Invasi Kanada - Sejarah

Invasi Kanada - Sejarah


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Invasi Kanada tahun 1838

Saat itu pagi November yang dingin di Sungai Saint Lawrence pada tahun 1838. Letnan Angkatan Laut Kerajaan Inggris William Fowell berdiri di dek Kapal Uap Yang Mulia dengan waspada di pantai Amerika. Di dalam Percobaan, menjaga jam awal pagi, penjajah telah gagal dalam upaya untuk mendarat di Prescott, Ontario. Tetapi Fowell tahu bahwa invasi itu hanya ditunda, bukan dihalangi.

Perang tahun 1812 telah berlalu beberapa dekade, tetapi semuanya tidak tenang di sepanjang perbatasan Amerika-Kanada. Ancaman terhadap Kanada datang bukan dari pemerintah Amerika Serikat, tetapi dari organisasi klandestin bernama Pemburu Patriot. Situasi di sepanjang Saint Lawrence sangat tidak nyaman. Nathaniel S. Benton, jaksa wilayah utara New York, memberi tahu Presiden AS Martin Van Buren bahwa situasinya menjadi eksplosif: “Seluruh perbatasan dipenuhi orang-orang … kekerasan” yang ditujukan terhadap Kanada. Presiden Van Buren setuju bahwa ketegangan yang meningkat menjadi perhatian, mengacu pada “kejadian yang saling mengganggu dan menjengkelkan yang tumbuh dari Pemberontakan Kanada dan partisipasi tidak sah dari warga [Amerika] dalam penuntutannya.”

Inggris tidak memiliki keinginan untuk konflik lain dengan Amerika Serikat, tetapi tampaknya tidak ada cara untuk melindungi Kanada dari perang. Pejabat Inggris memberi tahu para pemimpin AS bahwa mereka akan menyesal harus mengejar "Pemberontak atau Bajak Laut" ke wilayah Amerika, tetapi "sedikit melampaui batas" mungkin diperlukan. Risikonya adalah bahwa setiap “melanggar batas” akan mengarah pada perang yang sangat ingin dihindari oleh kedua negara. Tetapi alternatif tampaknya terbatas.

Para Pemburu yakin bahwa orang Kanada ingin melepaskan kuk tirani Inggris. Mereka percaya kehadiran pasukan yang terorganisir dengan baik dan bersenjata lengkap akan memberikan percikan untuk memicu pemberontakan skala penuh. Saat spanduk Pemburu ditanam di tanah Kanada, massa yang tertindas akan berduyun-duyun ke tujuan dan berkumpul untuk menggulingkan penindas mereka. Para Pemburu akan segera mengetahui betapa buruknya perhitungan mereka.

Invasi tidak dimulai dengan baik. Para pemberontak berencana menggunakan dua sekunar, Charlotte dari Oswego dan Charlotte dari Toronto, untuk mendaratkan pasukan di Prescott dini hari tanggal 12 November. Para pilot segera menyadari bahwa mereka tidak dapat mendarat di tujuan utama mereka – dermaga dirobek untuk diperbaiki – jadi mereka memindahkan kapal mereka ke pendaratan berikutnya. Namun upaya untuk mengikatnya gagal karena talinya putus. Pada saat pendaratan ketiga dicoba, Letnan Kolonel Plomer Young telah tiba di tepi pantai dengan pasukan, mengancam akan melepaskan tembakan kecuali kapal-kapal itu mengidentifikasi diri mereka. Menyadari pendaratan sekarang tidak mungkin, kedua kapal itu berbelok, menghilang ke dalam kabut, dan berlayar kembali ke sisi Amerika.

Fajar mengungkapkan tidak ada peningkatan dalam keberuntungan Pemburu setelah pendaratan yang dibatalkan. Dalam kabut dan kegelapan, Charlotte dari Oswego dan Charlotte dari Toronto telah kandas di timbunan lumpur di lepas pantai Ogdensburg, N.Y., dan terjerat satu sama lain. Satu-satunya hiburan Pemburu: Sekunar berada di perairan Amerika.

William "Bill the Pirate" Johnston mendapatkan tempat di Ogdensburg dan mengarahkan artileri dan senjata dari Charlotte dari Toronto diturunkan ke kapal yang lebih kecil. Itu cukup meringankan sekunar untuk membebaskannya dari lumpur dan segera bergerak ke hilir, berhati-hati untuk tetap berada di perairan Amerika. Namun, kapal saudaranya tidak seberuntung itu. Tidak ada upaya yang bisa membebaskan Charlotte dari Oswego. Itu membutuhkan derek. John Ward Birge memimpin pasukan ke Ogdensburg dan mengomandoi kapal penumpang Amerika Serikat, yang kapten barunya, Oliver B. Pierce, digambarkan sebagai “ahli frenologi mabuk.”

Ketika Charlotte dari Toronto dan tongkang yang membawa amunisi pindah ke hilir ke lokasi pendaratan yang disepakati, Amerika Serikat pergi untuk menyelamatkan Charlotte dari Oswego. Namun, karena timbunan lumpur, kapal uap tidak bisa cukup dekat dengan sekunar yang terdampar dan dengan demikian kembali ke Ogdensburg untuk menarik tali lebih lama. Kapan Amerika Serikat tiba untuk upaya penyelamatan kedua, itu memberi tumpukan lumpur tempat tidur yang luas agar jangan sampai kandas. Dalam prosesnya, kapal uap muncul Charlottesisi utara. Ini adalah kesalahan- Amerika Serikat sekarang berada di perairan Kanada.

kapal Percobaan, Fowell sangat menyadari bahwa menjelajah ke perairan Amerika dilarang. Sementara pemerintah AS tidak mendukung para Pemburu, Jenderal Amerika Winfield Scott menjelaskan bahwa dia tidak akan mentolerir setiap kapal Inggris yang memasuki perairan negaranya. Dengan ingatan Perang 1812 yang masih segar, apapun yang menyerupai invasi Inggris tidak akan diizinkan. Jenderal Scott menasihati Inggris bahwa dia bermaksud untuk "melindungi tanah atau perairan kita sendiri dari pelanggaran" dan akan "wajib mempertimbangkan pelepasan tembakan atau peluru dari atau ke perairan kita, dari sekunar bersenjata Yang Mulia, suatu tindakan yang sangat membahayakan. kenetralan kedua negara kita.”

Dengan kesalahan yang dibuat oleh Amerika Serikat' kapten, bagaimanapun, Fowell bebas menyerang. Kapalnya adalah kapal perang Inggris yang tidak mungkin. Sebuah bekas kapal sipil yang ditenagai oleh mesin 30-tenaga kuda, dilengkapi dua meriam 3 pon dan sebuah carronade 18 pon. Tidak mungkin meskipun mungkin, Percobaan kemudian semua yang berdiri antara Kanada dan invasi. Fowell bertekad untuk mempertahankan pendiriannya. Dia telah menunggu kemungkinan bahwa salah satu kapal Pemburu akan membuat kesalahan, dan kru senjatanya siap untuk bertindak melawan apa pun yang berakhir di perairan Kanada.

Sebagai Amerika Serikat didekati Percobaan, Pemburu di dek melepaskan tembakan senapan. Fowell membalas tembakan dengan carronade dan 3 pon. Tembakan mengenai lambung kapal Amerika Serikat tapi tidak merusak. Charlotte dari Toronto sudah mencapai titik pendaratannya dengan scow. Orang-orang dan amunisi sedang diturunkan dan invasi sedang berlangsung. Setelah pertengkaran singkat dengan Percobaan, Amerika Serikat bergerak ke hilir untuk mendukung serangan itu.

Fowell, takut Prescott masih menjadi target sebenarnya dan para Pemburu bermaksud untuk memancingnya pergi, berbalik Percobaan. Saat dia melakukannya, dia melihat kapal uap itu Paul Pry telah datang untuk menyelamatkan Charlotte dari Oswego, membebaskannya dari timbunan lumpur. Dengan melakukan itu, kedua kapal berkelana ke perairan Kanada. Fowell kini punya target baru.

Percobaan melepaskan tembakan dari jarak dekat. Paul Pry melepaskan tali penarik dan menuju Ogdensburg dengan cepat. Pada saat itu, para pria di atas kapal Charlotte disebut bahwa mereka ingin menyerah. Tapi pada saat Percobaan muncul, Charlotte telah mencapai keselamatan perairan Amerika. Mereka yang berada di kapal dengan cepat menarik kembali permohonan penyerahan mereka. Fowell harus melepaskan sekunar itu. Untuk Percobaan, bagaimanapun, pertempuran belum berakhir. Amerika Serikat sedang menahannya dengan kecepatan tinggi.

