Tawasa AT-92 - Sejarah

Tawasa AT-92 - Sejarah



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Tawasa
(AT-92: dp. 1,330, 1. 205', b. 38'6", dr. 14'3", s. 16,5
k.; cpl. 85; A. 1 3", 2 40mm.; cl. Bannock)

Tawasa (AT-92) diletakkan pada 22 Juni 1942 di Portland, Oreg., oleh Commercial Iron Works diluncurkan pada 22 Februari 1943 disponsori oleh Mrs. Thomas F. Sullivan, dan ditugaskan pada 17 Juli 1943, Lt. Fred C. Clark dalam komando.

Tawasa mengadakan pelayaran penggeledahan di lepas pantai California bagian bawah pada akhir Agustus dan kembali ke Portland. Kapal tunda itu berlayar ke San Pedro, California, pada bulan Oktober dan berangkat dari sana pada tanggal 20 ke Hawaii, dengan menarik dua tongkang bahan bakar minyak. Dia tiba di Pearl Harbor pada tanggal 4 November dan ditugaskan ke Angkatan Layanan, Armada Pasifik. Keesokan harinya, kapal tunda menuju Kepulauan Ellice dan tiba di Funafuti pada tanggal 20.

Tawasa diteruskan ke Kepulauan Gilbert dan tiba pada tanggal 26 November di Abemama-yang, hanya sehari sebelumnya, telah diambil oleh marinir Amerika. Pada 3 Desember, dia pindah ke Tarawa. Kapal tunda melakukan perjalanan bolak-balik antara Tarawa dan Funafuti pada bulan Desember 1943 dan Januari 1944. Pada tanggal 21 Januari, dia berdiri di luar Tarawa dan bertemu dengan Satuan Tugas (TF) 62, pasukan Serangan Selatan, untuk invasi ke Kepulauan Marshall. Dari Atol Kwajalein pada tanggal 31, Tawasa mengambil suara yang memungkinkan Mississippi (BB-41) untuk mendekati pantai untuk pemboman jarak dekat. Kapal tunda itu kemudian melakukan tugas penyelamatan, penarik, dan penyaringan hingga 18 Februari ketika dia pindah ke Eniwetok untuk membantu penyerangan yang akan menyerang atol itu keesokan paginya. Dia mendukung operasi sampai atol itu diamankan dan tetap berada di daerah itu selama hampir dua bulan, memberikan layanan kepada kapal-kapal Amerika yang menggunakan pangkalan baru ini. Tawa$a meninggalkan Marshalls pada 12 April untuk pengadaan tender di Pearl Harbor dan memasang radar.

Kapal tunda itu kembali ke Marshalls pada 25 Mei. Pada tanggal 11 Juni, dia berada di layar transportasi TF 52, pasukan Serangan Utara, ketika disortir ke Kepulauan Mariana. Empat hari kemudian, dia dilepaskan untuk membantu LST saat mereka mendaratkan marinir dan peralatan di Saipan. Tanggal 7 Juli, dia berangkat ke Eniwetok.

Tawasa beroperasi dengan ServRon 10 dari 31 Juli hingga 24 Agustus 1944 ketika dia bergabung dengan ServRon, Pasifik Selatan. Kapal tersebut beroperasi di Pasifik Selatan hingga 9 Mei 1946 ketika dia berangkat dari Noumea ke Amerika Serikat.

Dari San Pedro, pelabuhan asalnya, ia beroperasi di sepanjang pantai California sampai kembali ke Pearl Harbor pada 27 Desember 1946. Pada 23 Februari 1947, Tawasa menuju Jepang dan tur delapan bulan di Yokosuka sebelum kembali ke rumah pada 30 Oktober 1947.

Kapal tunda itu menuju Alaska pada tanggal 15 Juni 1948 dan beroperasi dari Adak sampai Oktober ketika dia berlayar ke Guam selama empat bulan. Dia kemudian tinggal di pantai barat sampai 10 Agustus 1950 ketika dia memulai tur lima bulan di Alaska. Selama dekade berikutnya, operasinya di pantai barat dipatahkan oleh tujuh penempatan ke Timur Jauh untuk operasi dengan Armada ke-7. Yang pertama, dari 4 Juni 1952 hingga 1 Maret 1953, Tawasa beroperasi dengan TF 92, pasukan Dukungan Logistik yang memasok pasukan PBB di Korea. Dia juga melakukan layanan di pelabuhan Korea Cho Do, Sokcho, dan Chinhae.

