun makamnya hanya sepelemparan batu dari Place El-Hedim dan Bab al-Mansour, tidak mudah untuk menemukannya karena tidak ditandai. Anda harus meminta bantuan.

Saat Anda memasuki mausoleum, Anda masuk ke dalam ruang masuk kecil, dicat kuning buttercup dengan air mancur kecil yang menandai bagian tengah ruangan. Ruang masuk mengarah ke yang pertama dari beberapa halaman terbuka yang saling berhubungan, yang masing-masing juga dicat kuning buttercup. Dikelilingi ke segala arah oleh dinding kuning cerah, sulit untuk percaya bahwa Anda benar-benar berada di mausoleum.

Halaman terakhir menghadap ruang makam dan kecuali Anda seorang Muslim, Anda tidak bisa masuk. Tapi jangan kecewa, ruang ante hanya akan membuat Anda takjub. Itu menjulang beberapa lantai dengan deretan jendela di bagian atas yang memungkinkan sinar matahari masuk. Plester berukir rumit dan ubin zellij berpola halus menghiasi dinding. Di tengah lantai adalah air mancur kecil yang dikelilingi oleh bintang berujung delapan yang klasik untuk desain Maroko. Ada simetri sempurna di semua elemen desain. Ini hanya ruang yang luar biasa!


Isi

Latar belakang, kehidupan awal, dan akses ke kekuasaan Edit

Lahir pada tahun 1645 di Sijilmassa, [alN 1] Moulay Ismail ben Sharif adalah putra Sharif ibn Ali, pangeran Tafilalt dan penguasa pertama dinasti Alaouite. Ibunya adalah seorang budak kulit hitam. [L 1] Dia mengklaim keturunan dari Hassan ad-Dakhil, generasi ke-21 keturunan Muhammad, [3] dan dari Az-Zakiya, generasi ke-17 keturunan Muhammad yang telah menempatkan dirinya di Sijilmassa pada tahun 1266. [L 2]

Setelah kematian Saadi Sultan Ahmad al-Mansur, Maroko memasuki periode kerusuhan, di mana putra-putranya bertarung satu sama lain untuk memperebutkan takhta, sementara negara itu dibagi-bagi oleh para pemimpin militer dan otoritas agama yang berbeda. [ArcI 1] [L 3] Sejak awal pemerintahan Zidan Abu Maali pada tahun 1613, kesultanan Saadi sangat lemah. Zaouia of Dila menguasai Maroko tengah, Zaouia of Illigh [fr] membangun pengaruhnya dari Souss ke Sungai Draa, marabout Sidi al-Ayachi menguasai dataran barat laut, pantai Atlantik sejauh Taza, Republik Salé menjadi negara merdeka di mulut Bou Regreg, dan kota Tétouan menjadi negara kota di bawah kendali keluarga Naqsis. [4] Di Tafilalt, Alouites ditunjuk oleh masyarakat setempat untuk memeriksa pengaruh Zaouias dari Illigh dan Dila. Mereka adalah emirat independen dari tahun 1631. [L 3]

Tiga penguasa mendahului Ismail ben Sharif: ayahnya, Moulay Sharif, kemudian dua saudara tirinya. Sebagai penguasa pertama dinasti Alaouite dari tahun 1631, Moulay Sharif berhasil menjaga Tafilalt di luar otoritas Zaouia dari Dila. [L 4] Ia turun tahta pada tahun 1636 dan putra sulungnya, Moulay Muhammad ibn Sharif menggantikannya. Di bawah pemerintahan yang terakhir, wilayah Alaouite diperluas ke utara negara itu, ke Tafna dan sungai Draa. [alN 2] Saudara tirinya, Moulay Rashid memberontak melawannya dan berhasil membunuhnya pada tanggal 3 Agustus 1664, dalam pertempuran di dataran Angad (dekat Oujda). [ArcI 2] Moulay Ismail memilih untuk mendukung Rashid dan diganjar dengan ditunjuk sebagai gubernur Meknes. Di sana, Ismail mengabdikan dirinya untuk pertanian dan perdagangan di wilayah itu, untuk meningkatkan kekayaannya, [L 1] sementara Moulay Rashid memerintah sebagai Emir Tafilalt dan kemudian sebagai Sultan Maroko setelah penaklukan Fez pada 27 Mei 1664. [ArcI 2 ] Rashid selanjutnya mempercayakan Ismail dengan kendali militer di Utara Maroko dan menjadikannya khalifah feudatoris dan wakil raja Fez pada tahun 1667, sementara ia bertempur di selatan Maroko. Rashid menaklukkan Zaouia of Dila pada tahun 1668 dan kemudian membutuhkan waktu dua tahun untuk mengatasi pemberontak di Marrakesh sebelum ia masuk ke kota pada tahun 1669. [5]

Pada tanggal 6 April 1670, Ismail merayakan pernikahan pertamanya di Fez, di hadapan saudaranya Rashid. [alN 3] Pada tanggal 25 Juli, dia membunuh enam puluh perampok dari Oulad Djama, dengan menyalibkan mereka di dinding Borj el-Jadid di Fez. [alN 4] Sementara Rashid melanjutkan kampanyenya melawan suku-suku independen dari High Atlas, dia terbunuh pada 9 April 1672 di Marrakesh, setelah jatuh dari kudanya. Pada 13 April, [alN 1] setelah dia mengetahui kematian Rashid, Moulay Ismail bergegas ke Fez, di mana dia mengambil harta milik saudaranya dan kemudian memproklamirkan dirinya sebagai Sultan Maroko pada 14 April 1672, pada usia dua puluh enam tahun. [L 1] [alN 1] [L 5] Proklamasi ini terjadi sekitar pukul 14.00 dan dilanjutkan dengan upacara akbar. [alN 1] Seluruh penduduk Fez, termasuk para bangsawan, intelektual, dan syarif bersumpah untuk setia kepada penguasa baru, seperti halnya suku dan kota kerajaan Fez, yang mengirim kedutaan dan hadiah kepadanya. Hanya Marrakesh dan wilayah sekitarnya yang tidak mengirimkan kedutaan. Ismail menetapkan ibu kotanya di Meknes, karena persediaan air dan iklim kota. [alN 5]

Pemerintahan awal yang sulit Sunting

Setelah merebut kekuasaan, Moulay Ismail menghadapi beberapa pemberontakan: yang paling signifikan adalah pemberontakan keponakannya Moulay Ahmed ben Mehrez, putra Moulay Murad Mehrez, kemudian pemberontakan saudara-saudaranya, termasuk Harran ibn Sharif, yang mengambil gelar Raja Tafilalt. Panglima perang Tetouan Khadir Ghaïlan juga melawan Sultan Ismail, bersama dengan beberapa suku dan kelompok agama. [L 6]

Ketika berita kematian Rashid mencapai Sijilmassa, Ahmed ben Mehrez bergegas ke Marrakesh, untuk memproklamirkan dirinya sebagai sultan. Suku-suku Al Haouz, orang Arab Souss, dan penduduk Marrakesh bergabung dengannya dan dia bisa menguasai daerah itu. Dia mengumpulkan suku-suku selatan dan diproklamasikan sebagai sultan di Marrakesh. Sebagai tanggapan, Moulay Ismail meluncurkan kampanye melawan keponakannya pada 27 April 1672. [alN 6] Ismail menang sebagai hasil dari artileri. Dia memasuki kota Marrakesh dan diakui sebagai sultan di sana pada tanggal 4 Juni 1672. [L 6] [alN 6] [ArcI 3] Ahmed menderita luka tembak dan melarikan diri ke pegunungan. [L 1] Ismail mengampuni penduduk Marrakesh dan mengatur kembali pertahanan kota. [L 7] Ia kemudian kembali ke Fez untuk mengambil peti mati saudaranya Rasyid dan memasukkannya ke dalam makam Syekh Ali bin Herzouhm, sebelum kembali ke Meknes pada tanggal 25 Juli 1672. [alN 6]

