Tomich DE-242 - Sejarah

Tomich DE-242 - Sejarah


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Tomich
(DE-242: dp. 1.200; 1. 306'0", b. 36'10"; dr. 12'3"; s. 19,5 k.; cpl. 216, a. 3 3", 2 40mm., 8 20mm., 2 dct.,8 dcp., 1 dcp. (hh.); cl. Edsall)

Tomich (DE-242) diletakkan pada tanggal 15 September 1942 di Houston, Tex., oleh Brown Shipbuilding Co.; diluncurkan pada 28 Desember 1942; disponsori oleh Mrs. O. L. Hammonds; dan ditugaskan pada 27 Juli 1943, Lt. Comdr. H.A. Hull dalam komando.

Setelah commissioning, Tomich berangkat dari Galveston pada 12 Agustus dan mencapai New Orleans pada hari berikutnya. Pengawal kapal perusak berangkat dari perairan Louisiana pada tanggal 19, menuju Bermuda dan empat minggu pelatihan penggeledahan. Pada tanggal 23 September Tomich, bersama dengan Farquhar (DE-139), berangkat dari Bermuda dan mengantar Merrimack (AO-37) ke Norfolk sebelum berlayar ke Charleston, S.C., dan ketersediaan.

Tomich berlayar ke Kuba pada 9 Oktober dan pelatihan lebih lanjut di perairan Karibia, mencapai Teluk Guantanamo pada tanggal 12. Lima hari kemudian, kapal pengawal bertemu dengan Angkatan Darat mengangkut George Washington dan mengantarnya ke Kingston, Jamaika. Tomich segera kembali ke Kuba. Setibanya kembali di Teluk Guantanamo pada hari yang sama, 17 Oktober, dia menerima perintah untuk mencari Dorado (SS-248) yang telah berlayar dari New London pada 6 Oktober dan diharapkan tiba di Zona Terusan pada tanggal 14. Tomich memburu kapal selam yang hilang sampai tanggal 22 tetapi gagal menemukan jejaknya.

Enam hari kemudian, kapal perusak mengawal menuju Hampton Roads untuk menyaring Pike (SS-173) ke Norfolk. Dibebaskan dari tugas ini pada tanggal 30, dia kembali ke Teluk Guantanamo sebelum menuju ke utara lagi dan berlabuh di Norfolk pada tanggal 5 November.

Sembilan hari kemudian, Tomich bergabung dengan layar Konvoi UGS-24, menuju Prancis Maroko. Pada tanggal 2 Desember setelah semua tuduhannya berhasil, dia menurunkan jangkar dari Casablanca. Tiba di New York pada pagi Natal 1943. setelah mengawal Konvoi GUS-24, Tomich diamankan di samping dermaga "K" New York Navy Yard untuk ketersediaan yang berlangsung hingga tahun 1944.

Pada tanggal 5 Januari 1944, Tomich meninggalkan halaman dan melanjutkan ke Block Island Sound untuk pelatihan meriam dan perang antikapal selam di Montauk Point, Long Island. Lima hari kemudian, kapal berlayar menuju Norfolk Va., bersama unit-unit Escort Division (CortDiv) 7 lainnya, bergabung dengan kapal-kapal lain dari Satgas 63 dalam mengawal Konvoi UGS-30 ke Casablanca. Setelah perjalanan independen singkat ke Gibraltar, di mana ia ditambatkan bersama kapal perang Inggris yang terkenal HMS Warspite Tomich meninggalkan pangkalan Inggris pada 4 Februari dan bertemu dengan Konvoi GUS-29 pada hari berikutnya.

Terpisah dari layar konvoi pada tanggal 8, ia melanjutkan ke Azores, di mana ia bertemu SS Phoenis Banning dan SS Abraham Baldwin. Bergabung kembali dengan GUS-29 dengan dua tuduhannya, Tomich melanjutkan tugas pengawalan laut hingga tanggal 17. Pada hari berikutnya, pengawal kapal perusak kembali menerima perintah untuk tugas independen dan mengawal Mattaponi (AO-41) dan SS Sangara ke Bermuda sebelum kembali ke utara ke New York Navy Yard untuk ketersediaan mulai tanggal 22 Februari.

Tomich memulai perjalanannya pada tanggal 5 Maret 1944 untuk Bayonne, N.J., di mana dia menjalani deperming sebelum melanjutkan ke Montauk Point untuk pelatihan penyegaran. NS

pengawal kapal perusak berlayar ke Hampton Roads dan tiba di Norfolk pada tanggal 11. Dua hari kemudian, dia berlayar ke Tunisia sebagai pengawal Konvoi UGS-36.

Pada tanggal 30 Maret, konvoi melewati Selat Gibraltar, menuju Bizerte. Selama jaga malam tanggal 31, Tomich melakukan kontak sonar dan pergi ke tempat umum, melanjutkan untuk melacak gema. Menjatuhkan dua pola 13-charge, Tomich tetap di tempat umum sepanjang malam dan melembagakan patroli antikapal selam di perusahaan dengan HMS Black Swan. Sekitar 0401, saat Tomich bergabung kembali dengan layar, pengintainya melihat pesawat musuh dari haluan pelabuhannya. Zig-zag secara mandiri di haluan pelabuhan konvoi, pengawal kapal perusak melepaskan tembakan dengan seluruh baterai antipesawatnya di 0410. Selama serangan 20 menit, pesawat musuh, Ju. 88, datang rendah dan cepat; tetapi tembakan antipesawat berat dari pengawal mengusir penyerang mereka tanpa kehilangan diri mereka sendiri.

Setelah semua muatannya mencapai pelabuhan dengan selamat, Tomich ditugaskan ke Konvoi GUS36 tujuan pulang tetapi dipisahkan pada 13 April untuk melanjutkan ke Oran, Aljazair untuk pemeriksaan poros kanannya. Setelah penyelidikan mengungkapkan bahwa semuanya beres, kapal bergabung kembali dengan konvoinya pada tanggal 14. Dia kemudian tiba di New York pada 2 Mei dan menjalani persiapan di pangkalan angkatan laut sebelum dia melanjutkan ke Casco Bay untuk pelatihan penyegaran.

Kembali ke Norfolk pada tanggal 20, Tomich berlayar sebagai bagian dari TF 64, mengawal Konvoi UGS-43 menuju Bizerte. Setelah mencapai Afrika Utara, Tomich dipisahkan dari konvoi cukup lama untuk mengawal Carib (AT-82), yang sedang menarik Menges (DE-320) ke Azores. Ketika dia tiba di Horta, Tomich bergabung kembali dengan Konvoi GUS-43 tujuan pulang.

Ketersediaan di New York Navy Yard pada awal Juli mendahului latihan lebih lanjut di Casco Bay Maine, sebelum kapal kembali ke Norfolk pada 1 Agustus untuk memulai misi pengawalan pulang-pergi lainnya dengan UGS50 dan GUS-50. Mengikuti ketersediaan halaman lain, dia membuat konvoi pantai dari New York ke Boston. Kemudian, pelatihan di Casco Bay menduduki kapal hingga Oktober. Pada tanggal 10, Tomich tiba di Quonset Point, R.I., untuk uji dan latihan perang radar dan antikapal selam khusus dengan Barracuda (SS-163) dan pesawat berbasis pantai dari Stasiun Udara Angkatan Laut Quonset Point. Pada tanggal 13, Tomich meninggalkan daerah tersebut dan kembali ke Teluk Casco pada tanggal 14 untuk latihan lebih lanjut sebelum tiba di Norfolk pada tanggal 4 November.

Pada tanggal 7 November, bersama dengan CortDiv 7 dan Core (CVE-13) lainnya, Tomich memulai dari Pangkalan Operasi Angkatan Laut di Hampton Roads untuk Bermuda dan pelatihan kelompok "pemburu-pembunuh" antikapal selam. Tiba pada 10 November, kelompok tersebut melakukan latihan intensif selama sisa bulan sebelum kembali ke New York pada 6 Desember. Tomich beroperasi di sepanjang pantai timur Amerika Serikat pada operasi antikapal selam di Atlantik barat selama sisa tahun 1944 dan memasuki musim semi 1945.