Tawasa dikerahkan ke Pasifik barat lagi dari 13 Februari hingga 3 Juli 1962. Pada 29 Desember, dia membawa Plaice (SS-390) di belakangnya di San Francisco dan mengirimkan kapal selam ke Pearl Harbor sebelum kembali ke San Die~o pada 1 Februari 1963 Dia beroperasi dengan Armada ke-7 dari April hingga November 1964 dan dengan Perbatasan Laut Alaska dari Juni hingga September 1965. Pada Desember 1965, kapal tunda itu menarik Bunker Hill (AVT-9) dari San Francisco ke San Diego. Ini adalah derek operasional terbesar yang dibuat oleh kapal tunda Armada Pasifik—33.946 ton. Dia kembali ke Alaska dari 8 Februari hingga 1 April 1967.

Penempatan Tawasa berikutnya ke Pasifik barat menempatkan kapal di zona pertempuran untuk ketiga kalinya dalam karir angkatan lautnya. Pada tanggal 5 Februari 1968, dia berdiri di luar San Diego menuju San Francisco untuk mengambil YFN-1126 dan mengantarkan pemantik api tertutup ke Hawaii. Dia meninggalkan tanggung jawabnya di Pearl Harbor pada tanggal 17 dan menuju Kepulauan Filipina minggu berikutnya untuk memberikan layanan target untuk kapal di Subic Bay sampai 13 April ketika dia menuju Vietnam.

Tawasa tiba di Danang pada tanggal 17 dan berangkat keesokan harinya untuk operasi khusus yang berlangsung selama sebulan. Dia kembali ke Subic Bay pada 21 Mei selama seminggu dan kemudian berlayar ke Sattahip, Thailand, untuk menyediakan layanan drone untuk Angkatan Laut Kerajaan Thailand. Kapal tunda memanggil Danang pada 19 Juni dan memulai operasi khusus yang berlangsung hingga 10 Juli. Setelah menyelesaikan misi, kapal tunda itu mengunjungi Hong Kong dan Yokusuka sebelum kembali ke San Diego pada 26 Agustus. Dia memasuki Campbell Machine Yard di sana pada bulan berikutnya untuk perbaikan yang berlangsung hingga 21 Januari 1969.

Pada tanggal 5 Maret, Tawasa dimulai untuk Filipina dan Vietnam. Dia menelepon Danang dan kemudian melanjutkan ke "Stasiun Yankee" untuk tugas pengawasan. Kapal itu dibebaskan pada tanggal 22 Mei dan berlayar, melalui Hong Kong, ke Singapura. Namun, pada 3 Juni, kapal tunda itu membantu Evans (DD-754) yang bertabrakan dengan kapal induk Australia Melbourne. Evans telah dipotong menjadi dua dan hanya bagian buritan yang mengapung. Tawasa mengambil bagian itu dan mengembalikannya ke Subic Bay sebelum melanjutkan perjalanan aslinya. Dia berada di Singapura pada 16 dan 17 Juni dan berangkat ke Vung Tau dengan YF-866 di belakangnya. Dia menurunkan pemantik pada tanggal 19 dan mengambil tongkang perbaikan pada hari berikutnya sebelum melanjutkan, melalui Subic Bay, ke Guam. Setelah kembali ke Subic Bay pada 8 Juli, Tawasa melakukan dua pelayaran tambahan ke Vung Tau sebelum kembali ke San Diego pada 24 September 1969.

Tawasa dikerahkan ke Pasifik barat lagi dari 16 Maret sampai 4 Oktober 1970 dan dari 8 November 1972 sampai 15 Juni 1973. Pada tahun 1971, kapal tunda dikerahkan ke Kodiak dari Juli sampai November untuk melayani sebagai kapal pencarian dan penyelamatan.

Setelah kembali ke San Diego pada tahun 1973, Tawasa tetap berada di perairan California sampai 1 April 1975 ketika dia dinonaktifkan dan dikeluarkan dari daftar Angkatan Laut.

Tawasa menerima tiga bintang pertempuran untuk layanan Perang Dunia II, dua untuk Korea, dan tujuh untuk Vietnam.