Moulay Ismail mengatur organisasi kekaisaran dan mendistribusikan barang-barang kepada para prajurit pasukannya sebagai persiapan untuk ekspedisi ke Sahara. Proyek ini ditinggalkan namun setelah pemberontakan pecah di kota Fez, di mana Caid Zidan ben Abid Elamri, kepala ekspedisi yang dimaksud, terbunuh dan pasukan sultan diusir dari kota, pada malam 26 Agustus. 1672. Moulay Ismail segera tiba dan berkemah di luar tembok kota. Setelah beberapa hari konflik, klan bangsawan Fez memohon kepada Ahmed ben Mehrez dengan putus asa. Dia menanggapi permintaan mereka dengan baik dan melakukan perjalanan melalui Debdou ke Taza, di mana dia diproklamasikan sebagai Sultan lagi. Sementara itu, Khadir Ghaïlan mengirim utusan ke Fez dan memberi tahu penduduk tentang kedatangannya melalui laut dari Aljazair ke Tetouan, di mana ia disambut oleh keluarga Ennaqs yang memerintah kota. Peristiwa ini memicu kerusuhan serius di negara itu. Moulay Ismail berbaris di Taza, yang menyerah kepadanya setelah pengepungan beberapa bulan, dan memaksa Ahmed ben Mehrez untuk melarikan diri ke Sahara. Sementara pengepungan Fez berlanjut, [alN 7] Ismail berbelok ke barat laut untuk menghadapi Khadir Ghaïlan, yang telah menguasai wilayah Habt (dataran Gharb dan Khlot dan sebagian wilayah Jebala) dengan bantuan Utsmaniyah di Aljazair. Dengan kekuatan 12.000 orang, Ismail menekan pemberontakan dan menenangkan provinsi utara, [L 6] membunuh Ghaïlan pada 2 September 1673 di Ksar el-Kebir [ArcI 4] Dia kembali lagi ke Fez, yang masih dikepung oleh pasukannya . Jantung kota, Fez Jdid, akhirnya membuka gerbangnya pada tanggal 28 Oktober 1673, setelah pengepungan selama empat belas bulan delapan hari. Ismail memberikan pengampunan kepada penduduk Fez. Dia mereorganisasi kota dan menunjuk gubernur yang bertanggung jawab atas pinggiran kota Fez el Bali dan Fez Jdid. [alN 7]

Sekembalinya ke Meknes, Moulay Ismail melanjutkan pekerjaan konstruksi dan membangun beberapa istana. [H 1] Dia diganggu sekali lagi oleh keponakannya Ahmed ben Mehrez, yang merebut Marrakesh beberapa saat setelah Mei 1673. [L 8] [6] [7] Ketika Ismail mengetahuinya pada tahun 1674, dia pertama kali meluncurkan kampanye melawan Arab suku-suku di wilayah Angad yang terlibat dalam bandit. Dia dengan kejam mengalahkan suku Sgoûna dan kemudian melakukan persiapan untuk kampanye besar melawan keponakannya. Ismail memimpin pasukannya ke wilayah Tadla dan bertemu dengan pasukan Ahmed ben Mehrez di Bou Agba, dekat Oued El Abid. Ismail menang atas pasukan keponakannya dan membunuh komandannya, Hida Ettouïri. Ahmed dikejar oleh pamannya sampai ke Marrakesh, di mana ia bercokol. Ismail mengepung kota dan merebutnya dengan paksa pada tahun 1674, memaksa Ahmed untuk melarikan diri ke provinsi Drâa. Sultan kemudian memimpin sejumlah operasi melawan suku Chaouia. [H 1] Pada tahun yang sama, Sanhaja Atlas Tinggi dan Tengah memberontak dan membantai utusan Sultan, setelah menolak membayar upeti. Moulay Ismail meluncurkan ekspedisi pertama dan berusaha mengusir mereka dari benteng gunung tempat mereka bercokol. [Arc 1] Pasukan sultan dipukul mundur oleh pasukan 8.000 infanteri Berber dan 5.000 kavaleri Berber. Ekspedisi kedua menyusul, dan kali ini pasukan Sultan membuat kekalahan telak atas para pemberontak, dengan merebut harta rampasan yang cukup besar. [Arc 2]

Pada 1675, dengan bantuan penduduk Taroudant, Ahmed diam-diam kembali ke Marrakesh, mengusir tentara kerajaan, dan menduduki kembali kota. [L 9] Ismail mengepung Marrakesh sekali lagi. Pertempuran itu berdarah, dengan korban yang sangat tinggi di kedua belah pihak, terutama pada bulan Juni 1676. [alN 8] Ahmed akhirnya harus meninggalkan kota pada tanggal 26 Juni 1677, menuju Souss. [alN 9] Kali ini, Ismail dengan kejam memecat kota itu sebagai hukuman karena mendukung Ahmed. [L 6] [L 9] [7] [8]

Saat masih di Marrakesh, Ismail mengetahui bahwa Ahmed ben Abdellah ad-Dila'i, cucu Muhammad al-Hajj ibn Abu Bakr al-Dila'i, telah mengumpulkan pasukan besar suku Sanhaja dari pegunungan, menyeberangi Sungai Moulouya dan menyerang suku Arab Tadla dan Saïss, memaksa mereka melarikan diri ke kota Fez, Meknes, dan Sale. Ahmed berusaha untuk menghidupkan kembali Zaouia dari Dila yang sudah mati dan didukung oleh Ottoman di Aljir, yang sebelumnya memberinya perlindungan. Karena Ismail sibuk dengan Ahmed ben Mehrez di Souss, ia mengirim pasukan otonom 3.000 kavaleri. Mereka dikalahkan oleh tentara Berber Ahmed ben Abdellah dan komandan pasukan, Caid Ikhlef, tewas. Ismail kemudian mengirim dua pasukan lagi, masing-masing berjumlah 4.000 orang, yang juga dipukuli - yang pertama di dekat Meknes dan yang kedua di Kasba Tadla, yang kemudian direbut dan dihancurkan oleh Sanhaja. Sementara itu, Ismail juga mengetahui bahwa tiga saudaranya, Moulay Harran, Moulay Hammada, dan Moulay Murad Mehrez (ayah dari Ahmed ben Mehrez) telah memberontak dan menyerang Tafilalt. Sultan memutuskan untuk menangani kerusuhan di Tadla terlebih dahulu. Dia secara pribadi campur tangan dan diarahkan Berber dalam pertempuran yang mengatakan 3.000 Berber tewas dan beberapa ratus tentara tentara kekaisaran. [alN 10] Dia merebut kembali Tadla, menstabilkan wilayah Atlas Tengah dengan artilerinya dan manuver pengepungan yang dilakukan oleh guich dari Oudaya. [Arc 2] Kepala hampir 700 pemberontak dipaku ke dinding Fez oleh Caid Abdellah Errousi. [L 10] Moulay Ismail kembali ke Meknes pada akhir 1677 dan mengakhiri pemberontakan saudara-saudaranya. Dia menangkap Moulay Harran tetapi memilih untuk menyelamatkannya. [alN 11]