Setelah perombakan di Boston Navy Yard pada bulan Mei dan Juni, kapal dikukus ke Karibia. Berangkat dari Teluk Guantanamo pada 16 Juli 1945, ia transit di Terusan Panama pada tanggal 18 dan tiba di San Diego pada tanggal 26. Berdiri dari pelabuhan itu pada tanggal 31, dia melakukan latihan saat dalam perjalanan ke Hawaii dan mencapai Pearl Harbor pada tanggal 7 Agustus saat perang di Pasifik mencapai klimaksnya. Kemajuan yang tak terhindarkan dari angkatan udara dan angkatan laut Amerika—dipuncaki oleh dijatuhkannya bom atom di Hiroshima dan Nagasaki—memaksa Jepang untuk menyerah tanpa syarat. Sementara itu, Tomich melanjutkan latihan di perairan Hawaii, sebelum meninggalkan Pearl Harbor pada 20 Agustus, menuju Pasifik barat.

Tomich membuat pelabuhan di Saipan pada tanggal 29 Agustus sebelum melanjutkan secara independen ke Bonin pada tanggal 1 September. Pengawal kapal perusak membebaskan Helm ( DD388) di stasiun penyelamatan udara-laut pada tanggal 5 September untuk tugas lima hari sebelum menuju Iwo Jima dan pengisian kembali. Dia beroperasi di perairan antara Iwo Jima, Okinawa, dan Saipan selama sisa tahun 1945 dan hingga 1946 sebelum menuju Cina. Dia berlabuh di Tsingtao pada 13 Januari 1946. Dia tetap bertugas di perairan Cina sampai 10 April ketika dia berangkat dari Shanghai ke Hawaii. Sesampainya di Pearl Harbor pada 21 April, dia melanjutkan perjalanan melalui pantai barat ke Terusan Panama.

Setelah kedatangannya di pantai timur, kapal menjalani persiapan inaktivasi di Charleston, S.C., dari Mei hingga akhir Agustus. Tomich kemudian melanjutkan perjalanan ke Mayport, Florida, dan tiba pada tanggal 4 September. Mengikuti prosedur penonaktifan lebih lanjut di sana, Tomich ditempatkan di luar komisi, sebagai cadangan, di Green Cove Springs, Fla., pada 20 September 1946. Dia tetap di sana sampai namanya dicoret dari daftar Angkatan Laut pada 1 November 1972, dan dia dihapus. .

Tomich menerima satu bintang pertempuran untuk layanan Perang Dunia II.


Tomich DE-242 - Sejarah

Peter Tomich lahir pada 3 Juni 1893. Menurut catatan kami, California adalah rumahnya atau negara bagian pendaftarannya dan Los Angeles County termasuk dalam catatan arsip. Kami memiliki Los Angeles terdaftar sebagai kota. Dia telah terdaftar di Angkatan Laut Amerika Serikat. Memasuki layanan melalui Militer Reguler. Dilayani selama Perang Dunia II. Tomich memiliki pangkat Chief Petty Officer. Pekerjaan atau spesialisasi militernya adalah Chief Watertender. Penetapan nomor layanan adalah 2276370. Terlampir pada USS Utah. Selama bertugas di Perang Dunia II, Chief Petty Officer Angkatan Laut Tomich mengalami peristiwa traumatis yang akhirnya mengakibatkan hilangnya nyawa pada 7 Desember 1941. Tercatat keadaan yang dikaitkan dengan: Tewas dalam aksi. Lokasi kejadian: Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.

Peter Tomich (Tonic), kadang-kadang tercatat sebagai "Gerald Victor" lahir pada tahun 1893 di Prolog di tempat yang sekarang menjadi Bosnia-Herzegovina, dekat perbatasan Kroasia. Dia berimigrasi ke Amerika Serikat pada tahun 1913 dan bergabung dengan Angkatan Darat AS pada tahun 1917. Dia menjadi warga negara AS, dan 10 hari setelah pendaftaran Angkatan Daratnya berakhir, bergabung dengan Angkatan Laut AS.

Dia bertanggung jawab atas ruang ketel di kapal USS Utah di Pearl Harbor selama serangan Jepang. Setelah kapal ditorpedo, Peter turun dari palka, mengeluarkan anak buahnya dari kapal yang tenggelam, mengamankan ketel, dan menolak meninggalkan posnya saat Utah berguling di air.

Pada tanggal 4 Maret 1942, Mr. Tomich secara anumerta dianugerahi Medali Kehormatan Kongres. Tidak ada yang pernah mengklaim medali karena tidak ada kerabat terdekat yang dapat ditemukan. Medali, yang telah dipajang di kapal dan di gedung-gedung pemerintah dan museum, sekarang diperlihatkan di Museum Washington Navy Yard.

Kapal perusak pengawal USS Tomich (DE-242), 1943–1974, dinamai untuk menghormatinya. Dia memiliki tugu peringatan di daerah yang pernah dia tinggali, Chardon, Geauga County, Ohio. Dia memiliki sepupu yang disebut sebagai kerabat terdekatnya dan tinggal di Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, California.

Peter Tomich dimakamkan atau diabadikan di Courts of the Missing, National Memorial Cemetery of the Pacific dan USS Utah Memorial, Honolulu, Hawaii. Ini adalah lokasi Komisi Monumen Pertempuran Amerika.

CERITA TOMICH

Matthew dan Garnella Tomich datang ke Berkshires sebagai pengantin baru pada pertengahan 1950-an. Di sana, bersama teman baiknya dari perguruan tinggi, Donald Ward, mereka membeli bekas Pembibitan Dolby di jantung Great Barrington, Massachusetts. Setelah berganti nama menjadi Ward’s Nursery, Donald, seorang ahli hortikultura, mengelola pembibitan sementara Matt, seorang arsitek lansekap, menangani konstruksi lansekap.

Setelah bertahun-tahun sukses dalam kemitraan dengan Don, Matt memutuskan untuk mengejar mimpinya mendirikan perusahaan keluarga, di mana putra-putranya akan memiliki kesempatan untuk terlibat secara rumit, dan mendirikan Matthew Tomich Landscaping pada tahun 1975. Operasi mereka berkembang pesat di Berkshires sampai 1981 ketika Matt dan Garnella membuat keputusan sulit untuk memindahkan perusahaan dan keluarga mereka ke Venesia, Florida untuk mengejar pekerjaan sepanjang tahun di ekonomi selatan yang sedang berkembang pesat.

Di Florida, ketiga putranya Christopher, Mark, dan Peter dengan tegas akan memantapkan diri mereka di dalam perusahaan dan desain lansekap dan industri konstruksi. Pada tahun 1982, putra kedua Matt, Mark, bermigrasi kembali ke utara ke Berkshires di mana ia bergabung dengan Ward's Nursery untuk mengoperasikan divisi konstruksi lanskap mereka, seperti yang dilakukan ayahnya sebelumnya.

Keluarga Berkshire menelepon lagi pada tahun 1988 ketika Matthew dan Garnella kembali ke utara dan bergabung dengan Mark dan istrinya Susie. Bersama-sama mereka mendirikan apa yang sekarang dikenal sebagai Tomich Landscape Design & Konstruksi. Sementara itu, Christopher dan Peter menjalankan divisi mereka sendiri di Venesia hingga 1994, ketika Christopher dan keluarganya kembali ke utara juga. Mark dan Christopher telah menciptakan lanskap yang imajinatif dan menakjubkan di Berkshires sejak saat itu, bersama-sama mengoperasikan Tomich Landscape Design & Construction di Sheffield, sementara Peter terus menjalankan divisi yang sangat sukses di Florida.

Baru-baru ini, putra Christopher, Adam, dan keluarganya telah menemukan jalan kembali ke Berkshires dan bergabung dengan bisnis untuk melanjutkan warisan, layanan, dan kreasi inspirasional dari Tomich Landscape Design & Construction selama bertahun-tahun yang akan datang.

Sekarang dengan bahagia pensiun, Matthew dan Garnella senang menyaksikan putra dan keluarga mereka berkembang, sangat bangga mengetahui bahwa perusahaan ini adalah generasi ketiga dari penggemar lanskap. Masing-masing dari kami berharap dapat berkolaborasi dengan Anda dan mengukuhkan Anda sebagai bagian dari sejarah kami juga!


Tomich DE-242 - Sejarah

Oleh SANDRA JONTZ | BINTANG DAN GARIS Diterbitkan: 20 Mei 2006

DI ABOARD THE USS ENTERPRISE — Dalam waktu 12 menit, Kepala Watertender Peter Tomich berubah dari biasa menjadi luar biasa, dari seorang pelaut sederhana menjadi pahlawan.