Tender / Kapal Tunda Angkatan Laut

Sepanjang sejarah, tender & amp tug telah menjadi bagian penting dari operasi militer Angkatan Laut Amerika Serikat. Selama Perang Dunia II, tender & kapal tunda ini adalah rumah bagi ribuan personel Angkatan Laut. Bersama dengan personel, setiap tender & amp tug mengandung ribuan pon asbes yang mematikan. Asbes ini dipasok oleh perusahaan yang tahu asbes itu berbahaya dan tahu bahwa, pada akhirnya, ribuan prajurit akan terkena penyakit mengerikan dari paparan mineral ini. Tetapi perusahaan-perusahaan itu memilih keuntungan daripada keselamatan dan menyembunyikan bahaya itu dari angkatan laut dan prajurit.

Asbes sering digunakan untuk isolasi pipa, boiler, perlengkapan listrik dan konstruksi lambung. Itu juga digunakan sebagai bahan tahan api di banyak area di atas kapal, termasuk lantai non-selip di geladak dan di dinding kepala curah. Area terburuk di tender & amp tug berada di ruang api, pompa, dan mesin di mana isolasi menutupi pipa dan kabel. Beberapa personel yang paling berisiko termasuk tender boiler, rekan tukang listrik, teknisi mesin, rekan masinis, tukang pipa, dan tukang kapal.

Banyak perusahaan yang memasok produk asbes ke angkatan laut telah mengakui kesalahan dan menyiapkan dana perwalian untuk memberi kompensasi kepada veteran angkatan laut. Jika Anda mengenal seseorang yang menderita mesothelioma, hubungi kami untuk mempelajari lebih lanjut tentang hak-hak Anda.

Di bawah ini menawarkan daftar beberapa tender & amp tug yang ditugaskan antara tahun 1940 dan 1990 dan mengandung risiko paparan asbes. Personil di atas salah satu kapal ini atau warga sipil yang menyediakan perawatan, perbaikan atau pembongkaran galangan kapal mungkin berisiko terkena asbes.


Orang India Tawasa

Koneksi Tawasa. Mereka berbicara dengan dialek yang termasuk dalam divisi Timucuan dari keluarga linguistik Muskhogean, perantara antara Timucua yang tepat dan Choctaw, Hitchiti, Alabama, dan Apalachee.

Lokasi Tawasa. Pada tahun 1706-7 di Florida barat sekitar garis lintang persimpangan Sungai Chattahoochee dan Flint pada waktu yang lebih awal dan lagi kemudian mereka berada di Alabama dekat Montgomery sekarang. (Lihat juga Louisiana.)

Saya telah menyatakan di tempat lain (Swanton, 1946, hlm. 187) bahwa nama misi ini tidak ada dalam daftar yang dibuat pada tahun 1656. Saya seharusnya memberikan tanggal sebagai 1680.

Desa Tawasa. Mereka biasanya hanya menempati satu kota tetapi Autauga di Autauga Creek di bagian tenggara Autauga County, Alabama, dikatakan milik mereka.

Sejarah Tawasa. De Soto menemukan Tawasa di dekat situs Montgomery pada tahun 1540. Beberapa waktu selama satu setengah abad berikutnya mereka pindah ke lingkungan Sungai Apalachicola, tetapi pada tahun 1707 mereka diserang oleh Anak Sungai, yang menangkap beberapa dari mereka, sementara sebagian besar melarikan diri ke Prancis dan oleh mereka diberikan tanah di dekat Mobile saat ini. Mereka menempati beberapa lokasi berbeda di lingkungan itu tetapi pada tahun 1717 mereka pindah kembali ke wilayah tempat De Soto menemukan mereka, desa utama mereka berada di pinggiran barat laut Montgomery saat ini. Setelah Perjanjian Fort Jackson pada tahun 1814, mereka terpaksa meninggalkan tempat ini dan pindah ke wilayah Creek antara Sungai Coosa dan Talapoosa, di mana mereka tinggal sampai migrasi utama di luar Mississippi. Sebelumnya, beberapa dari mereka pergi dengan Alabama lain ke Louisiana dan mereka mengikuti peruntungan mereka. Nama itu dikenang oleh Alabama di Polk County, Texas, hingga dalam beberapa tahun.

Penduduk Tawasa. Sensus Perancis tahun 1760 mengembalikan 40 orang Tawasa dan sensus Georgia tahun 1792 “tentang 60.” Sensus tahun 1832-33 memberikan 321 orang India di kota-kota yang disebut Tawasa dan Autauga, tetapi semua ini jelas bukan orang India Tawasa di penerapan istilah tersebut secara ketat. (Lihat Alabama)

Koneksi di mana mereka menjadi terkenal. Suku Tawasa akan dikenang secara etnologis karena penyelamatan begitu banyak informasi penting mengenai sejarah awal diri mereka sendiri dan tetangga mereka melalui tawanan Indian Lamhatty (dalam Bushnell, 1908), yang masuk ke Virginia pada tahun 1708, dan karena dari kosakata yang masih lebih penting diperoleh darinya.