Stabilisasi kekaisaran Sunting

Antara tahun 1678 dan 1679, Moulay Ismail melakukan ekspedisi melintasi pegunungan Amour ke wilayah Cherg, ditemani oleh kontingen besar suku-suku Arab, termasuk Beni Amer. Artileri Turki menempatkan semua suku Arab dalam ekspedisi untuk melarikan diri dan Sultan terpaksa menetapkan perbatasan antara kekaisaran Ottoman dan Maroko di Tafna. [9] [10] Moulay Ismail memulihkan dan mengatur ulang Oujda sekembalinya. [alN 12] Dia menata ulang bagian selatan kekaisaran setelah ekspedisi pada tahun 1678, dari Souss dan oasis Touat ke provinsi Chenguit di perbatasan wilayah Sudan di Mauritania modern. [Arc 3] Selama perjalanannya, Ismail menunjuk caids dan pashas dan memerintahkan pembangunan benteng dan ribat untuk menunjukkan kendalinya kepada makhzen di wilayah ini. [11] Selama ekspedisi ini, Sultan menerima kedutaan dari semua suku Maqil di provinsi Sahara negara, yang membentang sampai ke sungai Senegal. [alN 13] Kontrol Maroko atas Pashalik Timbuktu didirikan pada 1670 dan berlanjut sepanjang masa pemerintahan Moulay Ismail. [L 3]

Sekitar akhir Ramadhan 1678-1679, tiga saudara Ismail, Harran, Hashem dan Ahmed, dan tiga sepupunya memberontak dengan bantuan konfederasi Sanhaja dari Aït Atta dan suku-suku di lembah Toudra [fr] dan Dads. Moulay Ismail meluncurkan ekspedisi besar-besaran dan merebut Ferkla, Gueria, Toudra, dan Ayah secara berurutan. Suku pemberontak meninggalkan oasis mereka dan melarikan diri ke Jbel Saghro di Anti-Atlas timur. Dengan pasukan yang besar, Ismail bertempur dalam pertempuran yang sulit di Jbel Saghro pada tanggal 3 Februari 1679. [alN 14] [L 6] Korban berat termasuk Moussa ben Ahmed ben Youssef, komandan tentara Maroko dan 400 tentara dari Fez. Itu adalah kegagalan sebagian. Pertempuran diakhiri dengan kesepakatan di mana suku pemberontak memberikan orang-orang Tafilalt jalan bebas kembali ke Marrakesh melalui wilayah suku pemberontak Sahara dan menjanjikan bantuan di masa depan melawan orang-orang Kristen. [Arc 4] Dalam perjalanan pulang mereka, badai salju menghantam pasukan saat melintasi Atlas di Telwet atau Elglâoui di Jbel Ben Deren, menghancurkan hampir tiga ribu tenda, bagian dari tentara dan barang rampasan. [Arc 4] Dalam kemarahan, Moulay Ismail mengeksekusi wazirnya untuk membalas dendam mereka yang telah bepergian dengannya, meskipun wazir tidak ada hubungannya dengan bencana ini. [alN 14] [L 9]

Sebuah wabah melanda sekitar waktu ini yang menewaskan beberapa ribu orang, terutama di dataran Rharb dan Rif. [L 9] [12]

Setelah ia mencapai penyatuan Maroko, Moulay Ismail memutuskan untuk mengakhiri kehadiran Kristen di negara itu. Dia pertama kali meluncurkan kampanye untuk merebut kembali kota Tangier, yang telah berada di bawah kendali Inggris sejak 1471 - awalnya Portugis, kota itu telah berpindah ke tangan Inggris setelah pernikahan Catherine dari Braganza dengan Charles II. Kota ini dibentengi dengan kuat dan memiliki garnisun besar yang terdiri dari 4.000 orang. [13] Moulay Ismail menugaskan salah satu jenderal terbaiknya, Ali ben Abdallah Er-Riffi [fr] , untuk mengepung Tangier pada tahun 1680. [L 11] Di Tangier, Inggris melawan, tetapi, sebagai akibat dari biaya pemeliharaan yang tinggi garnisun, mereka memutuskan untuk meninggalkan kota, menghancurkan benteng dan pelabuhan mereka selama musim dingin 1683. Tentara Maroko memasuki kota pada 5 Februari 1684. [L 11] [L 9]

Pada tahun 1681, ketika pengepungan Tangier masih berlangsung, Moulay Ismail mengirim sebagian pasukannya di bawah komando Omar ben Haddou El-Bottoui untuk menaklukkan kota La Mamora. [14] Kota ini pernah diduduki oleh Spanyol pada masa kekacauan di Maroko setelah 1614. Ismail mengepung kota yang tidak memiliki sumber air, dan merebutnya, bersama dengan semua orang Spanyol di kota itu, yang berjumlah 309. [ alN 15] Caid Omar telah memberi tahu orang-orang Spanyol bahwa mereka tidak akan dijual sebagai budak jika mereka menyerah tanpa syarat "Meskipun mereka akan menjadi tawanan, mereka akan menghabiskan hari-hari mereka tanpa bekerja, sampai penebusan pertama." Namun Moulay Ismaïl tidak melihat alasan untuk menghormati janji Kaid Omar dan tidak berniat membiarkan tawanan dari al-Mamurah untuk ditebus sehingga mereka, termasuk lima puluh "gadis dan wanita miskin", terpaksa berjalan ke Meknes sebagai barang rampasan bersama dengan harta benda mereka. , senjata dan artileri (88 meriam perunggu, 15 meriam besi, periuk api, musket, dan mesiu) yang ditulis Germain Mousette "lebih banyak daripada yang dia miliki di seluruh kerajaannya". [15] Kota ini berganti nama menjadi al-Mahdiya. [16] Omar ben Haddou meninggal karena wabah dalam perjalanan pulangnya dan digantikan oleh saudaranya Ahmed ben Haddou. [alN 16]

Sementara jenderal-jenderalnya melakukan operasi ini, Moulay Ismail fokus pada menstabilkan negara. Setelah ekspedisi ke wilayah Cherg melawan Beni Amer, dia mengetahui bahwa Ahmed ben Mehrez telah membuat kesepakatan lain dengan Turki di Aljir. Dia juga mengetahui bahwa tentara Turki mendekati Tafna dan telah mencapai wilayah Beni Snassen [fr] . Ismail segera mengirim pasukan besar ke selatan negara itu untuk menghadapi Ahmed dan menyiapkan ekspedisi melawan Ottoman, yang tidak berakhir karena tentara Turki mundur. [alN 16] Dia kemudian bergerak ke selatan untuk menghadapi keponakannya di Souss pada tahun 1683. Sebuah pertempuran terjadi di sana pada bulan April. Setelah pertempuran selama dua puluh lima hari, Ahmed melarikan diri ke Taroudant dan menetap di sana. Pertempuran lain pada 11 Juni 1683 menelan lebih dari 2.000 nyawa. Ahmed dan Ismail sendiri terluka. Bentrokan berlanjut hingga Ramadhan. [alN 17] Moulay Ismail melakukan dua ekspedisi yang berhasil mengamankan beberapa wilayah Berber. [alN 18] · [alN 19]

Sementara Moulay Ismail diduduki oleh suku-suku ini di Atlas, Ahmed ben Mehrez menjalin aliansi dengan Moulay Harran untuk mengacaukan kerajaan Ismail. Ketika Moulay Ismail mengetahui, pada 1684/5, bahwa kedua pemberontak itu telah menguasai Taroudant dan daerah pedalamannya, ia segera mengepung kota itu. Ahmed pergi dengan sekelompok budak untuk mengunjungi tempat suci dan dihadang oleh beberapa anggota suku Zirâra, yang merupakan tentara Ismail. Meskipun mereka tidak mengenalinya, Zirâra menyerangnya, memicu pertempuran singkat, yang berakhir dengan kematian Ahmed. Prajurit sultan baru menyadari siapa dia setelah kematiannya sekitar pertengahan Oktober 1685. Ismail memerintahkan agar dia dimakamkan dan dikuburkan. [alN 20] [7] Moulay Harran melanjutkan perlawanan sampai April 1687, ketika dia melarikan diri ke Sahara. Penduduk Taroudant dibantai dan kota itu diisi kembali dengan Rifan dari Fez. [H 2] Banyak panglima militer Ismail telah kehilangan nyawa mereka dalam perang ini, [alN 20] tetapi setelah tanggal tersebut, tidak ada orang lain yang menantang kekuasaan Sultan. Perang antara Ahmed dan Ismail telah berakhir setelah tiga belas tahun pertempuran. [L 6]