Percobaan memindahkan 100 ton, sedangkan Amerika Serikat dipindahkan 450 ton. Jadi dari sudut pandang Amerika, langkah agresif itu pasti tampak seperti ide yang bagus pada saat itu. Jika Amerika Serikat tidak bisa menenggelamkan kapal yang lebih kecil dengan menabrak, sepertinya itu bisa menimbulkan kerusakan yang cukup untuk disimpan Percobaan dari tindakan lebih lanjut.

Pemburu di kapal Amerika Serikat mencemooh kapal kecil Inggris yang tampak begitu rapuh. Fowell melepaskan tembakan, tetapi sekali lagi tembakan itu tidak berpengaruh. Pesawat yang lebih kecil tidak mengalami kesulitan menghindari upaya serudukan, dan itu menembak lagi sebagai Amerika Serikat lulus. Kali ini, satu tembakan menghancurkan mesin kanan dan satu lagi menghancurkan ruang kemudi, memenggal pilot. Ejekan para Pemburu dengan cepat menghilang sementara salah satu awak berhasil membimbing kapal yang rusak kembali ke Ogdensburg.

Charlotte dari Toronto, yang telah mengikuti Amerika Serikat hulu, melihat apa yang terjadi dan berbelok ke perairan Amerika. Dengan semua kapal AS aman di pihak Amerika, Fowell kembali ke Prescott dan melaporkan tindakan tersebut.

Serangan para Pemburu, bagaimanapun, belum berakhir. Pertempuran Kincir Angin pada hari berikutnya di timur Prescott adalah yang terakhir. Tetap Inggris dan milisi lokal Kanada menang tegas. Jauh dari berbondong-bondong ke spanduk Pemburu, orang Kanada mengangkat senjata untuk melawan invasi.

Invasi Pemburu Patriot ke Kanada adalah kegagalan yang menyedihkan. Para pemberontak yang tidak terbunuh ditangkap. Beberapa diampuni atau dikirim ke pengasingan di Tasmania. Sebelas dieksekusi.

Setelah bertarung dengan salah satu pertempuran paling aneh di Angkatan Laut Kerajaan Inggris, si kecil yang gagah Percobaan bisa pensiun dengan bermartabat, setelah menjunjung tinggi kebanggaan layanan termasyhur itu.


Invasi Kanada - Sejarah

Oleh Earl Echelberry

Segar dari penangkapannya atas Fort Ticonderoga, Kolonel Benedict Arnold pada musim panas 1775 melobi keras kepada Kongres Kontinental untuk otorisasi memimpin ekspedisi ke Sungai St. Lawrence yang lebih rendah dan menyerang benteng Inggris di Quebec. Dia siap, kata Arnold, “untuk melaksanakan rencana itu dan, dengan senyum surgawi, untuk menjawab keberhasilannya.” Namun, setelah mempertimbangkan dengan cermat, Kongres memberikan perintah kepada Mayor Jenderal Philip Schuyler, seorang pemilik tanah terkemuka di New York, dengan Brig. Jenderal Richard Montgomery, mantan kapten Inggris, menjabat sebagai komandan kedua.
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Marah, Arnold bergegas ke Cambridge, Massachusetts, dan meminta wawancara segera dengan Jenderal George Washington, panglima pasukan Amerika. Washington sangat terkesan dengan sikap dan semangat Arnold sehingga dia mengizinkannya untuk memimpin invasi kedua yang saling melengkapi ke Kanada. Menurut informasi terbaik yang tersedia untuk Washington, Inggris hanya memiliki satu kompi di Quebec tetapi dapat menarik 1.100 tentara tambahan dari Montreal dan benteng-benteng lainnya. Washington takut bahwa kekuatan yang lemah di bawah kepemimpinan Jenderal Sir Guy Carleton akan menang melawan serangan Schuyler-Montgomery. Untuk meningkatkan peluang keberhasilan invasi, Washington memodifikasi rencana serangan aslinya untuk memasukkan kekuatan pengalih Arnold. Dia beralasan bahwa jika Carleton mengikuti kekuatan Arnold, itu akan membuka jalan bagi Schuyler, atau jika dia memblokir ekspedisi Schuyler-Montgomery, ini akan memungkinkan Quebec jatuh ke tangan Arnold.

Invasi Washington ke Kanada

Kesulitan logistik di balik rencana Washington sangat berat. Pertama, kekuatan sekitar 1.100 orang, setara dengan satu batalion termasuk tiga kompi senapan, akan dibutuhkan untuk ekspedisi pengalihan. Mereka akan mendarat di Maine, di mana mereka akan mendaki Sungai Kennebec dengan perahu beralas datar (bateaux), kemudian menegosiasikan pelabuhan yang sulit ke Sungai Mati. Dari sana mereka akan menuju ke Ketinggian Tanah dan akhirnya naik ke Sungai Chaudiere ke mulutnya, di seberang Quebec. Perjalanan ini tampak layak di peta. Namun, rencana, peta, dan survei semuanya gagal untuk memperhitungkan air terjun yang deras, jeram yang mendidih, membunuh portage di atas punggung bukit yang curam, dan kecelakaan biasa yang mungkin dialami pria saat bepergian dengan bateaux. Yang terpenting, rencana itu gagal memperhitungkan iklim tak kenal ampun yang harus dihadapi para pria.

Mengikuti saran Washington untuk “menggunakan semua kemungkinan eksekusi, karena musim dingin sekarang sedang berlangsung,” Arnold melemparkan dirinya sendiri ke dalam tugas merekrut sukarelawan dari pasukan yang ditempatkan di sekitar Cambridge. Sebagai hasil dari semangat dan janji tindakannya, Arnold mampu mengumpulkan 10 kompi orang dari koloni New England. Untuk angka-angka ini Washington menambahkan tiga kompi senapan tambahan, dua dari Pennsylvania dan satu lagi dari Virginia, ditarik dengan undian. Orang-orang itu berpakaian seperti dusun biasa, dengan kulit rusa, kemeja berburu, dan sepatu kets. Di bagian depan topi bertepi lebar mereka, mereka telah menjahit kata-kata: KEBEBASAN ATAU KEMATIAN.

Perintah Arnold sekarang siap untuk berbaris. Kecepatan adalah syarat utama—perjalanan harus dimulai sebelum musim panas berlalu. Washington telah memilih dengan bijak dalam memilih Arnold untuk memimpin ekspedisi. Dia adalah seorang pria dengan stamina, usaha, ambisi, dan pemberani, seorang pemimpin yang lahir secara alami tetapi bukan seorang pengemudi, seorang pria dengan keyakinan penuh pada kemampuan aslinya.

Mengorganisir Angkatan Darat

Benedict Arnold dalam pakaian Kolonel biru.

Arnold menempatkan Kapten William Hendricks dan Matthew Smith bertanggung jawab atas dua kompi senapan Pennsylvania dan Kapten Daniel Morgan bertanggung jawab atas Virginians. Batalyon pertama dipimpin oleh Letnan Kolonel Roger Enos, dengan Mayor Jonathan Meigs sebagai asistennya. Batalyon pertama terdiri dari empat kompi yang dipimpin oleh Kapten Thomas Williams, Henry Dearborn, Oliver Hanchet, dan William Goodrich. Batalyon kedua dipimpin oleh Letnan Kolonel Christopher Greene dan Mayor Timothy Bigelow. Komandan kompi batalion kedua adalah Kapten Samuel Ward, Jr., Simeon Thayer, John Topham, Jonas Hubbard, dan Samuel McCobb. Sebuah detasemen 50 pengrajin yang dipimpin oleh Kapten Reuben Colburn bergabung dengan ekspedisi sebelum pendakian Sungai Kennebec. Ekspedisi tersebut juga memiliki seorang ahli bedah, Dr. Issac Senter, bersama dengan pasangan ahli bedah, dua asisten, dua ajudan, dua quartermaster, dan seorang pendeta, Samuel Spring. Ada juga lima "relawan yang tidak terikat," termasuk Aaron Burr yang berusia 19 tahun (yang ditemani oleh seorang putri remaja India Abenaki yang dijuluki "Paha Emas"), Matthias Ogden, Eleazer Oswald, Charles Porterfield, dan John McGuire.