Kapal yang mirip atau mirip dengan USS Tawasa (AT-92)

Diakuisisi oleh Angkatan Laut Amerika Serikat untuk digunakan selama Perang Dunia II. Dia memiliki tugas berbahaya tetapi perlu menyediakan bahan bakar untuk kapal di daerah pertempuran dan non-tempur terutama di Samudra Pasifik. Wikipedia

Diakuisisi oleh Angkatan Laut Amerika Serikat untuk digunakan selama Perang Dunia II. Dia memiliki tugas berbahaya tetapi perlu menyediakan bahan bakar untuk kapal di daerah pertempuran dan non-tempur terutama di Samudra Pasifik. Wikipedia

Armada kapal tanker kelas Cimarron diakuisisi oleh Angkatan Laut AS selama Perang Dunia II. Dia melayani negaranya terutama di Teater Operasi Samudra Pasifik, dan menyediakan produk minyak bumi jika diperlukan untuk memerangi kapal. Wikipedia

Dibangun untuk Angkatan Laut Amerika Serikat selama Perang Dunia II. Segera dikirim ke Samudra Pasifik untuk melindungi konvoi dan kapal lain dari kapal selam dan pesawat tempur Jepang. Wikipedia

Dibangun untuk Angkatan Laut Amerika Serikat selama Perang Dunia II. Awalnya tidak dinamai dan dirujuk dengan benar oleh penunjukan lambungnya untuk sebagian besar masa pakainya. Wikipedia

Angkatan Laut Amerika Serikat selama Perang Dunia II. Segera dikirim ke Samudra Pasifik untuk melindungi konvoi dan kapal lain dari kapal selam dan pesawat tempur Jepang. Wikipedia

Dibangun untuk Angkatan Laut Amerika Serikat selama Perang Dunia II. Segera dikirim ke Samudra Pasifik untuk melindungi konvoi dan kapal lain dari kapal selam dan pesawat tempur Jepang. Wikipedia

Dibangun untuk Angkatan Laut Amerika Serikat selama Perang Dunia II. Dikirim ke Samudra Pasifik untuk melindungi konvoi dan kapal lain dari kapal selam dan pesawat tempur Jepang. Wikipedia

Dibangun untuk Angkatan Laut Amerika Serikat selama Perang Dunia II. Lahir di Fairhaven, Massachusetts pada 26 Maret 1911, Cabana mendaftar di Angkatan Laut pada 17 Maret 1930 dan diangkat sebagai masinis pada 2 Februari 1941. Wikipedia

Dibangun untuk Angkatan Laut Amerika Serikat selama Perang Dunia II. Segera dikirim ke Samudra Pasifik untuk melindungi konvoi dan kapal lain dari kapal selam dan pesawat tempur Jepang. Wikipedia

Dibangun untuk Angkatan Laut Amerika Serikat selama Perang Dunia II. Dikirim ke Samudra Pasifik untuk melindungi konvoi dan kapal lain dari kapal selam dan pesawat tempur Jepang. Wikipedia


Perhatikan jenis kapal kontainer | Video

Kapal dirancang dalam berbagai cara tergantung pada penggunaan dan aplikasinya. Fakta bahwa ada begitu banyak jenis menunjukkan bahwa transportasi laut akan terus menjadi penting untuk waktu yang lama.

Moda transportasi utama adalah kapal. Orang-orang biasa pergi ke seluruh dunia untuk melakukan perdagangan. Perbaikan baru dalam teknologi pengiriman diperkenalkan dari waktu ke waktu, merevolusi konsep transportasi laut. Semua kendala, seperti waktu dan jarak, dikurangi dengan teknologi modern. Selain itu, kenyamanan transportasi laut telah sangat meningkat.