Moulay Ismail sekarang menyiapkan tentara yang kuat, diperkirakan 30.000-50.000 orang, [C1927 1] di bawah komando Ali ben Abdallah Er-Riffi [L 12] dan Ahmed ben Haddou El-Bottoui, untuk merebut kota Larache, yang telah berada di bawah kendali Spanyol sejak 1610. [L 13] Sultan, yang mengumumkan rencananya pada 1688, memaksa Spanyol untuk membentengi kota dengan kuat, dengan 200 meriam dan 1500-2000 orang. [C1927 1] Kampanye dimulai pada tanggal 15 Juli 1689 dan pengepungan dimulai pada bulan Agustus. [L 12] Tentara Maroko akhirnya merebut kota itu pada 11 November 1689, dengan perkiraan biaya 10.000 orang tewas. Maroko menangkap 1.600 tentara Spanyol termasuk 100 perwira dan 44 meriam. Tentara Spanyol kehilangan 400 tentara dalam pertempuran tersebut. [C1927 2] Pertukaran tahanan diatur dengan tarif satu petugas untuk sepuluh orang Maroko, jadi seratus petugas ditukar dengan seribu tahanan Maroko. Sisa dari garnisun Spanyol tetap ditawan, sebagai budak di Meknes, kecuali bagi mereka yang masuk Islam. [C1927 3] Untuk merayakan kemenangan Moulay Ismaïl mengeluarkan dekrit yang melarang pemakaian sepatu hitam karena orang Spanyol dikatakan telah memperkenalkan kebiasaan tersebut ke Maroko ketika mereka pertama kali mengakuisisi Larache pada tahun 1610. Mufti Fez sangat gembira dengan kemenangan itu. menulis,

Berapa banyak orang kafir di waktu senja yang kepalanya dipenggal dari tubuhnya! Berapa banyak yang diseret dengan derak maut di tenggorokan mereka! Untuk berapa banyak tenggorokan Lance kita menjadi kalung! Berapa banyak ujung tombak yang ditusukkan ke dada mereka! [ kutipan diperlukan ]

Tak lama setelah Larache ditaklukkan, Ismail mengirim Ahmed ben Haddou untuk mengepung Assilah. Kelelahan, garnisun Spanyol mengevakuasi kota melalui laut dan tentara Maroko menduduki kota pada tahun 1691. [L 13]

Pada 1692-3, Moulay Ismail mengorganisir ekspedisi yang sangat besar melawan suku-suku terakhir yang belum ditaklukkan. Ini adalah suku Sanhaja Brâbér, Berber di Fêzzâz, sebuah wilayah di bagian barat Atlas Tengah. Suku-suku ini membentuk kantong terakhir Bled es-Siba (daerah yang tidak menerima kekuasaan sultan). [alN 21] Pasukan Ismail sangat banyak dan dilengkapi dengan mortir, balistae, meriam, dan senjata pengepungan lainnya, yang diseret oleh budak-budak Kristen sepanjang jalan dari Moulouya hingga Ksar Beni M'Tir. Sementara itu, pasukan Maroko berkumpul di Adekhsan. Ismail membagi pasukannya menjadi tiga kelompok. Yang pertama dipimpin oleh Pasha Msahel, dengan 25.000 infanteri, dan berbaris dari Tadla ke Oued El Abid, melewati Aït Isri. Pasukan kedua dipimpin oleh Caid Ali Ou Barka dan terdiri dari Aït Imour dan Aït Idrassen, yang harus menduduki Tinteghalin. Kelompok ketiga dan terakhir dipimpin oleh Ali ben Ichchou El-Qebli, caid dari Zemmours [fr] dan Beni Hakim, dan terkonsentrasi di High Moulouya. [Arc 5] Suku-suku tak terkalahkan terdiri dari Aït Oumalou, Ait Yafelman dan Aït Isri. [alN 21] Mereka dikepung oleh Mulay Ismail yang menggunakan semua artilerinya untuk membubarkan pemberontak Berber. Sebuah pertempuran yang mengerikan diikuti, Berber tersebar dan melarikan diri ke jurang dan lembah. Setelah mengejar mereka selama tiga hari, 12.000 Berber telah ditangkap oleh Sultan dan 10.000 kuda dan 30.000 senjata sebagai barang rampasan. [H 3] Moulay Ismail kini telah menaklukkan seluruh Maroko dan memaksa semua suku di negeri itu untuk mengakui kekuasaannya. Dia adalah Sultan Alaouite pertama yang mencapai ini. Dia dengan cepat mengatur pertahanan daerah yang direbut melalui pembangunan beberapa lusin benteng di seluruh negeri, yang membantu kekuatan pusat untuk mencapai daerah yang jauh seperti Fêzzâz. Dengan kemenangan ini, penaklukan Maroko berakhir. Pada tahun 1693, menurut Ahmad ibn Khalid al-Nasiri:

Sultan tidak meninggalkan satu suku Maghreb Maroko dengan kuda atau senjata. Hanya Pengawal Hitam, Oudaia, Ait Imour (suku guich) dan Rifan, sedangkan Fezzan memulai perang suci melawan Ceuta [alN 22]


The Guerouans belajar ini dengan cara yang sulit. Beberapa orang dari suku ini yang melakukan penggerebekan di hulu Sungai Ziz, di jalan menuju Sijilmassa, menarik perhatian Moulay Ismail. Dia memerintahkan caid Idrassen Ali ben Ichchou El-Qebli untuk membantai mereka. Dalam Ahmad bin Khalid al-Nasiri's Al-Istiqsa, Dilaporkan bahwa Moulay Ismail memberikan 10.000 penunggang kuda kepada Ali ben Ichchou, caid dari suku Zemmour dan Bni Hakem dan mengatakan kepadanya, "Saya tidak ingin Anda kembali, sampai Anda jatuh di atas Gerrouan dan kecuali Anda membawa kembali kepada saya. kepala untuk setiap orang di sini." Jadi mereka pergi untuk membunuh sebanyak mungkin orang Guerouan dan menjarah perkemahan mereka. Dia menawarkan 10 mithqals kepada siapa saja yang membawa kembali kepala tambahan. Pada akhirnya, mereka mengumpulkan 12.000. Sultan sangat senang dengan hal ini dan memperluas perintah Ali ben Ichchou untuk memasukkan wilayah Aït Oumalou dan Aït Yafelmâl, yang baru saja ditaklukkan. [alN 23]

Jean-Baptiste Estelle, konsul Prancis di Salé menulis kepada menterinya, Marquis de Torcy pada tahun 1698,

. bahwa kerajaan Syarifan yang masih ada adalah satu kesatuan dari Laut Tengah hingga sungai Senegal. Orang-orang yang tinggal di sana, dari utara ke selatan, adalah orang Moor yang membayar gharama kepada Sultan.

Pada puncaknya, tentara Maroko berisi 100.000 [L 14] hingga 150.000 tentara hitam di Pengawal Hitam, [Arc 6] serta ribuan lainnya di Guich of the Udaya, [L 11] pemberontak Eropa dan suku-suku bawahan yang menerima tanah dan budak dengan imbalan menyediakan tentara. [L 2]

Kemudian pemerintahan dan kematian Sunting

Sisa masa pemerintahan Moulay Ismail ditandai dengan kemunduran militer dan masalah keluarga yang berkaitan dengan suksesi. Pada Mei 1692, Moulay Ismail mengirim putranya Moulay Zeydan dengan pasukan besar untuk menyerang Aljazair Ottoman. Dia dikalahkan oleh Ottoman yang melakukan serangan balik dan maju sejauh Sungai Moulouya. Ismail harus mengirim kedutaan ke Aljir untuk berdamai. [H 4] Pada tahun 1693, Moulay Ismail menyerbu wilayah Oran dan berusaha menjarah Beni Amer yang berhasil. Kota Oran menahan dua serangan, yang menyebabkan mundurnya sultan. Kali ini, Turki yang mengirim utusan untuk berdamai, atas inisiatif Sultan Ottoman, Ahmed II. [H 3] Pada tahun 1699, Moulay Ismail berpartisipasi dalam Perang Maghrebi dan berhasil merebut Beylik Maskara dan maju sejauh Sungai Chelif, ia kemudian terdesak kembali dalam Pertempuran Chelif pada tahun 1701. Moulay Ismail melawan anak-anak kecil lainnya konflik dengan Aljazair Ottoman seperti Laghouat pada tahun 1708 yang ternyata berhasil.