Karena Carleton telah menanggalkan pasukan untuk memperkuat Jenderal Thomas Gage di Boston, prospek keberhasilan tampak sangat baik ketika Washington berbicara kepada orang-orang Arnold dan memerintahkan mereka untuk menghormati hak milik dan kebebasan hati nurani. Dia juga menyusun sebuah pidato kepada orang-orang Kanada: “Penyebab Amerika dan kebebasan adalah penyebab setiap orang Amerika apa pun agamanya atau keturunannya. Maka, datanglah, kamu warga negara yang murah hati, rentangkan dirimu di bawah standar Kebebasan Umum, di mana semua kekuatan dan kecerdasan tirani tidak akan pernah bisa menang.” Kepada Arnold, Washington menasihati, "Atas keberhasilan usaha ini, di bawah Tuhan keselamatan dan kesejahteraan seluruh benua mungkin bergantung."

Trek hulu yang Menantang

Pada tanggal akhir yang berbahaya 19 September, Arnold berlayar dari Newburyport dengan sekitar 1.100 orang. Mereka mendarat tiga hari kemudian di Gardinerstown, di mana Arnold mengatur armada kecil tatakan gelas dan perahu nelayan untuk membawa anak buahnya ke muara Sungai Kennebec. Keesokan harinya armada kapal berjalan menyusuri sungai yang berliku-liku dan menyusahkan sejauh 49 mil ke galangan kapal Reuben Colburn. Saat tuan tanah turun, sangat gembira karena memiliki tanah yang kokoh di bawah mereka lagi, mereka melihat bateaux yang akan menjadi transportasi mereka menyusuri Sungai Kennebec. Di atas teluk di Fort Western, pasukan dan perbekalan Arnold dipindahkan ke bateaux. Arnold menghabiskan beberapa hari berikutnya mengatur pasukannya untuk terjun sejauh 385 mil melalui hutan belantara. Pada tanggal 25, dua patroli pengintaian awal dikirim ke hulu untuk membersihkan jalan. Sehari kemudian batalion kedua, dipimpin oleh Greene dan Bigelow, diikuti dengan tiga kompi penembak. Meigs mengikuti dengan bagian dari batalion pertama, sementara Enos dan yang lainnya membentuk barisan belakang. Setiap perusahaan membawa bekal selama 45 hari.

Sejak awal perjalanan memang berat. Butuh tubuh utama dua hari untuk menutupi 18 mil pertama hulu ke Fort Halifax. Di Taconic Falls, para pria menghadapi tantangan pertama mereka, perjalanan setengah mil di sekitar air terjun. Dengan bahu yang sakit dan kaku, para pria itu mengangkut lebih dari 65 ton perbekalan, sebelum mengangkat setiap bateaux (beratnya masing-masing 400 pon) dan membawanya ke sisi lain air terjun. Deru air terjun Five Miles Falls datang berikutnya, diikuti oleh pendekatan berbahaya sejauh setengah mil ke Air Terjun Skowhegan.

Dengan pakaian basah dan beku, mereka melanjutkan. Bepergian melalui hujan lebat, mereka mencapai Air Terjun Skowhegan pada 1 Oktober. Naik perahu ke air terjun tampaknya tidak mungkin, karena celah yang membelah permukaan batu itu curam dan berbahaya. Tetap saja para pria itu berjalan dengan susah payah, menyeret bateaux canggung mereka. Di bagian atas, perahu ditambal dan diisi ulang, dan tentara bersiap untuk bergerak maju. Pada tanggal 4 Oktober mereka melewati sisa-sisa peradaban terakhir. Mengambil cuti dari pemukiman dan rumah-rumah di Norridgewock, mereka menghabiskan tiga hari berikutnya menavigasi Air Terjun Norridgewock.

Mendayung, menyeret, dan kadang-kadang membawa kerajinan mereka, mereka bergerak melewati jeram dan katarak dan melintasi rawa-rawa dan dataran tinggi yang terjal. Dengan setiap portage, semakin banyak persediaan yang hancur. Memeriksa posisinya, Arnold menemukan bahwa dia telah menghabiskan dua kali waktu yang dialokasikan untuk perjalanan, dan dia masih berada di Sungai Kennebec. Menyadari bahwa setengah dari perbekalan telah dihabiskan, Arnold memotong jatah harian menjadi setengah inci daging babi mentah dan setengah biskuit. Tidak lama kemudian Dr. Senter mulai mencatat disentri dan diare yang merajalela di antara para pria.

Pada tanggal 9 Oktober, barisan itu maju ke arah Curritunk Falls, pelabuhan utama berikutnya. Setelah mencapai Great Carrying Place, rombongan tujuh orang maju dikirim untuk menandai jalur terpendek dari Kennebec ke Sungai Mati. Setelah delapan mil perjalanan melalui hutan pinus, cemara balsam, cedar, cypress, hemlock, dan birch kuning dan empat mil mendayung melintasi tiga kolam, mereka mencapai perairan coklat Sungai Mati pada tanggal 11. Orang-orang lainnya mengikuti, membawa perahu, bagasi, perbekalan, dan amunisi mereka, dan keesokan harinya ekspedisi mencapai Sungai Mati.

Memotong Kekuatan Invasi

Arnold telah menentukan bahwa jarak dari mulut Kennebec ke Quebec hanya 180 mil, membutuhkan 20 hari perjalanan. Meskipun dia telah menyediakan makanan selama 45 hari, pasukannya telah menempuh perjalanan tujuh hari lebih lama dari yang dia hitung untuk seluruh perjalanan dan datang kurang dari setengah perjalanan. Perbekalan hampir habis, dan anak buahnya sekarang tinggal merebus kulit mentah dan lilin menjadi sup agar-agar. Seekor anjing malang yang dibawa seseorang sebagai maskot terbunuh dan "langsung dilahap" oleh para trekker yang lapar.

Pada tanggal 2 Desember, Montgomery bergabung dengan Arnold, membawa pakaian segar, artileri, amunisi, dan perbekalan dari berbagai jenis yang ditangkap di Montreal.

Pada tanggal 24 Oktober, menyadari bahwa ada sesuatu yang perlu dilakukan, Arnold memerintahkan Greene dan Enos, yang memimpin dua divisi belakang, untuk mengirim kembali sebagai "banyak orang termiskin dari detasemen mereka karena akan meninggalkan bekal lima belas hari untuk sisanya." Greene dan Enos memanggil petugas mereka bersama untuk menentukan apakah mereka harus kembali. "Di sini duduk dewan meringis," kata Senter, "aspek melankolis yang telah mengkhotbahkan kepada orang-orang mereka doktrin ketidaktertembusan dan non-ketekunan." Sementara orang-orang Greene memilih untuk berbaris, Enos mulai dari belakang dengan sekitar 300 orang, divisinya sendiri ditambah orang-orang yang tersesat dan orang-orang sakit dari divisi lain. Retret dicapai dalam 11 hari perjalanan yang relatif mudah.

Mencapai Quebec

Setelah 17 portage, rombongan utama tiba di Height of Land, pintu gerbang ke Sungai Chaudiere. Orang-orang kurus, kelaparan, setengah mati, di bawah beban beberapa bateaux yang tersisa, berjuang melalui rantai kolam dan menaiki dinding granit dari Ketinggian Tanah yang tertutup salju. Pegunungan telah diselimuti salju sejak September. Sekarang dengan angin musim dingin melolong di sekitar mereka, orang-orang yang lelah jatuh ke tanah beberapa meninggal dalam beberapa menit. Banyak temannya, tulis seorang prajurit dalam buku hariannya, “sangat lemah sehingga mereka hampir tidak bisa berdiri. Saya melewati banyak orang yang duduk tenggelam dalam kesedihan. Wajah mengasihani diri sendiri seperti itu yang belum pernah saya lihat sebelumnya. Hatiku siap meledak.”

Tentara dikurangi menjadi kurang dari 700 orang dalam bahaya kelaparan. Tanpa gentar, Arnold melanjutkan, berharap mendapatkan makanan untuk anak buahnya yang lemah dan kelaparan. Pada tanggal 27 Oktober, di Chaudiere, Arnold menerima berita yang menggembirakan. Dua orang India membawakannya sepucuk surat yang mengatakan bahwa orang-orang Quebec bersukacita atas pendekatannya dan akan bergabung dengan Amerika dalam menaklukkan pasukan Inggris. Perbekalan dikumpulkan, dan setiap orang diberi lima liter tepung dan sekitar dua ons daging babi untuk menopangnya selama 100 mil terakhir sebelum tentara mencapai pemukiman Kanada.