“Biasanya, pencapaian untuk bertahan hidup mengatasi cengkeraman rasa takut,” Laksamana Harry Ulrich dengan tajam mengatakan pada hari Kamis ketika Angkatan Laut memberikan kepada kerabat pelaut itu sebuah pengakuan yang secara anumerta dianugerahkan kepada Tomich 64 tahun yang lalu.

“Tapi, dalam hal yang luar biasa, orang biasa menjadi tidak biasa. Mereka mengesampingkan rasa takut. Mereka menerima tugas dan waktu tidak memungkinkan untuk bertahan hidup, kata Ulrich saat upacara di dek penerbangan kapal induk USS Enterprise, yang berlabuh beberapa mil di lepas pantai Split, Kroasia.

Saat kapalnya yang ditorpedo, USS Utah, tenggelam di Pearl Harbor, Tomich, warisan Kroasia, berlari ke arah yang berlawanan dari kru yang melarikan diri ke ruang boiler kapal untuk menjaga boiler agar tidak meledak sehingga orang lain dapat melarikan diri.

Tindakannya pada 7 Desember 1941, membuatnya mendapatkan penghargaan militer tertinggi negara — Medal of Honor.

“Tidak adil meminta Anda melakukan apa yang Peter Tomich lakukan,” Ulrich, komandan Angkatan Laut AS Eropa, mengatakan kepada lebih dari 60 kepala perwira kecil yang berkumpul. “Akan adil jika meminta Anda untuk siap melakukan apa yang dilakukan Peter Tomich.”

Tomich melakukan apa yang seharusnya dilakukan oleh para pemimpin: mengambil alih, memimpin dengan memberi contoh, dan melindungi para pelautnya, kata Kepala Senior Petty Officer Ellis King, yang terbang dari Naples, Italia, ke Split untuk upacara Kamis.

“Tak satu pun dari kita pernah ingin berada dalam situasi itu,” King. “Tapi jangkar di kerah kami ini menunjukkan bahwa kami siap, bahwa kami adalah pemimpin.”

Keluarga terdekat Tomich, pensiunan tentara Kroasia Letnan Kolonel Srecko Herceg Tonic, menerima replika medali tersebut, mengatakan bahwa dia merasa terhormat berhubungan dengan seorang pria yang memberikan hidupnya untuk orang lain, dan yang tindakannya mencerminkan tekad dari orang Kroasia.

“Keberanian orang-orang hebat seperti Peter yang mendefinisikan … semangat negara ini’,” kata Herceg Tonic.

Angkatan Laut AS telah menghormati Tomich dengan cara lain. Sebuah kapal pengiring perusak, sekarang dinonaktifkan dan dijual untuk memo, pernah diberi nama USS Tomich, DE-242.

Pada bulan Agustus 1989, Akademi Terdaftar Senior Angkatan Laut AS di Newport, R.I., dinamai menurut nama Tomich.

Upacara hari Kamis adalah tentang menghormati keturunan Tomich dengan penyerahan medali seperti halnya tentang kepala perwira angkatan laut yang memberi penghormatan kepada salah satu dari mereka sendiri, kata Chief Petty Officer Senior Charles Britt setelah upacara yang berlangsung sekitar satu jam.

Sebuah reaksi juga disorot oleh Ulrich.

“Untuk hari ini’s kepala perwira kecil— Anda diberi pahlawan. Anda menjadikannya pelindung Anda,” kata Ulrich. “Anda memilih dengan baik.”


Tomich DE-242 - Sejarah

Penerima Medali Kehormatan
untuk Pearl Harbor


THOMAS JAMES REEVES
9 Desember 1895 7 Desember 1941

Pangkat dan organisasi: Radio Electrician (Warrant Officer), Chief Petty Officer (Chief Radioman) US Navy
Tahun layanan: 1917 - 1919 (Cadangan Angkatan Laut),
1920 - 1941 (Angkatan Laut)
Terakreditasi ke: Connecticut
Penghargaan: Medal of Honor, Diberikan secara Anumerta Thomas James Reeves, lahir di Thomaston, Connecticut, 9 Desember 1895, adalah seorang radioman Angkatan Laut AS yang menjadi senama kapal perusak pengawal USS Reeves. Reeves terbunuh dalam serangan 7 Desember 1941 di Pearl Harbor dan dianugerahi Medal of Honor secara anumerta.
Dia terdaftar di Cadangan Angkatan Laut Amerika Serikat sebagai Electrician kelas ketiga pada 20 Juli 1917. Dibebaskan dari tugas 21 Juli 1919, dia dipanggil kembali untuk tugas aktif dan dipindahkan ke Angkatan Laut reguler 16 April 1920 dan bertugas sampai diberhentikan 21 Agustus 1921. Pada 12 Oktober 1921 ia kembali mendaftar di Angkatan Laut menjadikannya karirnya.
Maju melalui tarif ke kepala radioman, Reeves bertugas di kapal perang California (BB-44) ketika Jepang menyerang Pearl Harbor, 7 Desember 1941. Selama serangan itu, kerekan amunisi mekanis di kapal perang tidak berfungsi. Reeves ". atas inisiatifnya sendiri, di lorong yang terbakar, membantu pemeliharaan pasokan amunisi dengan tangan ke senjata antipesawat sampai dia diliputi asap dan api yang mengakibatkan kematiannya." Untuk perilakunya yang terhormat, RMC Reeves dianugerahi penghargaan anumerta. Medali kehormatan.

Medal of Honor Citation: "Untuk perilaku terhormat dalam profesinya, keberanian yang luar biasa dan mengabaikan keselamatannya sendiri selama serangan terhadap Armada di Pearl Harbor, oleh pasukan Jepang pada 7 Desember 1941. Setelah kerekan amunisi mekanis dipadamkan dari aksi di USS California, Reeves, atas inisiatifnya sendiri, di lorong yang terbakar, membantu pemeliharaan pasokan amunisi dengan tangan ke senjata antipesawat sampai dia dikuasai oleh asap dan api, yang mengakibatkan kematiannya."

Pada tahun 1943, kapal perusak pengawal USS Reeves (DE-156) dinamai untuk menghormatinya.


Letnan Donald K. Ross, sekitar tahun 1944 DONALD KIRBY ROSS
8 Desember 1910 – 27 Mei 1992

Pangkat dan organisasi: Machinist, US Navy
Memasuki layanan di: Denver, Colorado
Tahun pelayanan: 1929 - 1956
Peringkat Akhir: Kapten
Pertempuran: Serangan di Pearl Harbor, Pertempuran Normandia, Operasi Dragoon
Penghargaan: Medal of Honor
Tempat kematian: Bremerton, Washington Donald Kirby Ross (8 Desember 1910 – 27 Mei 1992), lahir di Beverly, Kansas adalah seorang perwira Angkatan Laut Amerika Serikat yang menerima Medal of Honor.
Ross mendaftar di Angkatan Laut AS di Denver, Colorado, pada 3 Juni 1929 dan lulus kehormatan perusahaan dari pelatihan dasar, San Diego, California. Dia menyelesaikan Machinist Mate School, Norfolk, Va. pertama di kelasnya dan ditugaskan ke USS Henderson ( AP-1) pada menjalankan layanan China.
Saat bertugas di kapal rumah sakit Relief (AH-1), Ross melihat aksi pertamanya (dengan Marinir) di Nikaragua pada tahun 1931. Maju melalui tarif pada kapal penyapu ranjau Brant (AM-24), kapal perusak Simpson (DD-221) dan kapal penjelajah Minneapolis (CA-36), ia mencapai pangkat Warrant Officer Machinist pada Oktober 1940, dan ditugaskan ke kapal perang Nevada (BB-36).
Selama serangan udara Jepang 7 Desember 1941 di Pearl Harbor, Nevada rusak parah oleh bom dan torpedo. Ross membedakan dirinya dengan memikul tanggung jawab untuk memberikan kekuatan agar kapal dapat berjalan - satu-satunya kapal perang yang melakukannya selama serangan Jepang.

Medal of Honor Citation: "Untuk perilaku terhormat dalam bidang profesinya, keberanian luar biasa dan mengabaikan nyawanya sendiri selama serangan terhadap Armada di Pearl Harbor, Territory of Hawaii, oleh pasukan Jepang pada 7 Desember 1941. Ketika posisinya di ruang dinamo maju USS Nevada menjadi hampir tidak dapat dipertahankan karena asap, uap, dan panas, Machinist Ross memaksa anak buahnya untuk meninggalkan stasiun itu dan melakukan semua tugas sendiri sampai buta dan tidak sadarkan diri. Setelah diselamatkan dan dihidupkan kembali, dia kembali dan mengamankan ruang dinamo depan dan melanjutkan ke ruang dinamo belakang di mana dia kemudian kembali pingsan karena kelelahan. Sekali lagi kesadarannya pulih, dia kembali ke posisinya di mana dia tinggal sampai diarahkan untuk meninggalkannya."