Ismail berusaha mengepung kota Ceuta dengan pasukan 40.000 tentara, tetapi kekuatan perlawanan Spanyol membuat pengepungan terus berlanjut. [L 15] [18] Sebagian dari pasukan Ismail juga mengepung Melilla dari tahun 1694 hingga 1696, tetapi benteng kota terlalu berat bagi mereka. [L 15] Pada musim semi 1701, Moulay Ismail meluncurkan ekspedisi lain melawan Aljazair. Pasukan Maroko maju ke Sungai Chelif sebelum mereka dicegat oleh tentara Ottoman di Chediouïa. Dengan kekuatan 10.000-12.000 orang, tentara Aljazair berhasil mengalahkan 60.000 tentara tentara Maroko. [L 14] Tentara Maroko mengalami kekalahan telak dan jatuh ke dalam kekacauan. Moulay Ismail sendiri terluka dan nyaris tidak bisa melarikan diri. Kepala 3.000 tentara Maroko dan 50 pemimpin Maroko dibawa ke Aljir. [H 5] Pada tahun 1702, Moulay Ismail memberi putranya Moulay Zeydan pasukan 12.000 orang dan memerintahkannya untuk menangkap Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera. Orang-orang Maroko meruntuhkan benteng Spanyol, tetapi gagal mempertahankan la Isleta. [L 16] Sementara itu, Laksamana Inggris, George Rooke bergabung dalam pengepungan Ceuta, memblokade pelabuhan pada tahun 1704. [L 15]

Antara 1699 dan 1700, Moulay Ismail membagi provinsi Maroko di antara anak-anaknya. Moulay Ahmed diberi tanggung jawab untuk provinsi Tadla dan pasukan 3.000 Pengawal Hitam. Moulay Abdalmalik dipercayakan dengan provinsi Draâ, dengan kasbah dan 1.000 kavaleri. Moulay Mohammed al-Alam menerima Souss dan 3.000 kavaleri. Moulay El-Mâmoun commanded Sijilmassa and received 500 cavalry. When he died, he was replaced two years later by Moulay Youssef. Moulay Zeydan received command of Cherg, but he lost it after the Ottomans attacked and Ismail made peace with them. [alN 24] He was then replaced by Moulay Hafid. This division of the realm provoked jealousy and rivalry between Ismail's sons, which sometimes degenerated into open clashes. In one of these, Moulay Abdelmalek was defeated by his brother, Moulay Nasser, who took control of the whole of Draâ. [alN 25] Moulay Sharif was appointed governor of Draâ by his father in place of Abdelmalek and succeeded in retaking the region from Nasser. [alN 26]

In response to the intrigues, slanders and opposition of Lalla Aisha Mubarka, who wanted her son Moulay Zeydan to succeed his father as Sultan, Ismail's eldest son Moulay Mohammed al-Alam revolted in Souss and took control of Marrakesh on 9 March 1703. When Moulay Zeydan arrived with an army, Mohammed al-Alam fled to Taroudant. His brother besieged the place and captured it on 25 June 1704, and took him to Oued Beht on 7 July. [alN 26] Mohammed al-Alam was harshly punished by his father, who amputated one hand and one arm, executing both the butcher who refused to spill Mohammed al-Alam's blood on the grounds that he was a Sharif, and the one who agreed to do it. [L 17] He subsequently eliminated a caid of Marrakesh who had been responsible for Moulay Mohammed al-Alam's acquisition of the city, with exceptional violence. [C1903 1] Moulay al-Alam committed suicide at Meknes on 18 July, despite precautions that his father had put in place to prevent this. [alN 27] On learning of the atrocities which Moulay Zeydan had committed at Taroudant, especially the massacre of the city's inhabitants, [alN 26] Moulay Ismail organised for him to be murdered in 1707, having his wives smother him when he was black-out drunk. [L 17] Moulay Nasser also revolted in Souss, but was eventually killed by the Oulad Delim, who remained loyal to Moulay Ismail. [alN 28]

To prevent further trouble, Moulay Ismail rescinded the governorships that he had conferred on his sons, except for Moulay Ahmed, who retained his post as governor of Tadla and Moulay Abdelmalek who became governor of Souss. [alN 29] Since Abdelmalek behaved like an independent and absolute monarch and refused to pay tribute, Ismail decided to change the order of succession - this was aided by the fact that Abdelmalek's mother was no longer close to him. [L 18] Abdelmalek belatedly apologies, but Ismail remained hostile to his son. [L 19] As a result, Moulay Ismail chose Moulay Ahmed as his successor. [L 20]

In 1720, Philip V of Spain, who wanted to get revenge on Morocco for having aided the Grand Alliance in the War of the Spanish Succession, sent a fleet commanded by the Marquess of Lede to raise the siege of Ceuta which had been ongoing since 1694 and to force the Moroccans to give up on retaking the city. The Spanish fleet managed to raise the siege, but Moulay Ismail resumed it in 1721, after the Marquess of Lede had returned to Spain. The Sultan further planned a large armada for an invasion of Spain, but it was destroyed by a storm in 1722. The siege of Ceuta continued until Ismail's death in 1727. [L 17] [L 15]

Moulay Ismail ibn Sharif finally died on 22 March 1727 at the age of 81, [L 17] from an abscess in his lower abdomen. His reign had lasted 55 years, making him the longest reigning Moroccan monarch. [H 6] He was succeeded by Moulay Ahmed. [L 20] Both he and Ahmed were buried in the same mausoleum in Meknes. [19] The empire immediately fell into civil war, as a result of a rebellion of the Black Guards. More than seven claimants to the throne succeeded to power between 1727 and 1757, some of them repeatedly, like Moulay Abdallah who was Sultan six times. [L 21]

Appearance, personality, and contemporary assessments Edit

The main character traits of Moulay Ismail, according to the chronicles and legends of his period, were his "tendency to order and authority, as well as his iron will." He put his strength and power at the service of this unyielding will, "If God gave me the kingship, man cannot take it from me," he is reported to have said. This will was always apparent in his actions and decisions. [20] According to Dominique Busnot, the colour of his clothes was linked to his mood,

Green is the sweetest colour white is a good sign for those appealing to him but when he is dressed in yellow, all the world trembles and flees his presence, because it is the colour that he chooses on the days of his bloodiest executions.

By contemporary Europeans, Moulay Ismail was considered cruel, greedy, merciless and duplicitous. It was his cruelty and viciousness that particularly attracted their attention. Legends of the ease in which Ismail could behead or torture laborers or servants he thought to be lazy are numerous. According to a Christian slave, Moulay Ismail had more than 36,000 people killed over a 26-year period of his reign. [C1903 2] [21] According to François Pidou de Saint Olon, Moulay Ismail had 20,000 assassinated people over a twenty-year period of his reign. [C1903 3] He was described by many authors, including Dominique Busnot, as a "bloodthirsty monster." [C1903 4] [22]

He was also a very good horseman, with great physical strength, agility, and extraordinary cleverness, which he maintained even in his old age. [L 17] [C1903 3] "One of his normal entertainments was to draw his sword as he mounted his horse and decapitate the slave who held the stirrup."