Dalam keinginan para pria untuk menuruni saluran berbatu Chaudiere, tiga perahu yang sarat dengan amunisi dan perbekalan berharga terbalik. Dengan kelaparan masih di depan mereka, tentara mendesak ke arah Sungai St. Lawrence. Saat mereka berjalan menyusuri Chaudiere, mereka tiba di pemukiman Prancis-Kanada, di mana mereka diterima dengan murah hati dan diberi makanan surgawi berupa sayuran segar dan daging sapi. “Kami duduk,” Senter mencatat, “memakan jatah kami, dan memberkati bintang-bintang kami.”

Washington telah memberi tahu Arnold untuk mengirim utusan ekspres kembali ke Cambridge jika masalah muncul selama pawai. Dari laporan optimis Arnold yang menyatakan bahwa perbekalannya akan berlangsung 25 hari lagi dan bahwa ia berharap mencapai perairan Chaudiere dalam 10 hari, menempatkannya dalam jarak yang sangat dekat dari Quebec, Washington berasumsi bahwa Arnold akan berada di Quebec pada 5 November. Ketika itu hari tiba, Arnold menghadapi masalah baru. Dia hanya memiliki 650 orang yang tersisa, banyak dari mereka menggigil kedinginan karena angin musim dingin.

Pada tanggal 8 November, dalam perjuangan epik melawan kelaparan, cuaca, dan medan, pasukan Arnold mendorong bagian terakhir dari Sungai Chaudiere yang mengerikan. Akhirnya, pada tanggal 9 November, sekelompok pria compang-camping muncul dari hutan yang tertutup salju ke tepi selatan St. Lawrence. Kaki mereka bersepatu kulit mentah dan mengenakan pakaian compang-camping, orang-orang itu berbaris ke hulu ke Point Levi di Isle of Orleans. Mereka telah mengambil 45 hari, bukan perkiraan 20, untuk menempuh 350 mil. Tetapi mereka telah tiba, dan meskipun mereka terlalu lemah untuk melakukan serangan efektif ke benteng Quebec, mereka tetap akan menyerang.

Menyeberangi Sungai St. Lawrence

Dalam penyamaran petani, Carleton berhasil menghindari Montgomery di Montreal. Melintasi pedesaan, ia tiba di Quebec pada 19 November dan segera mengambil alih komando pasukan Inggris yang ditempatkan di sana. Selama Perang Prancis dan India, Carleton pernah bertugas di bawah Brig. Jenderal James Wolfe dan telah menyaksikan kecerobohan Jenderal Prancis Louis Joseph de Montcalm de Saint-Veran dalam mempertaruhkan pertempuran di luar tembok Quebec. Carleton menyuruh anak buahnya membakar semua perahu di Sungai St. Lawrence untuk mencegah Arnold mengangkut pasukan menyeberangi sungai.

Dihadapkan dengan batu sandungan lain, Arnold mengatur anak buahnya untuk tugas mendapatkan kano, galian, dan memanjat tangga. Setelah memberikan waktu kepada para pria untuk memulihkan kekuatan mereka, Arnold akhirnya siap untuk menyeberangi St. Lawrence yang lebarnya satu mil. Rencananya adalah melakukan penyeberangan malam dan mendarat di Wolf's Cove. Menggunakan jalan kasar yang sama yang digunakan Wolfe selama Perang Prancis dan India, Arnold bermaksud untuk mendaki ke Dataran Abraham. Dari sana Amerika akan dengan berani menantang garnisun. Sama seperti Montcalm telah ditarik ke dalam pertempuran di luar batas garnisun, Arnold berharap Carleton membuat kesalahan yang sama.

Pada tanggal 13 November Arnold memiliki kapal yang cukup untuk mengangkut pasukannya, kecuali sekitar 150 orang yang dia tinggalkan di Point Levi. Pukul 9 malam, Arnold memulai penyeberangan sungai dengan 30 kapal. Memindahkan kurang dari 200 orang sekaligus, Arnold berhasil melewati dua kapal bersenjata Inggris tiga kali sebelum fajar pada tanggal 14. Mendarat di Wolfe's Cove tanpa meriam dan kekurangan amunisi, Arnold memimpin 500 penembak setengah bersenjatanya menaiki jalan curam menuju hamparan tanah yang dikenal sebagai Dataran Abraham, satu setengah mil dari kota. Berbaris ke tembok Quebec, Arnold memerintahkan bandnya untuk bersorak. Kebisingan itu tampaknya memancing rasa ingin tahu di dalam kota, tetapi tidak lebih. Di dalam, Carleton, yang menjabat sebagai subaltern dengan Wolfe, tidak akan tertipu oleh siasat yang sama yang digunakan Inggris di Quebec beberapa tahun sebelumnya.

Montgomery Terhubung dengan Arnold

Meragukan simpati penduduk, Carleton menahan anak buahnya di dalam benteng. Malam itu Arnold mengirim utusan di bawah bendera gencatan senjata untuk menuntut penyerahan benteng. Arnold tahu gertakannya telah dipanggil ketika Inggris menembaki utusannya. Berdiri di depan tembok benteng besar yang menjulang tinggi, Arnold menyadari bahwa kekuatannya terlalu lemah untuk mencoba bergerak melawan benteng alam yang besar. Satu-satunya harapannya adalah bahwa penghuni di dalam tembok akan bangkit, tetapi tidak ada tanda-tanda akan hal ini. Karena tidak memiliki daya tembak untuk melancarkan serangan—anak buahnya hanya memiliki lima ronde masing-masing—dan menyadari bahwa tidak ada gunanya mencoba mengepung kota tanpa meriam, Arnold menggunakan satu-satunya pilihan yang tersisa dan meminta mundur secara teratur ke Pointe aux Trembles untuk menunggu kedatangan Montgomery.

Bahkan sebelum Montgomery bersiap untuk meninggalkan Montreal, dia dengan enggan mencapai kesimpulan bahwa satu-satunya cara untuk menaklukkan Quebec adalah dengan menyerang, terlepas dari hilangnya nyawa akibat serangan semacam itu. Dia beralasan bahwa pengepungan akan menjadi urusan yang panjang dan berlarut-larut, berakhir ketika es mencair di musim semi dan memungkinkan bala bantuan Inggris untuk menyusuri Sungai St. Lawrence.

Komando Montgomery terdiri dari sedikit lebih dari 800 orang, yang dia butuhkan untuk menjaga penaklukannya dan menyerang Quebec. Saat angin dingin bulan November bertiup, Montgomery mengirim kabar kepada Arnold bahwa dia akan segera bergabung dengannya di Point aux Trembles. Pada tanggal 26 November, Montgomery berangkat dengan 300 orang untuk bergabung dengan Arnold di depan gerbang Quebec, meninggalkan St. John's di bawah komando Kapten Marinus Willett dan mempercayakan Montreal kepada Brig. Jenderal David Wooster.

Pada tanggal 2 Desember, Montgomery bergabung dengan Arnold, membawa pakaian segar, artileri, amunisi, dan perbekalan dari berbagai jenis yang ditangkap di Montreal. Dengan asumsi komando veteran kelaparan Arnold, pasukan gabungan Montgomery terdiri dari sekitar 1.000 tentara Amerika dan resimen sukarelawan sekitar 200 orang Kanada. Pada tanggal 5 Desember, pasukan Montgomery maju menuju Quebec melalui hujan salju baru. Montgomery mendirikan markas besarnya di Dataran Abraham antara St. Roche dan Cape Diamond dan menempatkan pasukan Arnold di pinggiran kota St. Roche yang setengah terbakar.

Carleton yang Percaya Diri

Saat penembak jitu Amerika menembak penjaga di posisi terbuka, Montgomery berusaha membuang pekerjaan tanah dan mengumpulkan baterai enam 9-pon dan sebuah howitzer.

Mencegat pesan antara komandan Amerika, Carleton sangat menyadari kekuatan dan pembuangan pasukan kolonial. Setelah tantangan sia-sia Arnold, Carleton telah memperkuat pasukannya dengan meminta Letnan Kolonel Allan MacLean mengerahkan 400 rekrutan dari Sorel. Dengan tambahan orang ini, Carleton sekarang memiliki 1.200 orang. Dia dengan percaya diri menunggu kemajuan Montgomery.