Terlepas dari popularitas perjalanan udara dan kereta api sebagai moda transportasi, kapal tetap menjadi pilihan terbaik untuk berdagang. Alasan mendasar untuk ini adalah bahwa kapal dapat mengangkut kargo dalam jumlah besar melalui jarak yang jauh. Kapal kargo datang dalam berbagai ukuran dan bentuk, masing-masing dengan kemampuan sendiri. Saat memilih kapal untuk mengangkut barang, ruang lingkup penggunaan dipertimbangkan


Periode kedua dalam komisi, 1951�

Recommissioning dan tugas awal

Karena kebutuhan untuk memperluas armada yang disebabkan oleh pecahnya Perang Korea pada tanggal 25 Juni 1950, Apache diaktifkan kembali pada 20 Juli 1951. Setelah beberapa bulan beroperasi di Pantai Barat AS, ia diperintahkan ke Timur Jauh dan tiba di Sasebo, Jepang, pada awal Desember 1951.

Layanan Perang Korea

Pada 17 Desember 1951, Apache berlayar ke Wonsan, Korea, di mana dia melepaskan armada kapal tunda laut USS Yuma (ATF-94) sebagai area salvage and rescue vessel. Apache juga meletakkan pelampung di pelabuhan Wonsan dan Hungnam, Korea, sebelum kembali ke Sasebo pada 4 Januari 1952.

Apache Misi berikutnya dimulai pada 18 Januari 1952, ketika dia mengambil posisi sebagai kapal patroli di Cho Do dan Sok To, Korea. Dia kembali ke Yokosuka, Jepang, pada 19 Februari 1952 untuk pemeliharaan tetapi kembali ke pelabuhan Wonsan pada 20 Maret 1952. Dia mengambil bagian dalam beberapa misi pengeboman pantai selain melayani sebagai kapal penyelamat dan penyelamat. Pada tanggal 12 April 1952, dia ditempatkan di Sasebo sebentar untuk perbaikan. Selama empat minggu berikutnya, dia melakukan beberapa penyelamatan ke Cheju Do, Korea, sebelum tiba di Sasebo pada 12 Mei 1952 untuk perbaikan.

Apache kembali beraksi di Wonsan pada 16 Juni 1952 dan bertugas di sana sampai kembali ke Sasebo pada 28 Juni 1952, mengakhiri dinas Perang Korea-nya.

Penghargaan dan penghargaan Perang Korea

Apache menerima dua bintang pertempuran untuk layanan Perang Korea-nya, untuk:

  • Musim Dingin Korea Kedua: 19 Desember 1951 hingga 4 Januari 1952 19 Januari hingga 18 Februari 1952 20 Maret hingga 13 April 1952 dan 26 hingga 28 April 1952
  • Musim Panas-Musim Gugur Pertahanan Korea 1952: 9-12 Mei 1952 16-28 Juni 1952

Layanan masa damai, 1953�

Apache meninggalkan Jepang pada 2 Juli 1952 dan menuju Pearl Harbor. Tapi untuk derek ke Kwajalein dan satu lagi ke Midway Atoll, Apache tetap di perairan Hawaii sampai 4 Mei 1953, ketika dia berangkat ke Seattle, Washington, di mana dia mengambil derek. Dia kemudian melanjutkan ke San Diego. Dia bekerja di sepanjang pantai California sampai pertengahan Juli 1953, ketika dia menuju Pasifik Barat. Dia melayani di sana sampai akhir tahun 1954, melakukan berbagai misi di Guam, Kwajalein, Eniwetok, Bikini Atoll, dan Filipina.

Pada bulan Januari 1955, Apache kembali ke Pantai Barat AS, mencapai San Francisco pada 14 Januari 1955. Namun, ia berangkat ke Timur Jauh pada 17 Maret 1955, mencapai Yokosuka pada 21 Mei 1955, dan memulai operasi dengan Angkatan Laut, Timur Jauh. Meskipun pelabuhan asalnya diubah menjadi San Diego pada Januari 1956, ia tetap berada di Pasifik Barat hingga awal 1960, melayani sebagai kapal penarik dan kadang-kadang mengambil bagian dalam misi pencarian dan penyelamatan.

Awal tahun 1960, Apache kembali ke San Diego untuk perbaikan enam bulan. Kemudian, pada bulan Desember 1960, setelah beberapa bulan bertugas di San Diego, dia kembali ke Pasifik Barat. Dia berhenti di Pearl Harbor dan Guam sebelum mencapai Sasebo pada Februari 1961. Tak lama kemudian, dia pindah ke Subic Bay di Luzon di Filipina, dan beroperasi dari pangkalan itu hingga April 1961, ketika dia berangkat ke Kwajalein dan Pearl Harbor. Pada 11 Mei 1961, dia meninggalkan Hawaii dan melanjutkan ke San Diego. Sepanjang sisa tahun 1961 dan awal tahun 1962, Apache sekali lagi melakukan operasi penarik pantai di sepanjang Pantai Barat AS.