His physical appearance is almost always described in the same way by the Europeans. He had "a long face, more black than white, i.e. very mulatto," according to Saint-Amans, ambassador of Louis XIV, who added that "he is the strongest and most vigourous man of his State." He was of average height and he inherited the colour of his face from his mother, who had been a black slave. [L 17] [L 1]

According to Germain Moüette, a French captive who lived in Morocco until 1682:

He is a vigourous man, well-built, quite tall but rather slender. his face is a clear brown colour, rather long, and its features are all quite well-formed. He has a long beard which is slightly forked. His expression, which seems quite soft, is not a sign of his humanity - on the contrary, he is very cruel. [L 22]

Agama Sunting

"A faithful and pious follower of his religion," [C1903 5] he attempted to convert King James II of England to Islam, sending him letters whose sincerity and religious feeling are inarguable. [C1903 6] Dominique Busnot, who was generally critical of Ismail, asserted that "he had a great attachment to his Law and publicly practised all the ceremonies, ablutions, prayers, fasts, and feasts with scrupulous precision." [C1903 7]

He enjoyed debating theology with the Trinitarians in Morocco on points of controversy. On many occasions when returning from the mosque on Fridays, he asked for Trinitarians to be brought into his court. During a debate with the fathers of Mercy, he said this:

I have said enough for a man who uses reason if you are stubborn, that is too bad. We are all children of Adam and therefore brothers it is only religion which creates a difference between us. It is therefore, as a brother and in obedience to the commandments of my law that I charitably advise you that the true religion is that of Muhammad, which is the only one in which one can find salvation. I give you this advice for the sake of my conscience and in order to be justified in charging you on the day of judgment.

Konstruksi Edit

Moulay Ismail chose Meknes as Morocco's capital city in 1672 and carried out an extensive building program there that resulted in the construction of numerous gates, mosques, gardens and madrases. On account of the rate of construction, Ismail is often compared to his contemporary Louis XIV. The Saadian El Badi Palace in Marrakesh was stripped of almost all its fittings, so that they could be transported to Meknes. [C1903 9] Marble blocks and pillars were also taken from the ancient Roman ruins at Volubilis. [23] [C1903 7] At least 25,000 workers, mostly paid labourers along with a smaller number of Christian prisoners conscripted into forced labour, were employed on his major construction projects in Meknes. [24] [25] Ismail enjoyed visiting the building sites, to correct or revise whatever did not please him. He was sometimes cruel to the workers and did not hesitate to execute or punish those who produced poor quality work. [C1903 10] [ sumber yang tidak dapat diandalkan? ]

He began the construction of his magnificent palace complex at Meknes before learning of the work being undertaken by Louis XIV at Versailles. According to European ambassadors present at Meknes in the period, the fortification walls of the palace alone were more than twenty-three kilometres long. Dar al-Kebira, the first of his palaces, was completed after three years of building and was immense, with hanging gardens modelled on those of Babylon. As soon as it was complete, he laid the foundations of Dar al-Makhzen, which linked together around fifty different palaces, containing their own hammams and its own mosque for his wives, concubines, and children. This was followed by Madinat er-Riyad, the residence of the viziers, governors, caids, secretaries and other high functionaries of Ismail's court, which the historian Ahmad ibn Khalid al-Nasiri called 'the beauty of Meknes'. [26] [alN 30]

In the economic sphere, Moulay Ismail built within his citadel the Heri es-Souani, a major storehouse of foodstuffs which was fed by wells, and the Agdal or Sahrij Reservoir which was dug in order to ensure a regular water supply for the gardens of Meknes. [27] [28] Massive stables with a capacity of 12,000 horses were located inside the Heri es-Souani. Ambassadors were received in the Qubbat al-Khayyatin pavilion which he built at the end of the seventeenth century. He also built prisons to hold criminals, Christian slaves, and prisoners of war. Finally, Ismail built or restored in Meknes a large number of mosques, madrasas, public squares, kasbahs, fountains, city gates, and gardens. Construction continued throughout his whole reign. [29]

In the military sphere, Ismail ordered the construction of a network of sixty-seven fortresses, which lined the main roads and surrounded mountainous areas. Meknes was protected by forty kilometres of walls, pierced by twenty gatehouses. [29] Control over the eastern part of the country was ensured by the construction of many strong forts along the border with Ottoman Algeria. Others were built in the territory of individual tribes, to maintain the peace. [12] He also built defensive structures along the route from the Oasis of Touat to the Chenguit provinces, [11] and reorganised or rebuilt the walls of some cities on the model of Oujda. [alN 12] Garrisons of the Black Guards were protected by the construction of Kasbahs in major population centres, modelled on the Kasbah of Gnawa in Sale. [L 23] [30]

Military reforms Edit

Army reforms Edit

Around 1677, Moulay Ismail began to assert his authority over the whole country. Once he had killed and disabled his principal opponents, he was able to return to Meknes in order to organise his empire. [alN 9] It was during this fighting that he had the idea of creating the corps of the Abid al-Bukhari or Black Guard. [alN 31] [L 14]

The Alaouite army was principally composed of soldiers from the Saharan provinces and the provinces on the margin of the Sahara, such as Tafilalet, Souss, western Sahara, and Mauritania - the home of Khnata bent Bakkar, one of the four official wives of Ismail. The Banu Maqil, who inhabited these areas in great numbers, thus represented the foremost contingents of the Alaouites until the middle of Moulay Ismail's reign, as they had under the Saadian dynasty. Several jayshes originated from these Arab tribes. The Alaouites could also count on the tribes of the Oujda region, which had been conquered by Muhammad ibn Sharif. [Arc 7] The jaysh tribes were exempted from import taxes in order to compensate them and were given land in exchange for their troops. [5] [L 2]

Additionally, Moulay Ismail was able to make use of European renegades' knowledge and experience of artillery, when he formed them into a military corps, [L 2] as well as the Arab-Zenata Jaysh ash-Sheraka, [31] which Rashid ibn Sharif had originally installed in the area north of Fez. [Arc 8] Khlot and Sherarda, tribes of Banu Hilal, were given the rank of Makhzen and formed several contingents in the Moroccan army. [Arc 8] He also founded Jaysh al-Rifi, an independent army of Berber tribesmen from the eastern Rif. This group later played an important role in the 17th-century Moroccan wars against Spanish colonization. [32]

However, Ismail could not rely solely on these tribes, because they had a long history of independence and could change sides or desert him at any moment. [Arc 8] Thus he decided to create Morocco's first professional army, the Black Guard or Abid al-Bukhari, who were entirely beholden to him, unlike the tribal contingents. [Arc 6] After the Siege of Marrakesh in 1672, he imported a large number of black male slaves from Sub-Saharan Africa and recruited many of the free black men in Morocco for his army. The initial contingent numbered perhaps 14,000 men. [L 23] The Black Guard was rapidly expanded, reaching 150,000 men towards the end of Ismail's reign. [alN 32] [33] [34] The guards received a military education from age ten until their sixteenth birthday, when they were enlisted in the army. They were married to black women who had been raised in the royal palace like them. [Arc 6]

Moulay Ismail also created the Jaysh al-Udaya, [alN 9] which is to be distinguished from the tribe of Udaya. [35] The guich was divided into three reha. Yang pertama ini reha was the Ahl Souss (house of Souss), which was composed of four Banu Maqil Arab tribes of Souss: Ulad Jerrar, Ulad Mtâa, Zirara, and the Chebanate. [alN 9] In the 16th century, these tribes had formed the core of the Saadian army, [35] against the Jashem Arabs of Rharb who were part of Banu Hilal and included the Khlot and Safiane, who had supported the Marinid dynasty of Fez. [alN 9] The second reha was the M'ghafra of Mauritania, who were descended from Banu Maqil. Khnata bent Bakkar came from this group. Ketiga reha contained the members of the tribe of Udaya itself. They were a powerful desert tribe who were originally from the Adrar Plateau and were formidable camel riders. Shortly before Moulay Ismail's reign, they had moved north and they were found in Souss under Moulay Ismail. After he reconquered Marrakesh in 1674, Ismail encountered a poor shepherd of the Udaya called Bou-Chefra and learnt that his people had been forced to leave the desert because of the drought and were originally Banu Maqil like himself. Sympathising with their plight, the Sultan decided to turn them into an elite division of his army. [alN 33]