Saat musim dingin Kanada yang ganas mulai datang, salju mulai menumpuk dan angin kencang yang terik melolong di ketinggian yang tak terlindung di sekitar Quebec. Menyadari bahwa amunisi dan perbekalannya tidak akan bertahan cukup lama untuk membuat Quebec tunduk, Montgomery mengirim seorang wanita petani ke dalam benteng dengan ultimatum menuntut penyerahan benteng. Untuk menekankan permintaannya, dia memajukan penembak di dekat tembok Quebec. Tapi Carleton kembali menolak untuk menyerah, mengatakan bahwa dia tidak akan berunding dengan pemberontak. Untuk menekankan maksudnya, dia meminta seorang pemain drum mengambil surat dari tangan wanita itu dengan satu set penjepit dan melemparkannya, belum dibaca, ke perapian. Saat penembak jitu Amerika menembak penjaga di posisi terbuka, Montgomery berusaha membuang pekerjaan tanah dan mengumpulkan enam pon 9-pon dan sebuah howitzer.

Kerang-kerang kecil yang dilemparkan oleh baterai tidak melukai garnisun. Di bawah bendera kedua gencatan senjata, Montgomery mencoba lagi untuk memaksa Carleton untuk menyerah. Lagi-lagi dia ditolak. Jelas bagi Montgomery bahwa gertakan dan senjatanya gagal membuat kesan yang terlihat pada Carleton. Tanpa senjata berat untuk menghancurkan tembok Quebec, makanan hampir habis, dan wajib militer akan segera habis, Montgomery bersiap untuk serangan habis-habisan. Montgomery dan Arnold memutuskan untuk menunggu sampai badai salju berikutnya untuk menyembunyikan pergerakan mereka dari kota, lalu menyerang kota tebing. Memerintahkan tinjauan umum pada malam Natal, Montgomery mengatakan kepada anak buahnya dengan blak-blakan, "Akhirnya kita harus datang untuk menyerbu."

Rencana Penyerangan

Carleton adalah seorang komandan yang cakap yang tahu apa yang harus dilakukan agar Quebec dapat bertahan. Merasakan bahwa serangan Montgomery akan diarahkan ke kota yang lebih rendah, dia mengatur pertahanannya dengan tepat. Montgomery juga orang yang berkemampuan, tetapi dia tidak memiliki keunggulan utama Carleton—benteng batu segitiga yang besar. Sebaliknya, Montgomery menyusun rencana berani untuk serangan dini hari. Mengikuti jalan yang membentang di sepanjang dasar tebing yang menjulang tinggi, Montgomery akan memimpin satu divisi dari barat, sementara Arnold akan memimpin serangan kedua dari utara. Bergabung dengan kekuatan di kota bawah, mereka kemudian akan menaiki lereng ke kota atas. Pada saat yang sama, gerakan tipuan akan diluncurkan ke dinding barat yang menghadap ke Dataran Abraham.

Persiapan dilakukan dengan tergesa-gesa. Orang-orang memalu bersama memanjat tangga dan mempersenjatai diri dengan kapak dan tombak, mengharapkan pertempuran tangan kosong. Montgomery mengeluarkan proklamasi yang dirancang untuk mengilhami pasukannya: “[Amerika] memerah dengan Sukses terus-menerus, yakin akan Keadilan tujuan mereka, dan mengandalkan Penyelenggaraan yang telah melindungi mereka, akan maju dengan sigap untuk menyerang karya-karya yang tidak mampu dipertahankan. oleh Garnisun malang di belakang mereka.” Carleton, mengharapkan serangan, terus menyalakan suar sepanjang malam di sepanjang dinding benteng.

Serangan di Quebec

Pada Sabtu sore, 30 Desember, awan salju berkumpul dan angin kencang bergerak dari timur laut. Perintah terakhir dikeluarkan dan orang-orang bersiap untuk melancarkan serangan, yang akan dimulai pada pukul 2 pagi. Pada pagi hari tanggal 31, dengan badai salju melolong di sekitar Quebec, dua serangan palsu diluncurkan lebih cepat dari jadwal. Pasukan Kanada kecil Kolonel James Livingston mendekati Gerbang St. John tetapi dengan cepat pecah dan lari, sementara orang-orang Massachusetts Kapten Jacob Brown melepaskan tembakan berkelanjutan ke benteng Cape Diamond tanpa efek yang signifikan. Garnisun Inggris, yang sekarang waspada, mulai menabuh genderang dan membunyikan lonceng gereja. Para petugas berlari melewati jalan-jalan Quebec mengeluarkan pasukan mereka. Dengan cepat barikade di kota bawah dijaga.

Pada dini hari, Sersan Inggris Hugh McQuarters disiagakan oleh cahaya lentera yang turun dari Dataran Abraham, serta roket sinyal. Melihat di sepanjang jalur yang mengarah ke timur dari Wolf's Cove, dia segera mendeteksi gerakan. Di dalam salju yang berputar-putar, gerakan itu menjadi lebih jelas, akhirnya berubah menjadi sekelompok pria dalam formasi yang dengan hati-hati mendorong ke depan. Dalam badai salju yang membutakan, pasukan Montgomery turun dari Dataran Abraham dan melewati Point Diamond dengan aman. Setelah mencapai penghalang pertama dan menemukan itu tidak dipertahankan, Montgomery mengirim utusan mendesak anak buahnya untuk bergegas. Bergerak maju melalui najis yang sempit, dia melihat sebuah rumah kayu yang berisi celah untuk musketry dan dua 3-pon sarat dengan grapeshot. Di dalam blockhouse, McQuarters menunggu musuh mendekat dengan sekering yang menyala.

Montgomery menunggu sampai sekitar 60 orang bergabung dengannya. Kemudian, mendesak anak buahnya maju, dia dengan cepat maju dengan baterai. McQuarters, yang bertanggung jawab atas meriam yang dimuat, menahan tembakannya. The Americans closed to within about 50 yards and halted in the blinding snow. Trying to make out the nature of the obstacle ahead, Montgomery slowly moved forward, followed by two or three others. McQuarters dropped his match to the breech of the cannon. A sheet of flame spewed forth, and a devastating blast of grapeshot tore through the advancing Americans. Montgomery was instantly cut down, along with most of his advance party, leaving the cluster of bodies lying dead in the snow. The balance of the men fell back in panic. Morale shattered, Colonel Donald Campbell assumed command and, leaving the bodies of the slain Montgomery and his men where they fell, ordered an immediate retreat.

The long and arduous march that took its toll on Arnold’s men.

Arnold, meanwhile, led his troops in single file on a path along the St. Charles. They passed the Palace Gate unchallenged. No sooner had the main body passed the Palace Gate, however, than the city bells began to ring and the drums beat a general alarm. From the ramparts above came a tremendous fire. Pelted by musketballs, Arnold and his men ran the gauntlet for a third of a mile. Driving forward into the narrow street, they came upon a barricade mounted with two guns. A musket ball struck Arnold in his left leg, pitching him forward into the snow. Trying to continue the charge in spite of a broken leg, he was finally led to a military surgeon a mile from the battle.

Morgan assumed command, and his men rushed to the portholes in the first battery and fired into them while others mounted ladders and quickly carried the battery. Greene, Bigelow, and Meigs soon joined Morgan at the head of his Virginians and a few Pennsylvanians, swelling their meager force to 200 Americans. They quickly pressed down a narrow lane toward the second barricade at the extremity of Sault au Matelot. Upon reaching the barricade, Greene made a heroic effort to carry it, but upon scaling its walls he was met with a wall of bayonets. The Americans were exposed to heavy fire from both sides of the narrow street. Unable to push forward or retreat, the attackers were quickly overpowered and forced to surrender. A few individuals managed to make their way back to their own lines, but Morgan and 425 other colonials were taken prisoner. Another 60 were killed outright.

The Campaign into Canada Crumbles

The fight for Quebec was over. Arnold and Montgomery’s attempt to seize Canada died during the howling snowstorm on December 31. Everything had conspired against its success. Arnold’s long trek through the wilderness and Montgomery’s delay at St. John’s placed their armies before Quebec ill-equipped to either breach the citadel’s walls or mount a siege. Their ensuing attack resulted in Montgomery’s death and Arnold’s wounding. Recuperating quickly, Arnold assumed command of the remnant army outside Quebec. Stubbornly attempting to maintain the siege, he began pulling his forces together, checking the flight of deserters, and imploring the lethargic Wooster, Montreal’s commander, to send as many men and equipment as he could spare. Wooster replied that he could send little help. This, along with the refusal of the New York regiment to reenlist, caused Arnold’s chances for a renewal of the conflict to disappear.