Ross dipromosikan menjadi Chief Machinist pada bulan Maret 1942. Dia dianugerahi Medal of Honor oleh Laksamana Chester Nimitz pada tanggal 18 April 1942, dan ditugaskan sebagai Ensign pada bulan Juni 1942. Kemudian dalam perang, dia juga berpartisipasi dalam pendaratan di Normandia dan Selatan. Perancis.
Dia naik terus dalam pangkat sementara menjadi Letnan Komandan pada akhir perang, kembali ke Letnan pada akhir perang. Dia kembali menerima promosi menjadi Letnan Komandan pada tahun 1949 dan menjadi Komandan pada bulan November 1954. Setelah pensiun dari tugas aktif pada bulan Juli 1956, setelah dua puluh tujuh tahun bertugas di setiap jenis kapal permukaan yang kemudian mengapung, dia dipromosikan menjadi Kapten di dasar penghargaan tempurnya.
Membuat rumahnya di negara bagian Washington setelah meninggalkan Angkatan Laut, Kapten Ross aktif dalam kehidupan pertanian dan urusan masyarakat, dan dalam mengabadikan memori serangan Pearl Harbor, yang ia gambarkan sebagai "bukan cerita tentang kekalahan. Ini adalah cerita tentang pekerjaan yang dilakukan dengan baik". Dia menghadiri upacara HUT ke-50 di Pearl Harbor pada 7 Desember 1991, di mana sebuah peringatan didedikasikan untuk kapal lamanya, USS Nevada. Kapten Donald K. Ross meninggal di Bremerton, Washington, pada 27 Mei 1992.
Pada tahun 1997, kapal perusak berpeluru kendali USS Ross (DDG-71) dinamai untuk menghormati Kapten Ross.
ROBERT R.SCOTT
13 Juli 1915 - 7 Desember 1941

Pangkat dan organisasi: Machinist's Mate First Class (Petty Officer First Class), Angkatan Laut AS
Tahun pelayanan: 1938-1941
Terakreditasi ke Ohio
Penghargaan: Medal of Honor, Diberikan secara Anumerta

Foto dikirimkan oleh Bill Gonyo


Pemakaman Nasional Arlington, #34-3939
Memasuki Angkatan Laut AS dari Ohio
Memperoleh Medal of Honor untuk kepahlawanan di Pearl Harbor, Hawaii
Meninggal: 07 Desember 1941 umur: 26 Robert R. Scott lahir di Massillon, Ohio, pada 13 Juli 1915 dan terdaftar di Angkatan Laut Amerika Serikat pada 18 April 1938. Machinist's Mate First Class Scott ditugaskan ke USS California (BB-44) ketika Jepang menyerang Pearl Harbor pada 7 Desember 1941. Kompartemen berisi kompresor udara tempat Scott ditugaskan sebagai stasiun pertempurannya kebanjiran akibat hantaman torpedo. Sisa personel mengevakuasi ruang, tetapi Scott menolak untuk pergi, mengatakan kata-kata yang menyatakan bahwa 'Ini adalah stasiun saya dan saya akan tinggal dan memberi mereka udara selama senjata menyala.' Dia secara anumerta dianugerahi Medal of Kehormatan atas kepahlawanannya.

Medal of Honor Citation: Untuk pengabdian yang mencolok pada tugas, keberanian yang luar biasa dan sepenuhnya mengabaikan nyawanya sendiri, di atas dan di luar panggilan tugas, selama serangan terhadap Armada di Pearl Harbor oleh pasukan Jepang pada 7 Desember 1941. Kompartemen, di USS California, di mana kompresor udara, tempat Scott ditugaskan sebagai stasiun pertempurannya, kebanjiran akibat hantaman torpedo. Personil lainnya mengevakuasi kompartemen itu tetapi Scott menolak untuk pergi, sambil mengucapkan kata-kata yang berbunyi "Ini adalah stasiun saya dan saya akan tinggal dan memberi mereka udara selama senjata masih menyala.''

Pada tahun 1943, kapal perusak pengawal USS Scott (DE-214) dinamai untuk menghormatinya. Scott juga mantan mahasiswa di Ohio State University di mana asrama Scott House dinamai menurut namanya. PETER TOMICH
3 Juni 1893 – 7 Desember 1941

Pangkat dan organisasi: Kepala Watertender, Angkatan Laut AS
Terakreditasi ke: New Jersey
Tahun dinas: Perang Dunia I (Angkatan Darat), 1919 - 1941 (Angkatan Laut)
Disajikan pada: USS Litchfield (DD-336), USS Utah (AG-16)
Penghargaan: Medal of Honor, Diberikan secara Anumerta

Foto diambil dari Naval Historical Center.
Peter Tomich (3 Juni 1893 7 Desember 1941), lahir di Prolog, Austria-Hongaria adalah etnis Kroasia yang lahir di Prolog dekat Ljubu ki, Austria-Hongaria, yang kemudian menjadi Bosnia dan Herzegovina. Selama Perang Dunia I ia bertugas di Angkatan Darat AS. Setelah mendaftar di Angkatan Laut Amerika Serikat pada Januari 1919, ia awalnya bertugas di kapal perusak Litchfield (DD-336).
Pada tahun 1941, ia telah menjadi Kepala Watertender di kapal pelatihan dan target Utah (AG-16). Pada tanggal 7 Desember 1941, ketika kapal itu berada di Pearl Harbor, ditambatkan di Pulau Ford, dia ditorpedo selama serangan Jepang di Pearl Harbor. Tomich sedang bertugas di ruang ketel. Saat Utah mulai terbalik, dia tetap di bawah, mengamankan ketel dan memastikan bahwa orang lain melarikan diri, dan kehilangan nyawanya. Atas "perilakunya yang luar biasa dan keberaniannya yang luar biasa" pada saat itu, ia dianugerahi Medal of Honor secara anumerta. Medal of Honor-nya dipajang di Akademi Terdaftar Senior Angkatan Laut (Tomich Hall) sampai secara anumerta diberikan kepada anggota keluarganya pada 18 Mei 2006, di atas USS Enterprise di Laut Adriatik, di lepas pantai Kroasia.

Medal of Honor Citation: Untuk perilaku terhormat dalam profesinya, dan keberanian yang luar biasa dan mengabaikan keselamatannya sendiri, selama serangan terhadap Armada di Pearl Harbor oleh pasukan Jepang pada 7 Desember 1941. Meskipun menyadari bahwa kapal itu terbalik , sebagai akibat dari pengeboman dan torpedo musuh, Tomich tetap di posnya di pabrik teknik USS Utah, sampai dia melihat bahwa semua ketel telah diamankan dan semua personel ruang api telah meninggalkan stasiun mereka, dan dengan demikian kehilangan nyawanya sendiri.

Kapal perusak pengawal USS Tomich (DE-242), 1943–1974, dinamai untuk menghormati Kepala Watertender Tomich.
FRANKLIN VAN VALKENBURGH
5 April 1888 7 Desember 1941

Pangkat dan organisasi: Kapten, Angkatan Laut AS
Tahun pengabdian 1905 - 1941
Diangkat dari: Wisconsin
Perintah: USS Talbot (DD-114), Skuadron Penghancur Lima, USS Melville (AD-2), USS Arizona (BB-39)
Penghargaan: Medal of Honor, Diberikan secara Anumerta