The Jaysh al-Udaya became a major portion of the Sultan's army, governed by the principle of makhzen in which land was granted to soldiers in exchange for military service. According to the historian Simon Pierre, "After the Alaouite conquest, the people of the Maghreb had been despoiled and disarmed and, except for one Berber tribe and the Rifians, only the Abid al-Bukhari and the Udaya exercised the monopoly on violence. Thirty years later, at the death of Moulay Ismail in 1727, it was the caids of the Abid al-Bukhari and the Udaya who joined with the ulama of Meknes and the ministers to choose sultan Moulay Ahmed Adh-Dhahabî!" [35] However, other sources state that Moulay Ismail had designated him as his successor before his death. [L 20] Regardless, during the period of anarchy after Ismail's death, the Udaya certainly played a major role in deposing several Sultans along with the Abid al-Bukhari. [35]

Defensive organisation Edit

By the end of his reign, Ismail had built more than 76 kasbahs and military posts throughout his territory. Each kasbah was defended by a force of at least 100 soldiers drawn from the jaysh tribes or the Black Guard. [Arc 6] Moroccan forces were stationed in all the major cities and provincial capitals. For example, there were 3,000 Sheraka, 4,500 Sherarda and 2,000 Udaya stationed around Fez, which formed a defensive cordon against the unsubjugated Berber tribes in the area. [36]

The kasbahs ensured the defence of the eastern border, where there was a heavy Moroccan military presence, but they also protected the main lines of communication within the kingdom and facilitated the control of unsubjugated tribes, [Arc 9] by continuously raiding them. [Arc 10]


Isi

Idris I (known as Moulay Idris) was a descendant of the Prophet Muhammad who fled from Abbasid-controlled territory after the Battle of Fakh because he had supported the defeated pro-Shi'a rebels. [2] He established himself at Oualili (Volubilis), a formerly Roman town which by then was mostly inhabited by Berbers and a small population of Judeo-Christian heritage. [3] He used his prestige as a descendant of the Prophet to forge an alliance with local Berber tribes (in particular the Awraba) in 789 and quickly became the most important religious and political leader in the region. As the old site of Roman Volubilis was located on an open plain and considered vulnerable, the settlement moved up a few kilometers towards the mountains, presumably around the site of the current town of Moulay Idriss, leaving the old Roman ruins abandoned. [4] : 22

Idris I died soon after in 791, possibly poisoned on the order of the Abbasid caliph Harun al-Rashid, just before his son Idris (II) was born. [2] [3] Once Idris II came of age and officially took over his position as ruler in 803, he continued his father's endeavors and significantly expanded the authority of the new Idrisid state. As a result, the Idrisid dynasty was of central importance to the early Islamization of Morocco, forming the first true "Islamic" state to consolidate power over much of its territory. [2] They also founded the important city of Fes, about 50 kilometres away, which became the Idrisid capital under Idris II. [2] [5]

The early history of Moulay Idriss Zerhoun (sometimes called simply Moulday Idriss [6] [7] ) as a town is not widely discussed by historians. A mausoleum for Idris I presumably existed on this site, overlooking Volubilis/Oualili, since his death. The tomb was probably placed inside a qubba (general term for a domed building or structure), and the name Oualili was eventually replaced by the name Moulay Idriss. [1] [4] Some anti-Idrisid rulers in 10th-century Fes claimed that Idris II was also buried here (instead of in his alleged tomb in Fes itself), though he is widely believed to be buried in Fes, where his mausoleum and mosque is still a site of major importance today. [8]

Although the town became a site of pilgrimage early on, after Idris II it was quickly overshadowed by Fes, which became the most important city of the region. [4] The popularity of Idris I and his son as Muslim "saints" and figures of national importance was not constant throughout Morocco's history, with their status declining significantly after the end of Idrisid influence in the 10th century. [8] [3] The Almoravids, the next major Moroccan dynasty after them, were hostile to the cult of saints and other practices judged less orthodox under their stricter views of Islam. [2] It was only during the Marinid period, from the 14th century onward, that the Idrisid founders became celebrated again and that their religious importance redeveloped. [4] An early sign of this was the alleged rediscovery of Idris I's remains in 1318, at Moulay Idris Zerhoun, which apparently caused something of a sensation among the local population and attracted attention from the Marinid authorities. [9] [3] : 180 During this time, the annual moussem (religious festival) in August, celebrating Moulay Idris I, was instituted and began to take shape. [4] : 100

The mausoleum itself apparently remained little changed for many centuries. [1] Under the sharifian dynasties of Morocco, the Saadians and (especially) the Alaouites, who also claimed descent from the Prophet Muhammad, the status of Idris I and II as foundational figures in Moroccan history was further elevated in order to enhance the new dynasties' own legitimacy. [8] Moulay Ismail, the powerful and long-reigning Alaouite sultan between 1672 and 1727, ordered the existing mausoleum to be demolished and rebuilt on a grander scale. Adjoining properties were purchased for the purpose. Construction lasted from 1719 to 1721. [1] Once finished, Moulay Ismail ordered that the khutba (Friday sermon) be performed regularly in the mausoleum's mosque, which established it as the main Friday mosque of the city. [1] In 1822, the Alaouite sultan Moulay Abderrahman (Abd al-Rahman), purchased another property adjoining the mausoleum in order to rebuild the mosque on an even bigger and more lavish scale. [1] Under Sultan Sidi Mohammed (Mohammed IV ruled 1859-1873), some expert ceramic tilework decoration was added by the Meknesi artisan Ibn Makhlouf. [1]

Following Moroccan independence in 1956, the mausoleum was redecorated and the mosque expanded yet again by King Mohammed V and his son Hassan II. [1] To this day, Idris's tomb is a pilgrimage site and the center of a popular moussem (religious festival) every August. [1] [7] The gold-embroidered covering over his tomb is replaced regularly every one or two years during its own ritual attended by religious and political figures. [1] Due to its status as a holy city and sanctuary, the town was off-limits to non-Muslims until 1912, and non-Muslims were not able to stay overnight until 2005. [7]

Since 1995, Moulay Idriss Zerhoun has been on UNESCO's Tentative list of World Heritage Sites. [10]

The town is currently in the Fès-Meknès region. From 1997 to 2015 it was in Meknès-Tafilalet. [ citation needed ] The ruins of the Berber and Roman city of Volubilis are located just five kilometers away. [7] Idris I took many materials from here in order to build his town. Further away are the cities of Meknes (about 28 km away by road [1] ) and Fez (about 50 km away).