Pada 7 Mei 1962, Apache memasuki galangan kapal Campbell Machine Company di San Diego untuk perbaikan dan tetap di sana sampai 18 Juli 1962, ketika dia memulai pelatihan penyegaran. Pada awal September 1962, dia berangkat ke Timur Jauh. Selama turnya di sana, ia bertugas di Filipina, di Okinawa, di Hong Kong, dan di Jepang sebelum meninggalkan Sasebo pada 6 Januari 1963 dan menetapkan arah ke Pearl Harbor. Dia melanjutkan dari sana ke San Diego dan menghabiskan beberapa bulan berikutnya dalam penghentian pasca penempatan dan operasi lokal.

Apache melanjutkan pola operasi Pantai Barat AS dan penyebaran Pasifik Barat selama 1964 dan 1965.

Layanan Perang Vietnam

Akhir tahun 1965, Apache melakukan pelayaran Pasifik Barat pertamanya yang melibatkan layanan Perang Vietnam yang dimulai dengan operasi Armada Ketujuh AS di Stasiun Yankee di lepas pantai Vietnam. Pada awal Februari 1966, dia mengawal kapal perusak USS   Bass Brinkley ke Subic Bay berikut Bass Brinkley Tabrakan dengan kapal perusak berpeluru kendali USS   Waddell di Laut Cina Selatan.

Setelah pelayanan singkat di Da Nang, Vietnam Selatan, Apache dilanjutkan ke Hongkong dan Kaohsiung, Taiwan, untuk istirahat dan rekreasi. Dia selanjutnya melakukan satu derek lagi dari Subic Bay ke Da Nang sebelum meninggalkan Vietnam pada 4 Maret 1966 dan pulang. Kapal tunda berhenti dalam perjalanan di Pearl Harbor sebelum mencapai San Diego pada 1 April 1966.

Penghargaan dan penghargaan Perang Vietnam

Apache menerima satu bintang kampanye untuk layanan Perang Vietnamnya, untuk:

Dia juga menerima Penghargaan Unit Angkatan Laut dan Penghargaan Unit Meritorious untuk layanannya dalam Perang Vietnam.

Dukungan untuk bathyscaphe Trieste II dan tugas lainnya, 1966�

Apache beroperasi di sepanjang pantai California sepanjang sisa tahun 1966 dan delapan bulan pertama tahun 1967. Pada bulan September 1967, dia dipindahkan ke Kapal Selam Flotilla 1 untuk mendukung operasi bathyscaphe Trieste II. Apache peran baru melibatkan penarik bathyscaphe kapan pun diperlukan.

Pada 23 Oktober 1967, Apache memulai serangkaian tes dan uji coba di Pulau San Clemente, California, dalam hubungannya dengan Triest II.Apache mengabdikan Januari dan Februari 1968 untuk menyediakan layanan untuk Fleet Training Group, San Diego, tetapi pada awal Maret 1968 ia melanjutkan tugasnya dengan Trieste II.

Apache ditambatkan di depan dermaga perbaikan tambahan USS pasir putih (ARD-20), membawa bathyscaphe Trieste II, di Zona Terusan Panama ca. 28 Februari 1969. Apache sedang menarik pasir putih ke Atlantik untuk dipekerjakan Trieste II dalam pencarian kapal selam nuklir USS . yang tenggelam Kalajengking (SSN-589) dari Azores.

Pada 3 Februari 1969, Apache mulai dari San Diego menarik dok perbaikan tambahan USS pasir putih (ARD-20), yang membawa Trieste II, menuju Atlantik untuk dipekerjakan Trieste II dalam menyelidiki kehilangan tahun 1968 kapal selam nuklir USS Kalajengking (SSN-589). Mereka mencapai Azores pada 21 Mei 1969, di mana mereka bergabung dengan transportasi berkecepatan tinggi USS Ruchamkin (APD-89), yang ditugaskan untuk mendukung mereka. Dari 2 Juni 1969 hingga 2 Agustus 1969, Apache, pasir putih, dan Ruchamkin stasiun terawat dekat Trieste II sementara bathyscaphe menyelidiki sisa-sisa Kalajengking.