Foto dari Pusat Sejarah Angkatan Laut yang dikirim oleh Bill Gonyo Franklin Van Valkenburgh (5 April 1888 – 7 Desember 1941), lahir di Minneapolis, Minnesota adalah kapten terakhir USS Arizona. Dia terbunuh ketika Arizona meledak dan tenggelam selama serangan di Pearl Harbor.
Franklin Van Valkenburgh diangkat sebagai taruna di Akademi Angkatan Laut Amerika Serikat pada tanggal 15 September 1905 dan lulus pada tanggal 4 Juni 1909. Setelah bertugas di kapal perang Vermont (BB-20) dan di Carolina Selatan (BB-26), Van Valkenburgh ditugaskan sebagai panji pada 5 Juni 1911. Bepergian ke Stasiun Asia segera setelah itu, ia bergabung dengan tender kapal selam Rainbow (AS-7) di Olongapo, Kepulauan Filipina, pada 11 September. Dia melapor ke kapal perang Pampanga (PG-39) sebagai pejabat eksekutif pada 23 Juni 1914 untuk tur singkat di Filipina selatan sebelum detasemennya pada 4 Agustus.
Setelah kembali ke Amerika Serikat, Lt. (jg.) Van Valkenburgh bergabung dengan Connecticut (BB-18) pada 11 November. Setelah bekerja pasca sarjana di bidang teknik uap di Akademi Angkatan Laut pada bulan September 1915, ia mengambil instruksi lebih lanjut di bidang itu di Universitas Columbia sebelum melapor ke Rhode Island (BB-17) pada 2 Maret 1917. Masuknya Amerika Serikat ke dalam Perang Dunia I ditemukan Van Valkenburgh menjabat sebagai perwira teknik kapal perang. Tugas sementara berikutnya di kapal penerima di New York mendahului tur pertamanya sebagai instruktur di Akademi Angkatan Laut. Pada 1 Juni 1920, Van Valkenburgh melapor di kapal Minnesota (BB-22) untuk bertugas sebagai perwira insinyur, dan dia memegang jabatan itu sampai kapal perang itu dinonaktifkan pada November 1921.
Ia kembali menjabat sebagai instruktur di Akademi Angkatan Laut - hingga 15 Mei 1925 - sebelum bergabung dengan Maryland (BB-46) pada 26 Juni. Ditugaskan sebagai komandan pada 2 Juni 1927 saat berada di Maryland, ia segera melapor untuk bertugas di Kantor Kepala Operasi Angkatan Laut pada 21 Mei 1928 dan bertugas di sana selama pemerintahan Laksamana Charles F. Hughes dan William V. Pratt. Terpisah pada 28 Juni 1931, Van Valkenburgh menerima komando kapal perusak Talbot (DD-114) pada 10 Juli dan memimpin Skuadron Perusak 5 mulai 31 Maret 1932.
Setelah menghadiri Naval War College, Newport, R.I., dan menyelesaikan kursus senior pada Mei 1934, Comdr. Van Valkenburgh selanjutnya menjabat sebagai inspektur perlengkapan angkatan laut di New York Navy Yard sebelum kembali melaut sebagai komandan Melville (AD-2) dari 8 Juni 1936 hingga 11 Juni 1938. Dipromosikan menjadi kapten saat memimpin Melville - pada 23 Desember 1937 - ia menjabat sebagai inspektur material untuk Distrik Angkatan Laut 3d dari 6 Agustus 1938 hingga 22 Januari 1941.
Pada tanggal 5 Februari 1941, Van Valkenburgh memberhentikan Kapten Harold C. Train sebagai komandan Arizona (BB-39). Baru dipasang kembali di Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Arizona menjabat sebagai unggulan Battleship Divisi 1 untuk sisa tahun ini, terutama berbasis di Pearl Harbor dengan dua perjalanan ke pantai barat. Pada tanggal 4 Desember, kapal perang pergi ke laut bersama dengan Nevada (BB-36) dan Oklahoma (BB-37) untuk latihan permukaan malam dan, setelah melakukan latihan meriam ini, kembali ke Pearl Harbor secara independen pada tanggal 6 untuk berlabuh di dermaga F -7 di samping Pulau Ford.
Baik Kapten Van Valkenburgh dan komandan divisi yang berangkat, Laksamana Muda Isaac C. Kidd, menghabiskan Sabtu malam berikutnya, 6 Desember, di atas kapal. Tiba-tiba, sesaat sebelum pukul 08:00 pada tanggal 7 Desember, pesawat-pesawat Jepang menderu di atas kepala, menghancurkan kedamaian hari Minggu dan menandainya dengan ledakan bom dan dentuman senapan mesin secara staccato. Kapten Van Valkenburgh melesat maju dari kabinnya dan tiba di anjungan navigasi di mana ia segera mulai mengarahkan pertahanan kapalnya. Seorang quartermaster di rumah percontohan bertanya apakah kapten ingin pergi ke menara conning -posisi yang tidak terlalu terbuka mengingat pemberondongan Jepang - tetapi Van Valkenburgh menolak untuk melakukannya dan terus mengoperasikan telepon, berjuang untuk nyawa kapalnya.
Sebuah ledakan dahsyat tiba-tiba mengguncang kapal, melemparkan tiga penghuni jembatan - Van Valkenburgh, seorang panji, dan quartermaster, ke geladak, dan menghancurkan jendela jembatan. Bingung dan terguncang, panji itu tersandung api dan asap dan melarikan diri, tetapi yang lain tidak pernah terlihat lagi. Api yang terus menyala, yang diisi dengan amunisi dan minyak, berkobar selama dua hari hingga akhirnya padam pada tanggal 9 Desember. Pencarian selanjutnya hanya menemukan cincin kelas Kapten Van Valkenburgh.
Kapten secara anumerta dianugerahi Medal of Honor karena dengan gagah berani melawan kapalnya, ia mengarahkan pertahanannya dalam waktu yang sangat singkat yang diberikan kepadanya.

Medal of Honor Kutipan: "Untuk pengabdian yang mencolok pada tugas, keberanian luar biasa, dan pengabaian total atas nyawanya sendiri, selama serangan terhadap Armada di Pearl Harbor T.H., oleh pasukan Jepang pada 7 Desember 1941. Sebagai komandan A.S.S. Arizona, Kapten Van Valkenburgh dengan gagah berani melawan kapalnya sampai A.S.S. Arizona meledak dari ledakan majalah dan bom langsung menghantam jembatan yang mengakibatkan hilangnya nyawanya."

Pada tahun 1943, kapal perusak USS Van Valkenburgh (DD-656) dinamai untuk menghormatinya.
JAMES RICHARD WARD
10 September 1921 - 7 Desember 1941

Pangkat dan organisasi: Kelas Satu Pelaut, Angkatan Laut AS
Tahun pelayanan: 1940-1941
Memasuki layanan di: Springfield, Ohio
Penghargaan: Medal of Honor, Diberikan secara Anumerta
James Richard Ward (10 September 1921 – 7 Desember 1941) lahir di Springfield, Ohio. Dia mendaftar di Angkatan Laut Amerika Serikat di Cincinnati, Ohio, pada 25 November 1940. Setelah pelatihan dasar, dia melapor di kapal perang Oklahoma (BB-37).
Ketika Jepang menyerang Pearl Harbor pada 7 Desember 1941, Oklahoma mengambil tiga torpedo segera setelah serangan dimulai. Dia mendaftar dengan berbahaya, dan segera terlihat bahwa dia akan terbalik. The order was given to abandon ship, but Seaman First Class Ward remained in a turret holding a flashlight, thus sacrificing his own life to permit other members of the crew to escape. For his heroism at that time, he was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor.

Medal of Honor Citation: "For conspicuous devotion to duty, extraordinary courage and complete disregard of his life, above and beyond the call of duty, during the attack on the Fleet in Pearl Harbor by Japanese forces on 7 December 1941. When it was seen that the U.S.S. Oklahoma was going to capsize and the order was given to abandon ship, Ward remained in a turret holding a flashlight so the remainder of the turret crew could see to escape, thereby sacrificing his own life."