The town is located on two adjacent foothills of the Zerhoun mountains, the Khiber and the Tasga, which form the town's two main districts. [6] Between these is the mausoleum and religious complex of Moulay Idris. The Khiber is the taller of the two hills and its summit offers views over the religious complex and the rest of town. [6] The Sentissi Mosque and the Mausoleum-mosque of Sidi Abdallah el Hajjam are also located near the top of the Khiber hill. [6]

Zawiya of Moulay Idris I Edit

The zawiya (a religious complex including a mausoleum, mosque, and other amenities also spelled zaouia) of Moulay Idris is located at the center of town, with its entrance just off the main town square. [7] It is reached then reached via a long passage that leads to the main building. This includes the mausoleum chamber, recognizable from afar by its huge green-tiled pyramidal roof, and a mosque area. [1] [6] [7] It also has a tall minaret with a square shaft, typical of Moroccan architecture. The decoration is rich and dates from the Alaouite period, including from the 20th century. [1] The zawiya is off limits to non-Muslims. [7]

Cylindrical Minaret Edit

The Sentissi Mosque, built in 1939 by a local man after his return from the haji in Mecca. [6] [11] It allegedly has the only cylindrical minaret in Morocco. [6] [12] The minaret is covered in a background of green tiles with white Kufic-style Arabic letters spelling out a surah from the Qur'an. [6] The mosque is now a Qur'anic school (madrasa), and is also referred to as the Medersa Idriss. [6]


The Opulent Mausoleum of Moulay Ismail in Morocco

The Mausoleum of Moulay Ismail, Meknès, Morocco. Moulay Ismaïl Ibn Sharif, also known as the “Warrior King”, was the ruler of Moroccan Alaouite dynasty. During his reign he built Meknès and made it Morocco’s capital. The 18th century’s Mausoleum is the resting place of the most famous and notorious sultans of the country, including Ibn Sharif.

Today it is believed that coming to the site will bring a divine blessing to the visitor. The building is also a fine example of Islamic architecture and opulent design. Non-Muslims are partly allowed to view the site, but not all of it – however, it is the only one building of the kind in Morocco, which would be open for the tourists at all.

Why to go there?

One of the most highly regarded architectural sites by the Moroccans themselves. Definitely one of the most popular and best attractions in Meknès.

When to go there?

The site is open daily at 9:00-18:00 except Friday.

How to get there?

It is located in the city center, a short walk from the Royal Palace. Get to Meknès by train or bus from various Moroccan cities. The best way to get around is by taxi.


Courtyard of the Mausoleum of Moulay Ismail. - stock photo

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Agdal basin

The stone-lined lake of Agdal was both a reservoir and a pleasant lake. It was fed by irrigation canals 25 km long.
The basin still very much serves the function of being a local retreat, and families come out here frequently for picnics.

The medina of Meknes is just about big enough, and a lively place. The traditional organization of putting similar type of shops and professions in the same quarter very much lives on here.

Meknes has large areas known as qissariya, which are covered markets.
Quality of work here is generally of the better you will find in Morocco, and prices can be among the more affordable. Visitors to Meknes, who have good skills in haggling, should definitely consider picking up their souvenirs here.

Meknes has a very nice olive market — Morocco has some of the finest olives in the world — where olives from the region around the city, as well as other parts of Morocco, are sold.

Even if the quality is great, look out for high prices. This guy was reasonable, with 10 dh per kilo for most olives, and 12 DH for spiced olives. But just a few meters from him, prices were hiked up, and 30- 40 DH per kilo was the going price.

The Dar Jamaļ was built in 1882 to the vizier family Jamaļ. However, after the mansion’s completion, there were only 12 years more before they fell into disgrace. The mansion was lost in the same debacle.

Since 1920, it has served as a museum, and it now ranks among Morocco’s best. Its exhibits vary from time to time but focus on traditional items, ceramics, textiles, jewelry, and more.

To the mansion is also what is called the Andalucian Garden, where cypress and fruit trees dominate.
Admission is 20dh, open only 3 days a week, Monday-Wednesday, 9.00-12.00 and 15-18.30.

This Muslim school was completed in 1358 and named after Sultan Abu Inan. It has very nice examples of zellij mosaics and wood carvings. Look out for the ribbed dome over the entrance hall, which is the building’s most unique asset.

From its roof, there are nice views over the Great Mosque.
Typically Moroccan, non-Muslims are not permitted into large sections of the madrasa.


Kasbah of Moulay Ismail

NS Kasbah of Moulay Ismail is a vast palace complex and royal kasbah (citadel) built by the Moroccan sultan Moulay Isma'il ibn Sharif (also spelled "Ismail") in Meknes, Morocco. It is also known, among other names, as the Imperial City (French: Ville Impériale) or Palace of Moulay Ismail, or the Kasbah of Meknes. [1] [2] [3] It was built by Moulay Isma'il over the many decades of his reign between 1672 and 1727, when he made Meknes the capital of Morocco, and received occasional additions under later sultans.

In addition to Moulay Isma'il's own importance in the history of Morocco, his imperial palace in Meknes was notable for its vast scale and its complex infrastructure. The area covered by the kasbah was significantly larger than the old city of Meknes itself and operated as its own city with its own fortifications, water supply, food stockpiles, and troops. Historians later nicknamed it the "Moroccan Versailles". [4] [3] [5] Today, many of the buildings from Moulay Isma'il's era have disappeared or fallen into ruin, but some notable monumental structures remain. A part of the area, the Dar al-Makhzen, is still in use as an occasional royal residence of the King of Morocco, while other sections of the complex have been converted to other functions or replaced with general residential neighbourhoods. [4]


Volubilis

A striking sight, visible for miles on the bends of the approach roads, the Roman ruins of VOLUBILIS occupy the ledge of a long, high plateau, 25km north of Meknes. Below their walls, towards Moulay Idriss, stretches a rich river valley beyond lie the dark, outlying ridges of the Zerhoun mountains. The drama of this scene – and the scope of the ruins themselves – are undeniably impressive, so much so that the site was a key location for Martin Scorsese’s film The Last Temptation of Christ.

Brief history of Volubilis

Except for a small trading post on an island off Essaouira, Volubilis was the Roman Empire’s most remote and far-flung base. It represented – and was, literally – the end of the imperial road, having reached across France and Spain and then down from Tangier, and despite successive emperors’ dreams of “penetrating the Atlas”, the southern Berber tribes were never effectively subdued.

In fact, direct Roman rule here lasted little over two centuries – the garrison withdrew early, in 285 AD, to ease pressure elsewhere. But the town must have taken much of its present form well before the official annexation of the Kingdom of Mauretania by Emperor Claudius in 40 AD. Tablets found on the site, inscribed in Punic, show a significant Carthaginian trading presence in the third century BC, and prior to colonization it was the western capital of a heavily Romanized, but semi-autonomous, Berber kingdom that reached into northern Algeria and Tunisia. After the Romans left, Volubilis experienced very gradual change. Latin was still spoken in the seventh century by the local population of Berbers, Greeks, Syrians and Jews Christian churches survived until the coming of Islam and the city itself remained active well into the seventeenth century, when its marble was carried away by slaves for the building of Moulay Ismail’s Meknes.

What you see today, well excavated and maintained, are largely the ruins of second- and third-century AD buildings – impressive and affluent creations from its period as a colonial provincial capital. The land around here is some of the most fertile in North Africa, and the city exported wheat and olives in considerable quantities to Rome, as it did wild animals from the surrounding hills. Roman games, memorable for the sheer scale of their slaughter (nine thousand beasts were killed for the dedication of Rome’s Colosseum alone), could not have happened without the African provinces, and Volubilis was a chief source of their lions – within just two hundred years, along with Barbary bears and elephants, they became extinct.

The site

The entrance to the site is through a minor gate in the city wall – or through a break in the wall further down, depending on construction work – built along with a number of outer camps in 168 AD, following a prolonged series of Berber insurrections. The best of the finds, which include a superb collection of bronzes, have been taken to the Archeological Mueseum in Rabat, though Volubilis has retained in situ the great majority of its mosaics, some thirty or so, which are starting to show the effects of being exposed to the elements. The finest mosaics line the Decumanus Maximus, the main thoroughfare through Volubilis, but aside from those subjected to heavy-handed restoration, the once brightly coloured tiles have faded to a subtle palette of ochres and greys. Similarly, the site requires a bit of imagination to reconstruct a town (or, at least, half a town, for the original settlement was twice the size of what remains today) from the jumble of low walls and stumpy columns. Nevertheless, you leave with a real sense of Roman city life and its provincial prosperity, while it is not hard to recognize the essentials of a medieval Arab town in the layout.