Pada tanggal 7 Agustus 1969, Apache telah mengambil pasir putih, lagi membawa Trieste II, di bawah dan, berpisah dengan Ruchamkin, memulai perjalanan panjang kembali ke San Diego, yang mereka capai pada 7 Oktober 1969. Sekembalinya, Apache memulai persiapan untuk perombakan besar-besaran, dan dia memasuki pekarangan di San Diego pada 15 Desember 1969.

Setelah pekerjaan ini selesai pada pertengahan April 1970, Apache mengadakan pelatihan penyegaran hingga akhir Juni 1970 dan kemudian melakukan operasi lokal hingga 25 September 1970, ketika dia mulai menuju Panama untuk mengawal kapal selam USS lumba-lumba (AGSS-55) kembali ke San Diego. Pada bulan Januari 1971, Apache melanjutkan operasi dengan Trieste II.

Apache meninggalkan San Diego pada 5 Oktober 1971 untuk serangkaian operasi khusus di daerah Pearl Harbor yang berlanjut hingga awal Mei 1972. Pada 23 Mei 1972, Apache tiba kembali di San Diego.

Apache Selasa 13 Desember 1972 Apache merayakan ulang tahunnya yang ke-30. Ada pesta di EL Cortez Hotel di San Diego, CA.

Apache dimulai sekali lagi pada bulan Juni 1972 dan bergantian operasi penyelamatan dengan layanan derek untuk Trieste II. Dia melanjutkan rutinitas ini sampai Maret 1973 ketika dia memulai periode perbaikan di San Diego. Beberapa korban material memperpanjang pekerjaan, dan Apache tidak meninggalkan galangan kapal sampai 21 Mei 1973, ketika dia berlayar dengan Trieste II untuk perairan di lepas pantai San Francisco untuk mengambil bagian dalam Operasi Teleprobe. Namun, cuaca buruk menunda operasi, dan Apache mengalami kerusakan lebih lanjut yang memaksanya untuk kembali ke San Diego pada tanggal 23 Juni 1973 selama tiga minggu pekerjaan perbaikan.

Apache tiba di San Francisco pada 18 Juli 1973 dan, pada 20 Juli 1973, mulai berlayar ke perairan Hawaii untuk melanjutkan Operasi Teleprobe. Operasi itu berhasil diselesaikan pada 30 Juli 1973, dan Apache tiba kembali di San Diego pada 8 Agustus 1973 untuk lebih banyak operasi lokal.

Apache membuat derek terakhirnya sebagai kapal Angkatan Laut AS yang aktif pada tanggal 31 Januari 1974, ketika dia mengirimkan fregat USS Sterett (DLG-31) ke Long Beach, California.


Pelopor sejarah wanita Gerda Lerner meninggal pada usia 92 tahun

Oleh Dinesh Ramde
Diterbitkan 4 Januari 2013 13:34 (EST)

(AP Photo/Wisconsin State Journal, Sarah B. Tews)

Berbagi

MILWAUKEE (AP) — Gerda Lerner menghabiskan ulang tahunnya yang ke-18 di penjara Nazi, berbagi sel dengan dua wanita non-Yahudi yang ditangkap karena pekerjaan politik yang berbagi makanan dengan remaja Yahudi itu karena sipir membatasi jatah makanan untuk orang Yahudi.

Lerner akan mengatakan bertahun-tahun kemudian bahwa para wanita mengajarinya selama enam minggu itu bagaimana bertahan hidup dan bahwa pengalaman itu mengajarinya bagaimana masyarakat dapat memanipulasi orang. Itu adalah pelajaran bahwa pelopor sejarah wanita, yang meninggal Rabu pada usia 92, mengatakan dia melihat diperkuat di akademisi Amerika oleh profesor sejarah yang mengajar seolah-olah hanya laki-laki yang layak dipelajari.

"Ketika saya dihadapkan pada kenyataan bahwa separuh populasi tidak memiliki sejarah dan saya diberitahu bahwa itu normal, saya mampu menahan tekanan" untuk menerima kesimpulan itu, kata Lerner kepada Wisconsin Academic Review pada 2002.

Penulis adalah anggota pendiri Organisasi Nasional untuk Perempuan dan dikreditkan dengan menciptakan program pascasarjana pertama bangsa dalam sejarah perempuan, pada 1970-an di New York.

Putranya mengatakan bahwa dia meninggal dengan tenang karena usia tua di fasilitas bantuan hidup di Madison, di mana dia membantu mendirikan program doktoral dalam sejarah wanita di University of Wisconsin.