In 1943, the destroyer escort USS J. Richard Ward (DE-243), was named in honor of Seaman First Class Ward.
CASSIN YOUNG
March 6, 1894 - November 13, 1942

Rank and organization: Commander, U.S. Navy
Appointed from: Wisconsin
Place of death: killed in action in Guadalcanal
Awards: Medal of Honor, Navy Cross, Awarded Posthumously Cassin Young (March 6, 1894 November 13, 1942) was an officer of the United States Navy who was awarded the Medal of Honor for his heroism during the attack on Pearl Harbor.
Young was born in Washington, D.C., on March 6, 1894. After graduation from the U.S. Naval Academy on June 3, 1916, he served on the battleship Connecticut (BB-18) into 1919, then spent several years in submarines. During that period, he commanded the Submarines R-23 and R-2. During the mid and late 1920s, he served in Naval Communications on the staff of Commander Submarine Divisions, Battle Fleet, and at the Naval Academy.
During 1931 33, Lieutenant Commander Young served on the battleship New York (BB-34). He was subsequently awarded command of the destroyer Evans (DD-78) and was assigned to the Eleventh Naval District in 1935 37. After promotion to the rank of Commander, he commanded Submarine Division Seven and was stationed at Naval Submarine Base New London, in Groton, Connecticut.
When the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, he was Commanding Officer of the repair ship Vestal (AR-4), which was badly damaged by enemy bombs and the explosion of the battleship Arizona (BB-39). Commander Young rapidly organized offensive action, personally taking charge of one of Vestal's antiaircraft guns. When Arizona's forward magazine exploded, the blast blew Young overboard. Although stunned, he was determined to save his ship by getting her away from the blazing Arizona. Swimming back to Vestal, which was already damaged and about to be further damaged, Young got her underway and beached her, thus insuring her later salvage. His heroism was recognized with the Medal of Honor.
Promoted to Captain in February 1942, he later was given command of the heavy cruiser San Francisco (CA-38). In the Solomon Islands campaign, Captain Young commanded San Francisco in the Battle of Cape Esperance and the Naval Battle of Guadalcanal with great distinction. On 13 November 1942, during the latter battle, he guided his ship in action with a superior Japanese force and was killed by enemy shells while closely engaging the battleship Hiei. Captain Young was posthumously awarded the Navy Cross for his actions during the campaign and San Francisco received the Presidential Unit Citation.

Medal of Honor citation: "For distinguished conduct in action, outstanding heroism and utter disregard of his own safety, above and beyond the call of duty, as Commanding Officer of the U.S.S. Vestal, during the attack on the Fleet in Pearl Harbor, Territory of Hawaii, by enemy Japanese forces on 7 December 1941. Commander Young proceeded to the bridge and later took personal command of the 3-inch antiaircraft gun. When blown overboard by the blast of the forward magazine explosion of the U.S.S. Arizona, to which the U.S.S. Vestal was moored, he swam back to his ship. The entire forward part of the U.S.S. Arizona was a blazing inferno with oil afire on the water between the two ships as a result of several bomb hits, the U.S.S. Vestal was afire in several places, was settling and taking on a list. Despite severe enemy bombing and strafing at the time, and his shocking experience of having been blown overboard, Commander Young, with extreme coolness and calmness, moved his ship to an anchorage distant from the U.S.S. Arizona, and subsequently beached the U.S.S. Vestal upon determining that such action was required to save his ship."

In 1943, the destroyer USS Cassin Young (DD-793) was named in his honor.

Source: Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships <http://history.navy.mil/danfs/c4/cassin_young.htm>
Naval Historical Center's bio of Cassin Young <http://history.navy.mil/photos/pers-us/uspers-xz/c-young.htm>


Sources: Naval Historical Center, Medal of Honor Citations, Wikipedia


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Welcome to the Friends of Guisachan

What was Guisachan like in its days of glory? We are fortunate to have obtained a copy of the auction particulars published to promote the sale of the estate on July 24th, 1935. A summation follows:

The 7,242 acres consisted of approximately 143 acres of Policies (parkland), 358 acres of farm lands, grazing parks and a village (the village being Tomich.) The remainder was forest and moor lands.

The Guisachan Mansion House (Lot 1)

The mansion was advertised as being an hour’s drive from Inverness and having a 1 1/2 mile carriage drive guarded by an Entrance Lodge near Tomich Village. The mansion itself was described as consisting of a dining room, drawing room, breakfast room, smoking room, business room, billiards room, library, boudoir, conservatories, 15 bedrooms, 4 dressing rooms, 5 bathrooms and 16 servants’ rooms. There were 10 lavatories and wash closets, very extensive domestic offices, cellars and storage accommodations. The utilities were described as consisting of a hydro electric light plant, hot and cold water, fire hydrants, housemaid’s sinks and coal bunkers on every floor. There was an auxiliary boiler for baths, separate heating to the conservatory and a telephone to the stables and power house.

Click to enlarge images.

East Elevation Guisachan Estate Guisachan Estate: Principal Floor Plan

Fruit and vegetable gardens encompassed about two acres. The Outside Offices consisted of a garage for three cars with covered wash, stables for 20 horses, harness and saddle rooms, a hay loft, two mess rooms, six men’s rooms, a washing house, drying and ironing rooms, kennels, a gun room, Ghillies’ room, store house, carpenter’s shops, two W.C’s, carnation house, greenhouse and store-house, potting shed, tool house, mill shed, wood stores, joiner’s and painter’s shops, and a cart shed.

The farm steading once housed farm equipment, grain, and cattle. It now welcomes self-catering tourists. The Farm Steading The former stables and carriage house are now a private residence.

The Auction bill of sale goes on to read:

“A Special Attraction of the Grounds is the Choice Selection of Hardwood and Evergreen Trees.”

“Close to the house are the Home Falls, about 80 feet high.”

“Some of the grass park adjoining the River Dhiag, close to the Mansion House, could be conveniently formed into a loch by diverting the rivers, and should prove to afford excellent trout fishing.”

“GRASS PARKS AND VALUABLE TIMBER extending in all to about 143 acres.”

The Sporting and Agricultural subject of the HOME FARM extending to about 2,870 acres. ( Lot 2.)

The Home Farm is described as consisting of 330 acres of grass parks and the remainder hill and moorland for sheep grazing, well watered and interspersed with hill lochs. A house containing four rooms and 9 acres was located at Wester Achnaheglish, in which “the Shepherd at present resides, but which could be made a suitable Farm House.” “The Steading is large and modern and at one time housed a herd of pedigree Aberdeen Angus Cattle. It includes 56-stalled Byre, Two large covered Yards fitted with Boxes, Fifteen Calf Pens, Nine Loose Boxes, Stabling for 12, Harness and Hay Room, 3-stall Pony Stable and Harness Room, Five Hen houses, large galvanised 4-bay Hay Shed with 3 drying racks, Barn, Twelve Pigsties, Slaughter-house, Ham curing-house, Gig-house, Tool House, Meal House, Carpenter’s Shop, 11-bay Cart Shed and Granaries. There are also two cottages for Farm Servants.”

The Auction advertisement goes on to extol the 2500 acres of hillside heather where a substantial number of grouse could be shot as well as Blackgame, woodcock and wild duck.

Fishing opportunities on the numerous lochs in the area include reference to a group of 8 fish weighing 21 lbs and the heaviest being 3 1/2 lbs.

Donald Fraser, author of Guisachan: A History, at the steading, now part of Tomich Holidays

Also included in Lot 2 was the Factor’s House consisting of a hall, dining room, sitting room, office with outside entrance, five bed rooms, bath room, and kitchen. There was also a model dairy, tiled throughout with an outside verandah and a five-room Bothy (a primitive shelter.).

Kerrow House, currently a hotel, once housed estate staff. It is said the first litter of Golden Retriever puppies was born here. The original sawmill has recently been purchased for renovation as a private home. The former farm manager’s house is now a private residence.

Most of Tomich Village (Lot 3)

The former dairy is now a rental cottage at Tomich Holidays. Built to house the estate’s stalkers and keepers, The Tomich Hotel now offers rooms for fine dining and a bar. The original school and church, school master’s house and village hall. Now three private residences. The original school and church, schoolmaster’s house and village hall. Image courtesy of Donnie Stirling Thr current post office was built as a coach house for carriages taking visitors to Beauly. These iron gates once stood in front of the mansion. They now mark the entrance to several historical buildings renovated as Tomich Holidays.

Lord Tweedmouth built Tomich Village to house workers on the estate to provide such basics as a school, post office, garden, shop, garage, outhouses, the cottage at the school, the Tomich Hotel and 25 houses There were also additional buildings known as Wilton Lodge, the Kennels, the Entrance Lodge, the Sawmill and two additional houses. All were occupied by renters, with the gross rental being noted for each.

4,200 Acres of Deer Forest (Lot 4)

These lands were advertised as being adjacent to a sanctuary where deer were fed during the winter and stags were plentiful. It was said to be intersected by a roadway and a number of pony paths. “Rough Shooting” opportunities were also extolled with references to Roe, Blackgame and Ptarmigan. There were also said to be a number of lochs offering excellent trout fishing.

Hilton Cottage (Lot 5)

This property contained about ten acres, a small loch and was said to be suitable for a Gentleman’s residence.