Meanwhile, Carleton bided his time safe inside the walls of Quebec, allowing the winter cold and sickness to further reduce the American force. General John Thomas replaced Wooster and assumed command of the Canadian expedition. Shortly after his arrival in May 1776, British ships sailed up the St. Lawrence, their decks crowded with the scarlet and white of the British Army and the blue and white of 2,000 German mercenaries. This eliminated any hope the Americans had of capturing Quebec. Thomas issued orders for a retreat toward Montreal. The colonial army began a slow withdrawal toward Richelieu, St. John’s, Ile aux Nois, Crown Point, and Ticonderoga.

At St. John’s, Brig. Gen. John Sullivan replaced Thomas, who had died of smallpox during the retreat. Sullivan briefly considered making a stand at Montreal, but decided against it. Arnold wrote to Schuyler, “The junction of the Canadians with the Colonies—an object which brought us into this country—is at an end. Let us quit then and secure our own country before it is too late. There will be more honor in making a safe retreat than hazarding a battle against such superiority which will doubtless be attended with the loss of our men and artillery. These arguments are not urged by fear for my personal safety. I am content to be the last man who quits the country.”

Arnold assumed charge of the rear guard and waited until the British army came into view before firing off one last pistol shot and joining the retreating soldiers in boats ferried south to Isle aux Noix. From there, the remnants of Montgomery’s and Arnold’s commands fell back to Crown Point. Strangely, Carleton broke off his pursuit and withdrew, leaving the shaky garrison at Ticonderoga in American hands. The ambitious Canadian campaign had ended in defeat, but once again the American forces had lived to fight another day.


The White House wasn’t opposed to the plan.

Far from some whiskey-fueled daydream, the Irish-American plan to invade Canada was carefully crafted for months by veteran Civil War officers, including the one-armed general Thomas William Sweeny. Although an attack on a foreign country with which the United States maintained peaceful relations ran afoul of American neutrality laws, the plan also had the tacit approval of the White House.

Indeed, President Andrew Johnson proved more than willing to let the Fenian Brotherhood twist the tail of the British lion as he sought to pressure Great Britain to pay reparations for the damage caused by Confederate warships, such as the CSS Alabama, that had been built in British ports. In addition, many Americans hoped Canada would become the next territory to be absorbed by the United States as it fulfilled its expansionist Manifest Destiny. The U.S. govern­ment sold surplus weapons to the Irish militants, and Johnson met personally with their leaders, reportedly giving them his implicit backing. The Irishmen were free to establish their own state in exile𠅌omplete with their own president, constitution, currency and capital in the heart of New York City.


War of 1812, Invasion of Canada.

The US States in the North did not support the Invasion, many of the active troops that participated in the campaign were from southern states. Several revolutionary war veterans from the Kings mountain campaign were active in the campaign such as Isaac Shelby.

Many of the war hawks in congress that pushed for war were slave owning politicians who feared Canada’s declaration of emancipation and their plans to create an Indian State was seen as a potential safe haven for run away slaves.

The drill of the US officers, soldiers was very poor prior to the war the politicians didn’t field their best generals. The best generals were those who had previous field experience, they chose men who were mostly administrators (the equivalent of placing Horatio Gates in charge of the Southern Army by Congress in 1780).

The campaign itself was flawed from the start and the objectives were not clear was Canada to be Annexed? Or was it to be considered liberated by British rule? The US annexation of Canada doesn’t seem likely because they simply didn’t have the troops to occupy the entire nation nor the navy to defend its ports. The US Military was also in poor supply of regular troops and artillery for sieges of fortified areas. Most offensive operations were conducted with Militia who were unreliable and often left the field.

You're laying down an awful lot of your own suppositions for someone who is looking for answers.

They're not suspicions just lots of observations from small reads, video's.

You should read Pierre Berton's books on the War of 1812. There is no evidence to suggest annexation was the aim - The U.S. didn't even have a standing army when the war was declared.

Those books are fantastic but put the sword to a lot of misconceptions on both sides.

Thanks, I'll def jump on that. I always hear that Annexation was an aim of the Americans, I could see that potentially being so in 1776 however in 1812 I don't thing it was realizable.

How do you think this relates to the failed Invasion of Québec in 1775?

Its worth noting in regard to item #3 that here on the Canadian side, we only had a small garrison of professional English troops, most of the numbers were made of militia (not to minimize the participation of native irregulars) who were likely of comparable quality to the US troops.

and to note the Canadians were able to out maneuver the Americans with very reliable Indian scouts. The Americans really did mimic the mistakes of the Quebec invasion of 1776. Over extended marches, shortness of supplies, theft of enemy merchandise and private property, failure to synch the navy with the movements of the army etc. The only really successful military campaign in Canada was in the French and Indian War when the armies of Wolf and Amherst converged on Montreal, York, and Quebec with the combined navy, land forces and militia. The French were completely overwhelmed.

It seems the Militia combined with a regular force is best suited for defensive positions. As far as offensive maneuvers militia are best used in guerrilla war tactics, such as how the Americans conducted themselves at concord and Lexington and in the South during the revolutionary war.

Almost more than half the American troops were milititia, very bad decision by Henry Dearborn and Hull.

CBC Ideas recently did a great show about the war of 1812. It seems like the US feels they won, Canada feels they beat the US, Britain feels it's hardly important but they won.

I love this College Originals skit on the War of 1812. I think it basically sums up what people in general know about it:

Americas objective at the onset of the war was the expulsion of Britain from North America as well as the capture of Canada and the cessation of British impressment of US sailors. A large majority of upper Canada consisted of American loyalists who moved up prior to and after the revolution. This lead the American brass to assume they could march on places like York(Toronto) and be hailed as liberators. Instead they razed the city and united a nation. Canada is still a country, Britain never left and the only reason they stopped impressment was Napoleons defeat and exile.

All in all I don't know how anyone could view it as a US victory. It was by and large a blunder of war on both sides and the only clear cut winners are the people of Canada who exist because Britain was able to defend against and repel superior forces.

See I'm from the US and it always seemed like we got the shit kicked out of us till the very end.

Canada did defeat the US the only claim the US has to victory in Canada were the few victories they had on America Soil at Thames, the second battle of Detroit and Plattsburgh.

The closest the US came to any sort of victory in Canada was in the Nigra offensive campaign, but once gain a lack of good leadership made the difference for America.

The way I've always seen it presented in America is that we won the sea war and got our asses kicked in the ground war up until the very end in New Orleans and that the war overall was basically a draw leaning towards a US victory.

The US States in the North did not support the Invasion, many of the active troops that participated in the campaign were from southern states. Several revolutionary war veterans from the Kings mountain campaign were active in the campaign such as Isaac Shelby.

This is not really true - rather than being based on regional or sectional lines, votes for the war tended to be along party lines - federalists opposed the war, democratic-republicans did not. Pennsylvania was one of the biggest supporters of the war, for example. New England federalists opposed the war, New England democratic-republicans were for it. While some D-R's opposed the war, all federalists did.

Many of the war hawks in congress that pushed for war were slave owning politicians who feared Canada’s declaration of emancipation and their plans to create an Indian State was seen as a potential safe haven for run away slaves.

What's your source for this statement? While I've heard support for Native Americans and a potential Native American state being among the reasons the US went to war, I've never heard that potential emancipation and a safe haven for runaway slaves factored into the war.

The campaign itself was flawed from the start and the objectives were not clear was Canada to be Annexed? Or was it to be considered liberated by British rule?

I don't think this is true - modern scholarship has settled quite firmly that Canada was a means to an end - a way to get Britain to the negotiation table where economic sanctions had backfired horribly, by cutting off a large supply of its food and timber.


Perang dunia II

On September 9, 1939, eight days after Germany’s invasion of Poland, Canada’s Parliament voted to declare war on Germany, which the country did the next day. (Its separate declaration of war was a measure of the independence granted it in the 1931 Statute of Westminster in 1914 there had been no such independence and no separate declaration of war.) The vote was nearly unanimous, a result that rested on the assumption that there was to be a “limited liability” war effort that would consist primarily of supplying raw materials, foodstuffs, and munitions and the training of Commonwealth air crews, mainly for the Royal Air Force. Canadian men were to be actively discouraged from serving in the infantry, which was expected to take high casualties, and it was anticipated that few infantry units would be formed. If this plan were followed, King and other government leaders reasoned, conscription would be unnecessary. King and the leader of the Conservative opposition had both pledged themselves to a “no conscription” policy even before the war began.