Brown SB Co, Houston, США (USA)

[[LSM 490, LSM 490 > MMC 12 (1945) Landing ship (medium), USA]] /// Built in USA [[File:LSM 490, LSM 490 > MMC 12 (1945) Landing ship (medium)-0.png|thumb|710px]]

[[LSM 492, LSM 492 > MMC 14 (1945) Landing ship (medium), USA]] /// Built in USA [[File:LSM 492, LSM 492 > MMC 14 (1945) Landing ship (medium)-0.png|thumb|710px]]

[[LSM 493, LSM 493 > MMC 13 (1945) Landing ship (medium), USA]] /// Built in USA [[File:LSM 493, LSM 493 > MMC 13 (1945) Landing ship (medium)-0.png|thumb|710px]]


Sejarah

Neal A. Scott was laid down on 1 June 1943 by the Tampa Shipbuilding Company, Tampa, Florida launched on 4 June 1944, co-sponsored by Mrs. Leigh Scott and Miss Margaret Scott, mother and sister, respectively, of Ensign Scott and commissioned on 31 July 1944 with Lt. P. D. Holden in command.

Battle of the Atlantic

Following shakedown off Bermuda and availability at Boston, Massachusetts, Neal A. Scott steamed to Norfolk, Virginia, thence to Solomons Island, Maryland, where she conducted acoustic test runs for the Naval Mine Warfare Test Station during the first two weeks of November 1944. She then proceeded back to Norfolk whence she operated as a training ship in the lower Chesapeake Bay area until 10 December. The next day she sortied from Lynnhaven Roads in Task Force 63 to escort convoy UGS-63 to Oran, Algeria. The convoy of approximately 100 ships in 15 columns passed through the Strait of Gibraltar on 27 December and arrived at Oran the 28th.

On 2 January 1945, Neal A. Scott departed North Africa on her return voyage, escorting convoy GUS-63 to Hampton Roads. On the 3rd, at 1707, a large cloud of smoke was seen and an explosion heard from the center of the first line of the convoy. Neal A. Scott immediately started a submarine search on the starboard bow of the convoy. At 1739 good sonar contact was established and a depth charge attack begun. In the next six minutes 26 charges were dropped. Thirty seconds after the last charge detonated, the rumble of an underwater explosion, followed by the appearance of an oil slick off the escort's port quarter, was reported and sonar contact was lost. At 1755 contact was regained and a hedgehog attack was made. Two to four explosions were heard within the next half minute, and eight more were heard over a minute later, but, again, contact was lost. Contact established again at 1806, a second hedgehog run was made. This time, however, no explosions were reported and the contact was lost. Undiscouraged, the ship continued her search until relieved by British escorts at 2345. Neal A. Scott then returned to the convoy and arrived at Norfolk without further incident on 19 January.

In February, Neal A. Scott joined the Southern Forces Barrier Patrol in the North Atlantic and for the remainder of the war in Europe conducted submarine searches off the coasts of Maine, Nova Scotia and Newfoundland as part of "Operation Teardrop". On 22 April, as she steamed in a scouting line proceeding to Argentia, Newfoundland, a submarine contact was made by another escort, the destroyer USS Carter. Sixteen minutes later, at 0056, Neal A. Scott made a hedgehog attack. Several explosions were reported. At 0108, Carter delivered a similar attack which was followed immediately by two or three detonations and then by an explosion. At 0118, another, and heavier, explosion was felt and heard by all hands. NS U-518 had been sent to the bottom of the North Atlantic.

After the surrender of Germany on 7 May, Neal A. Scott was ordered to intercept U-1228 and bring her into port. While proceeding to the surrender point, U-858 was contacted and ordered to the surrender point. On 11 May, U-1228 was intercepted and after sending a boarding party to the submarine and taking on 28 of the U-boat's crew, including the Captain, the escort headed for Portsmouth, New Hampshire, where she turned over her prisoners and their boat to U.S. Coast Guard officials on 17 May.

Post-War and fate

Neal A. Scott then steamed south to Bayonne, New Jersey, for availability, after which she proceeded to Florida. On 13 June she joined the Carrier Qualification Detachment at Jacksonville, Florida, and for the next two months operated as plane guard for Guadalcanal   (CVE-60) . Detached from the Carrier Qualification Detachment, Neal A. Scott underwent availability at Charleston, South Carolina, and then headed for Corpus Christi, Texas, for Navy Day celebrations. She returned to Charleston on 4 November, only to depart again on the 7th.

From Charleston she steamed back to Jacksonville where she decommissioned on 30 April 1946 and entered the Atlantic Reserve Fleet, berthed at Green Cove Springs, Florida. In 1961 the escort was transferred to the Orange, Texas, berthing area where she remained until struck from the Navy Register on 1 June 1968. She was sold July 1969 and broken up for scrap.


USS Weeden (DE-797) was a Buckley-class destroyer escort in the United States Navy. She was named for Ensign Carl A. Weeden (1916�), who was killed during the attack on Pearl Harbor.

USS Ira Jeffery (DE-63/APD-44), A Buckley-class destroyer escort of the United States Navy, was named in honor of Ensign Ira Weil Jeffery (1918-1941) who was killed in action during the Japanese attack on the Hawaiian Islands while serving aboard the battleship California .

USS William T. Powell (DE/DER-213), A Buckley-class destroyer escort of the United States Navy, was named in honor of Gunner's Mate William T. Powell (1918-1942), who was killed in action, aboard the heavy cruiser USS San Francisco off Guadalcanal on 12 November 1942.

USS Scott (DE-214), A Buckley-class destroyer escort of the United States Navy, was named in honor of Machinist's Mate First Class Robert R. Scott (1915�, who was killed in action during the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941, while serving aboard the battleship USS California . He was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor for his heroism.

USS Solar (DE-221), A Buckley-class destroyer escort of the United States Navy, was named in honor of Boatswain's Mate First Class Adolfo Solar (1900�), who was killed in action during the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941.

USS Spangenberg (DE/DER-223), A Buckley-class destroyer escort of the United States Navy, was named in honor of Gunner's Mate Kenneth J. Spangenberg (1922-1942), who died as a result of wounds suffered during the Naval Battle of Guadalcanal, while serving aboard the heavy cruiser San Francisco  (CA-38) . He was posthumously awarded the Navy Cross.

USS Alexander J. Luke (DE/DER-577), A Buckley-class destroyer escort of the United States Navy, was named in honor of Sergeant Alexander J. Luke (1916�), who was killed in action during the attack on Tulagi on 6 August 1942. He was posthumously awarded the Silver Star.

USS Major (DE-796) was a Buckley-class destroyer escort acquired by the U.S. Navy during the latter part of World War II. She served as an escort vessel, protecting Allied ships, both in the Atlantic Ocean, and later in the Pacific Ocean. When the war with Japan ended, Major witnessed the Japanese surrender from her berth in Tokyo Bay.

USS Roche (DE-197) was a Cannon-class destroyer escort in service United States Navy from 1944 to 1945. She hit a mine in late September 1945. As it was uneconomical to repair her, she was scuttled in March 1946.

USS Andres (DE-45) was an Evarts-class destroyer escort constructed for the United States Navy during World War II. Sent off to the dangerous waters of the North Atlantic Ocean during the Battle of the Atlantic to protect convoys and other ships from Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine U-boats and fighter aircraft, Andres performed escort and anti-submarine operations.

USS Smartt (DE-257) was an Evarts-class destroyer escort of the United States Navy during World War II. She was sent off into dangerous North Atlantic Ocean waters to protect convoys and other ships from German submarines and fighter aircraft. She performed escort and antisubmarine operations in battle areas before sailing home victorious at the end of the conflict.

USS Amick (DE-168) was a Cannon-class destroyer escort built for the United States Navy during World War II. She served in the Atlantic Ocean and then the Pacific Ocean and provided escort service against submarine and air attack for Navy vessels and convoys.

USS Straub (DE-181) was a Cannon-class destroyer escort in service with the United States Navy from 1943 to 1947. She was sold for scrap in 1974.

USS Garfield Thomas (DE-193) was a Cannon-class destroyer escort built for the United States Navy during World War II. She served in the Atlantic Ocean and Pacific Ocean and provided escort service against submarine and air attack for Navy vessels and convoys.

USS Sturtevant (DE-239) was an Edsall class destroyer escort in service with the United States Navy from 1943 to 1946 and from 1951 to 1960. She was scrapped in 1973.

USS Tomich (DE-242) was an Edsall-class destroyer escort in service with the United States Navy from 1943 to 1946. She was scrapped in 1974.

USS Stanton (DE-247) was an Edsal-class destroyer escort built for the U.S. Navy during World War II. She served in the Atlantic Ocean the Pacific Ocean and provided destroyer escort protection against submarine and air attack for Navy vessels and convoys.

USS Cockrill (DE-398) was an Edsal-class destroyer escortin service with the United States Navy from 1943 to 1946. After spending decades in reserve, she was sunk as a target in November 1974.

USS Neunzer (DE-150) was an Edsall-class destroyer escort in service with the United States Navy from 1943 to 1947. After spending several decades in reserve, she was sold for scrap in 1973.

USS Varian (DE-798) was a Buckley-class destroyer escort of the United States Navy.


Natural History

Virtually all breed books discuss the prominent individuals within a given breed’s history in a positive light. Negative facts are usually left aside, for the focus is more on how the breed developed, not a discussion of the social, economic, and political history that made the breed possible. Granted, people do not buy dog books to understand these issues. Most people just want to read about the creation story of their dog, and the breed fanciers like to bask in the glory of the past.

However, it important to at least consider some of the negative parts of a breed’s history. As someone who prefers history to hagiography, I think it is a good idea to understand that the golden retriever would not have been possible had their not been some human suffering.

What do I mean by “human suffering”?

First of all, we have to start with who the founders of the golden retriever were.

The golden retriever’s founders were part of the economic and political elite of British society. The reason why we know so much about the dogs is that only people with considerable means would ever bother to keep such meticulous records of the dogs in their lines, and only people with that sort of wealth would even dream of keeping a dog with such a limited utility.

A dog that picks up shot game is certainly useful, but the average person could not bother with keeping or breeding such dogs. Working people needed dogs that could earn their keep. Dogs were bred according to their utility, not their pedigree, and after many generations breeding for utility only, tracing these bloodlines becomes next to impossible.

However, if one has money, time, and employees to maintain kennels, one can keep close records on the dogs. That is why we have such a complete record of the dogs at Guisachan.

Dudley Marjoribanks was not a poor man. Dudley had made a considerable fortune as chairman of the Meux Brewery Company, and he had inherited a lot of money from his father’s estate. He had a posh mansion in London’s Park Lane called Brook House. He also had holdings in the Scottish (now registration) county of Berwickshire, which was where he was born.

A Border Scot who had done well in this world, Marjoribanks began to look for new real estate. By the mid-nineteenth century, the Scottish Highlands had experienced a total image makeover. In the eighteenth century, it was seen as a backward place, full of Gaelic-speaking insurgents called Jacobites who were too busy raising hell and livestock to be recognized among the civilized.

The work of Sir Walter Scott had totally changed that popular perception. In his writings, Scotland became a romantic place, where the last vestiges of wild Britain existed alongside a turbulent history.

Queen Victoria and Prince Albert also helped changed this perception. They began visiting Balmoral in 1848, and eventually purchased the estate in 1852. This purchase set off a land boom in Scotland. All sorts of wealthy aristocrats began buying up land in Scotland.

In 1853, Dudley Marjoribanks was elected as the Liberal MP for Berwick-upon-Tweed, and it is very likely that he was caught up in the Scottish euphoria the had swept through these elite circles. His lands in Berwickshire did not count for much. He needed an estate deep within Caledonia, and you can’t get much more Caldeonian than a shooting estate in the Highlands.

Marjoribanks purchased Guisachan (“Place of the Firs”) in 1854. It was the perfect place to go grouse shooting and deer-stalking. It was also not a bad place to bring his fellow politicians for deal-making and negotiations.

Now, our popular perception of the Highlands is of a sparsely populated place with spectacular landscapes. The land is inhabited by a few shepherds and some rare wild creatures, like the Scottish wildcat.

The truth of the matter is that Highlands were not always so empty. There was once a rather large population that lived there. In Scotland, the lands were enclosed rather similarly to the way they were enclosed in England and Wales. However, these enclosures happened a little later, and they were based upon a different set of economic pressures. The tenant farmers of Scotland had lived on these estates for centuries as part of the ancient clan system of Scotland. From the mid-eighteenth century onwards, these farmers were driven off these lands to make way for sheep grazing. Many Scottish farmers were without land to work, and they were forced into a level of economic insecurity that forced them to fight for a chance to labor as virtual slave on estate or join the army (see the song “Twa Recruiting Sergeants.“)

The process of driving these large numbers of small farmers off the land to make way for sheep and cattle grazing and later for setting up posh estates for the wealthy was known as the Highland Clearances, and that is a good description for what happened. The Highlands were literally cleared of people, many of whom emigrated to other parts of Britain, as well as North America, Australia, New Zealand, and other parts of the British Empire.

In the 1850’s, there were still some estates that had tenant farmers working on their lands. When Guisachan was purchased, there were tenant farmers living there. These farmers were forced to leave.

Alexander Mackenzie (not the Canadian prime minister or the explorer) wrote the history of these clearances and worked hard to bring about reform to give these people rights. Mackenzie wrote about the Guisachan Clearances:

The modern clearances which took place within the last quarter of a century in Guisachan, Strathglass, by Sir Dudley Marjoribanks, have been described in all their phases before a Committee of the House of Commons in 1872. The Inspector of Poor for the parish of Kiltarlity wrote a letter which was brought before the Committee, with a statement from another source that, “in 1855, there were 16 farmers on the estate the number of cows they had was 62, and horses, 24 the principal farmer had 2000 sheep, the next 1000, and the rest between them 1200, giving a total of 4200. Now (1873) there is but one farmer, and he leaves at Whitsunday all these farmers lost the holdings on which they ever lived in competency indeed, it is well known that some of them were able to lay by some money. They have been sent to the four quarters of the globe, or to vegetate in Sir Dudley’s dandy cottages at Tomich, made more for show than convenience, where they have to depend on his employment or charity. To prove that all this is true, take at random, the smith, the shoemaker, or the tailor, and say whether the poverty and starvation were then or now? For instance, under the old regime, the smith farmed a piece of land which supplied the wants of his family with meal and potatoes he had two cows, a horse, and a score or two of sheep on the hill he paid £7 of yearly rent he now has nothing but the bare walls of his cottage and smithy, for which he pays £10. Of course he had his trade than as he has now. Will he live more comfortably now than he did then? “It was stated, at the same time, that, when Sir Dudley Marjoribanks bought the property, there was a population of 235 souls upon it, and Sir Dudley, in his examination, though he threw some doubt upon that statement, was quite unable to refute it. The proprietor, on being asked, said that he did not evict any of the people. But Mr. Macombie having said, “Then the tenants went away of their own free will,” Sir Dudley replied, “I must not say so quite. I told them that when they had found other places to go to, I wished to have their farms.”

They were, in point of fact, evicted as much as any others of the ancient tenantry in the Highlands, though it is but fair to say that the same harsh cruelty was not applied in their case as in many of the others recorded in these pages. Those who had been allowed to remain in the new cottages, are without cow or sheep, or an inch of land, while those alive of those sent off are spread over the wide world, like those sent, as already described, from other places. (291-93).

So to make way for his shooting estate, 235 people had to leave. We do not know their names, and we certainly do not know the names of their dogs or even what kind of dogs they owned. However, they were probably collie-types and terriers. They had an actual economic utility, but once their owners were deemed unnecessary for profit, progress, or prosperity of the elite, both the working dog and working man were sent packing.

To make way for Marjoribanks’s shooting estate and eventual development of his strain of yellow wavy-coat, people had to suffer. People lost their livelihoods and the ancient way of life.

This is the dark side of the Guisachan story that has always gone unmentioned in golden retriever histories. I apologize for not mentioning it earlier in this blog. The truth of the matter is that such facts do not often appear within the context of the story of the golden retriever.

However, the story does not end there. Dudley Marjoribanks’s daughter, Ishbel, married John Campbell Hamilton-Gordon, 1st Marquess of Aberdeen and Temair, who served as Governor-General of Canada from 1893 to 1898. They were early Social Liberals who worked very hard to improve the conditions of working people in Canada, many of whom were either immigrants or descendants of immigrants who had left Scotland as a result of the clearances.

One wonders if Ishbel (Lady Aberdeen) felt a certain amount of guilt over her family’s clearance of Guisachan. Maybe she was trying to make amends for that injustice.

Lord and Lady Aberdeen purchase the Coldstream Ranch in the Okanagan Valley, which they renamed Guisachan. On that estate, they kept some yellow wavy-coats that were of her father’s strain. These were the first goldens to be imported to North America.


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