The expulsion of the British from the Continent and the fall of France in the spring of 1940 totally changed the circumstances. Canada’s overseas allies had fallen or were in danger of doing so, and the country immediately concluded an agreement at Ogdensburg, New York, with the United States for the defense of North America. Moreover, Canada now stood in the forefront of the war. After Britain, it was (prior to the U.S. entry into the war in December 1941) the second most powerful of Germany’s adversaries. The emphasis on supply gave way to a focus on combat forces. King’s “no conscription” policy had been modified in 1940 when the government introduced conscription for home defense, but at the same time King renewed his pledge not to send conscripts overseas for “active” duty. In 1942 the King government called a national plebiscite asking Canadian voters to release it from that pledge nearly two-thirds of Canadian voters supported conscription, though in Quebec three-fourths opposed it. Thereafter the government enforced compulsory service for home defense, but King, fearing an Anglo-French cleavage, did not send conscripts overseas during the early years of the war, preferring to avoid such a move unless absolutely necessary.

Still, Canadians were deeply enmeshed in the war. Under increased pressure from military leaders to move Canadian troops into battle, two battalions were sent to help defend Hong Kong (then a British colony), but the results were disastrous, as the Japanese imperial forces swept to victory. An ill-planned and poorly executed raid on the German-occupied French port of Dieppe was attempted, largely by Canadian troops, in August 1942, with significant casualties. Lessons learned from the disaster, however, later proved useful during the planning for the Normandy (France) Invasion in 1944. What became known as the Battle of the Atlantic marked one of Canada’s largest commitments. Canadian escorts helped protect the convoys that traversed the Atlantic bringing supplies to Britain. Again Canada suffered many casualties, both in the naval service and in the merchant marine. Under the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan, Canadians flew in both Royal Canadian Air Force and combined Royal Air Force (RAF) squadrons from the Battle of Britain through the bombing campaigns over Germany to eventual victory. Aircrew losses were particularly heavy in the RAF Bomber Command.

At Normandy in June 1944, Canada was assigned one of the five invasion beaches. Casualties began to mount quickly as the offensive in France dragged on, and the Canadian army became strapped for infantry reinforcements. The Canadian army, which had been fighting in Sicily and Italy since July 1943, was crippled by particularly high infantry casualties in late summer and early fall 1944. King’s minister of national defense, J.L. Ralston, supported sending conscripts overseas and was forced to resign as a result. Ralston’s resignation precipitated a cabinet crisis, which was resolved in November 1944 when King relented and agreed to send conscripts to the front to reinforce the army’s infantry units.

Not only was Canada’s war effort in World War II far more extensive than that in World War I, but it also had a much more lasting impact on Canadian society. By the end of the war, more than 1,000,000 Canadians (about 50,000 of whom were women) had served in the three services. Although total casualties were lower than in the previous war, still some 42,000 were killed or died in service, and 54,400 were wounded. The domestic war effort was no less significant. Canada hosted, and paid much of the cost of, the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan, which trained more than 100,000 Commonwealth airmen. Canadian factories turned out everything from rifles to Lancaster heavy bombers, and Canadian scientists, technicians, and engineers worked on advanced weapons technology, including the atomic bomb (for which Canada supplied the uranium ore). Canadian foods, direct cash contributions to Britain, and munitions for the Allies, including the Soviet Union, contributed to the overall war effort.

The government intervened in almost all aspects of Canadian life to regulate the war effort, ensure a smooth flow of troops and supplies, and curtail inflation. Agencies such as the Wartime Prices and Trade Board and the National War Labour Board represented a massive growth in the federal government, bringing a surge of government spending and a vast increase in the civil service. Toward the end of the war, the King government launched even further social welfare policies, introducing a major veterans’ benefits program, family allowances, farm price supports, compulsory collective bargaining, and a national housing program. It would undoubtedly have gone even further than it did in 1945 and 1946—a national health insurance plan was under consideration—but for the opposition of provincial governments, particularly Ontario and Quebec. Despite that opposition, however, the war produced a significant shift of power toward Ottawa. World War II had been a watershed in Canadian history, as the role of the federal government in engineering national economic growth had been considerably strengthened.


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United States President Election in 2012

The 59th quadrennial presidential election of the United States is held in November 3, 2020. Frank Joseph Roberts defeated Barack Obama and other candidates and became the President of the United States. He pursued more land for the United States.

Alaska Crisis

Soon after Frank Joseph Roberts became the POTUS, Alaska is filled with soldiers of the US Army, and multiple warships nearby. This caused suspicion of a possible invasion of Canada by the United States. In December 2012, Canada moved its troops to the Alaska border.

Wabah Perang

On February 2, 2013, the United States forces in garrisoned Alaska broke the border and attacked the Yukon territories. Soon after the attack, the Commonwealth including the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand and the Bahamas joined the Canadians and declared war on the United States. Russian territories near Alaska set up defenses and resupplied the Commonwealth forces. The Canadians took massive casualties and retreated to British Columbia and Northwest territories.


The Irish Invasions of Canada: Yes, the Irish really did Invade Canada – They Won Some Battles Too

The Irish have had a rough time in the era of modern history. They suffered from the awful potato famine and faced intense hostility when they came in droves to America. The British occupation of Ireland was also a tense subject, greatly exacerbated by the thought that British lack of aid during the potato famine was almost as bad as a full genocide against the Irish.

Many American Irish simply put their heads down and worked hard to find their place in America, but some were simply angry and wanted to do something. The Fenian Brotherhood was an Irish Republican group, largely based in New York City and Ireland, that bordered on a terrorist organization, though it did contain a large international faction aimed at simply giving humanitarian aid to Ireland.

One of their main goals was to free Ireland from British rule. Though technically not under orders from Ireland, the Fenians were a large contingent of Irish fighting on behalf of Ireland.

For the thousands of Fenian supporters in America, freeing their home island from British rule was a tough ask, seeing as it was across the Atlantic. But a massive British possession loomed just to the north. The idea was formed that the Fenian Brotherhood would form an armed invasion force to seize as large of a chunk of Canadian territory as they could. They could then use this as a bargaining chip, trading Irish independence for giving back their occupied territories of Canada.

The Irish Famine caused a lot of emigration as well as resentment towards the British whom the Irish thought could have helped more.

Before the large, planned attack, a group of about 700 Fenians invaded New Brunswick, but scattered very quickly at fast approaching British warships. A discouraging result for the Irish, but apparently not too much, for the other main attack would commence just two months later.

The plan was to cross the Niagara River between the Great Lakes of Erie and Ontario. The area was possibly defensible after it was secured and was able to be taken by surprise. Additionally, the US patrolling gunboat USS Michigan was sabotaged by crew loyal to the Fenian Brotherhood the morning of the invasion on June 1 st , allowing most of the Fenian invaders to get across in multiple barges.

A map of the raids in the heart of the Great Lakes region.

For such a bold attack it could be assumed that the Fenian Brotherhood had about 10,000 soldiers or more, considering their aspirations of invading Canada. Well, they probably had about 900, with a possible maximum of 1,500 men.

So, manpower was lacking, but firepower, command structure and experience were not. Many of the Fenian Brotherhood volunteers were veterans of the American Civil War. The war being very recent, they were skilled down to the individual level, being expert riflemen. They also had the ability to perform tactical maneuvers on command. The Irish also had plenty of weapons and apparently so much ammunition that they had to dump some in the river to lighten their load.

Once the USS Michigan was repaired, it was able to cut off the remaining Fenians and their supplies. Despite their position the Fenians across the river kept on marching, setting up an ambush for the soon to respond Canadian militia. The Fenian commander, John O’Neill, had extensive military experience and set up a trap to lure the Canadians to a ridge where the bulk of the Fenians were entrenched.

The Battle of Ridgeway.

The battle of Ridgeway started with the larger Canadian force pushing back the forward units of Fenian troops. This progressed according to the Fenian plan to lure the Canadians to their fortifications on the ridge. As the Canadians were pressing onward, however, their discipline absolutely fell apart. It seems that one unit formed a square formation fearing an ultimately nonexistent cavalry charge. When the order was reversed the unit fell apart and the line of advance wavered.

The Fenians noticed the wavering of the lines and decided to rally their forces and launched a bayonet charge that broke the Canadians and prompted a full withdrawal. The Canadians suffered about 22 dead and 37 wounded to the Fenian’s five dead and 16 wounded.

The Fenians knew that they couldn’t hold the town of Ridgeway and decided to take the lightly defended Fort Erie. Here, 79 Canadians made a brave stand against the hundreds of Fenian attackers. After some fierce fighting, the Fenians captured the better-defended town.

Things didn’t change too much, however, as several thousand men of the Canadian militia and British regulars were advancing towards the Fenians. Despite their successes, the Fenians were losing hope in their cause with a massive sense of impending doom. About half of O’Neil’s forces deserted, many making makeshift rafts to cross the river back to America.

In the face of sure defeat, the Fenians marched back to American soil, being apprehended by American troops just on the other side of the river. The Fenians banked on some US support or at least US recognition of the Irish holding lands in Canada, but they were mistaken. The Americans did indeed make little effort to stop the rallying of the Fenians and have been accused of giving some support. It seems that the US saw the earlier failed “invasion” and figured that the second one would have a similar outcome, so it wasn’t worth the expense to root out and apprehend the invaders.

Irish freedom was not just an idea limited to the Fenian movement, though they had some of the most aggressive and deadly tactics.

Despite the victories, the Irish invasion of Canada was a total failure, as no possessions could be held long enough to negotiate on behalf of Ireland. Despite these failures, many Fenians still held on to the idea of attacking Canada. The Fenian efforts redoubled after news that a Fenian made bomb was set off in London in an effort to break out a fellow Fenian. 120 people were injured and 12 killed by the blast. Aims for the radical Fenians seemed to shift from securing territory to simply causing enough problems to force negotiations.

This political cartoon paints a very unflattering image of the Fenians and their violent acts.

Several more raids were launched over the next several years all were utter failures. US treatment of the raiders was usually quite lenient and they often simply ferried them away from the Canadian border. Despite their best efforts, Fenian raids and bombing fostered British resentment against the Irish and greatly undermined peaceful Irish independence movements. The raids also unified the Canadian territories as the citizens and militia had to rely on themselves to defend against these attacks that could happen at any time. This sense of unity would lead to the formation of an independent Canada.


Invasion of Canada - History

On July 12, 1812, US forces under General Hull invaded Canada. The invasion was met with fierce opposition and American forces are forced to withdraw. By August 16, Hull surrendered Detroit to the British.

One of the main American goals of the war was to attack and capture Canada. The plan was to attack Canada in three places. That attack should have taken place simultaneously, but the American forces were not ready, so the western leg of that attack began first. General William Hull who had led Massachusetts's troops during the Revolutionary War led it. He was the governor of Michigan territory and as such the head of Michiganâ's territorial militia. Hull believed it was dangerous to enter Canada as long as the British controlled Lake Erie. Despite his concerns Hull went forward with his plan to march on Detroit and on to Canada.


Hull made his first mistake by sending the schooner Cuyahoga ahead on the Maumee River with some sick men and more importantly his correspondence. When the British captured it they became aware of Hulls plans.
On July 5th Hull and his soldiers arrived at Detroit. A week later Hull and his troops, (less two hundred Ohio militia member who refused to cross the border) enter Canada unopposed.


Hull headed south along the Detroit River. He attempted to lay siege to Fort Malden, but failed to capture it. At this point he began to fear that his supplies lines were too long. He sent a force of 150 to meet a supply train coming from Ohio. They were beaten back by Indian forces led by Tecumseh. Hull then sent a second larger force of 600 they to were attacked and forced back.


Meanwhile a worse setback was occurring on Mackinac Island. Lieutenant Porter Hanks commanded the Fort. His opponent was Captain Charles Robert who was the commander of the British fort of St Joseph. On July 16th he set off with 46 British regulars, 180 Canadian militia and 400 Indians to capture Fort Mackinac. Hanks had not known that a state of war existed between the United States and Great Britain. Faced with a much larger force then his own Hanks quickly surrendered to the superior British force.
As a result of the fall of Fort of Mackinac ordered the evacuation of Fort Dearborn. Captain Herald who marched out with 54 regulars, twelve militia nine women and 18 children commanded Fort Dearborn. A mile from the fort the column was attacked and surrendered. The Indians slaughtered two woman, 12 children and many of the soldiers.
Hull withdrew from Canadian territory and pleaded for reinforcements. That reinforcement coming from Ohio were unfortunately tied down on the Raisin River. The British brought to bear cannons on Fort Detroit and began an intermittent bombardment. After a British demand to surrender Hull agreed. The Northwest frontier was now unprotected. Thus ended the first American assault on Canada.


Community Reviews

When I was a college intern in Washington, D.C., I got into an argument with a student from Canada over who won the War of 1812. I, as a good and patriotic American, was perfectly aware that kami had won the War of 1812. She, as a good and patriotic Canadian, was equally adamant that that mereka had won. It wasn&apost until later that I learned we had both been right. The U.S. claimed victory over Britain in the War of 1812, but Canada claimed victory over the U.S. because it successfully repulsed multi When I was a college intern in Washington, D.C., I got into an argument with a student from Canada over who won the War of 1812. I, as a good and patriotic American, was perfectly aware that kami had won the War of 1812. She, as a good and patriotic Canadian, was equally adamant that that mereka had won. It wasn't until later that I learned we had both been right. The U.S. claimed victory over Britain in the War of 1812, but Canada claimed victory over the U.S. because it successfully repulsed multiple American attempts to invade and annex it.

The Invasion of Canada by Pierre Berton is a masterful narrative history of why that effort failed – and why Americans have all but forgotten it. He documents thoroughly the utter bumbling incompetence exhibited by both sides in the war, but especially by an American military force that was skeptical of non-democratic concepts such as chain of command and following orders and relied heavily for leadership on aging Revolutionary War heroes unwilling to take the risks necessary to successfully invade another nation.

As a result, the battles of 1812-13 along the Canadian border ranged from the farcical, as in Canada's bloodless capture of Mackinac Island and Detroit, to the needlessly horrific, as in the abominable atrocities committed by Americans against Native tribes followed by the natives' in-kind response in the Battle of Frenchtown. And all of it caused by a handful of "War Hawks" in the American Congress who blithely assumed war against Canada could be won in mere weeks and worked their will despite widespread opposition among the people and soldiers asked to fight it.

In many ways, Berton's account is an indictment of war in general. The War of 1812, as he shows, is a particularly egregious example of those things that make war so evil – the Americans declared war after Britain had capitulated to their demands (but hadn't heard the news yet, a situation that would reverse itself when the Battle of New Orleans was needlessly fought after the war's official end) rushed into battle without enough troops, supplies or popular support and managed to permanently alienate both native tribes and the previously friendly Canadian provinces through their arrogance and brutality. Breton in fact argues that if not for the American invasion, Canada would likely have drifted closer to the United States and eventually allowed itself to be annexed willingly. Instead, American hostility not only repelled Canada but actually hastened the creation of a founding national myth and sense of common purpose so important to nationhood.

Berton's account only covers the first year of fighting the American-Canadian frontier was a focus of the war until its end, but the tone was set by its first year, when even minimally competent American military leadership could have indeed conquered Canada with a minimum of blood shed. That did not happen, and Breton is unsparing in recounting the tragedy that was a needless front in a needless war.

[EDIT to add: This is indeed a work of narrative history Berton does his duty in describing troop movements and the strategy (or lack of it) conceived by the Great Men of the War, but he also delves deep into diaries and newspaper accounts to provide common touches of individual soldiers thrust into a conflict they barely understood.]

As a Canadian himself, Berton clearly brings a perspective to his writing, as we all do, but I never got the sense that he was interested in anything other than laying out the causes and effects of the battles over the border as clearly and fairly as possible. He succeeded with flying colors. This is an excellent book! . lagi

I think that without question this is the finest history book I&aposve ever read.

The narrative thrill of McCullough or Shelby Foote, the insight of Ellis or Remini, Pierre Berton manages to tell you everything you need to know in half a page, dripping with excitement and insight, yet somehow leaving nothing out.

So what is this book about? The book covers the first amazing and turbulent year of the War of 1812, focusing on the engagements in the "Northwest", really meaning today&aposs I think that without question this is the finest history book I've ever read.

The narrative thrill of McCullough or Shelby Foote, the insight of Ellis or Remini, Pierre Berton manages to tell you everything you need to know in half a page, dripping with excitement and insight, yet somehow leaving nothing out.

So what is this book about? The book covers the first amazing and turbulent year of the War of 1812, focusing on the engagements in the "Northwest", really meaning today's upper-Midwest: Illinois, Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, New York, and adjacent portions of Southern Canada, called Upper Canada at the time. Readers will meet an amazing pantheon of figures, such as Tecumseh, Issac Brock, Winfield Scott, William Henry Harrison, and many others.

Honestly the book is wonderful enough that I'm unable to tell you much more than that if you consider yourself a fan of history at ALL, then you should consider this a book that you need to read as soon as possible. I mean it when I say I think this is the best history book I've ever read, and this comes from a very serious amateur historian. Outstanding! . lagi


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