"Dia selalu menjadi wanita yang berkemauan keras dan berpendirian kuat," kata putranya, Dan Lerner, kepada The Associated Press Kamis malam. "Saya pikir itu adalah ciri orang-orang hebat, orang-orang yang memiliki sudut pandang yang kuat dan keyakinan yang dipegang teguh."

Dia dilahirkan dalam keluarga Yahudi istimewa di Wina, Austria, pada tahun 1920. Ketika Nazi naik ke tampuk kekuasaan, dia dipenjarakan bersama dua wanita muda lainnya.

"Mereka mengajari saya cara bertahan hidup," tulis Lerner dalam "Fireweed: a Political Autobiography." "Semua yang saya butuhkan untuk melewati sisa hidup saya, saya pelajari di penjara dalam enam minggu itu."

Dia menjadi bersemangat tentang masalah kesetaraan gender. Sebagai profesor di Sarah Lawrence College di Bronxville, N.Y., ia mendirikan program studi wanita — termasuk program pascasarjana pertama dalam sejarah wanita di AS.

Dia kemudian pindah ke Madison, di mana dia membantu mendirikan program doktor dalam sejarah wanita di University of Wisconsin.

Putrinya, Stephanie Lerner, mengatakan bahwa ibunya mendapatkan reputasi sebagai profesor tanpa basa-basi yang memegang murid-muridnya dengan standar ketat yang mungkin tidak dihargai beberapa orang pada saat itu. Seorang mantan siswa menulis surat kepada Gerda Lerner 30 tahun kemudian mengatakan tidak ada yang lebih berpengaruh dalam hidupnya.

"Dia berkata, 'Saya pikir Anda tidak mungkin, sulit, tidak mengerti, tetapi Anda memberi saya model komitmen yang belum pernah saya miliki sebelumnya,'" kenang Stephanie Lerner. "Dia memang seperti itu."

Bahkan ketika Gerda Lerner menjunjung tinggi standar orang lain, dia sendiri tidak mengambil jalan pintas. Sebagai contoh, Stephanie Lerner mengatakan bahwa ibunya suka mendaki gunung, bahkan ketika dia bertambah tua dan mobilitasnya sulit.

Stephanie Lerner mengingat satu pendakian khusus dengan ibunya sekitar 30 tahun yang lalu pada hari California yang beruap. Stephanie Lerner membawa tas sehari-hari yang ringan, tetapi Gerda Lerner membawa karung seberat 50 pon karena dia ingin berlatih untuk pendakian di masa depan.

"Saya jauh lebih muda dan sangat bugar. Tetapi pada titik tertentu saya mengatakan saya tidak bisa melakukannya lagi," kata Stephanie Lerner. "Dia terus maju. Itu adalah kegembiraannya, tekadnya."

Gerda Lerner menulis beberapa buku teks tentang sejarah perempuan, termasuk "Penciptaan Patriarki" dan "Penciptaan Kesadaran Feminis." Dia juga mengedit "Black Women in White America," salah satu buku pertama yang mendokumentasikan perjuangan dan kontribusi wanita kulit hitam dalam sejarah Amerika.

Dia menikah dengan Carl Lerner, seorang editor film yang disegani, pada tahun 1941. Mereka tinggal di Hollywood selama beberapa tahun sebelum kembali ke New York.

Pasangan itu terlibat dalam aktivisme yang berkisar dari mencoba menyatukan industri film hingga bekerja di gerakan hak-hak sipil.

Ketika ditanya bagaimana dia mengembangkan rasa keadilan dan keadilan yang begitu kuat, dia mengatakan kepada Wisconsin Academy Review bahwa perasaan itu dimulai sejak masa kanak-kanak. Dia ingat melihat ibunya menjatuhkan barang-barang di lantai dan berjalan pergi, meninggalkan pelayan untuk membersihkan kekacauannya.

"Saya ingin dunia menjadi tempat yang adil dan adil, dan itu jelas tidak - dan itu mengganggu saya sejak awal," katanya.

Dia bertekad untuk memperjuangkan kesetaraan, dan dia mendorong orang lain untuk berjuang sendiri melawan ketidaksetaraan. Dia mengatakan orang-orang yang ingin mengubah dunia tidak perlu menjadi bagian dari kelompok besar yang terorganisir — mereka hanya perlu menemukan tujuan yang mereka yakini dan tidak pernah berhenti berjuang untuk itu.

Dia memuji filosofi itu untuk membantunya tetap bahagia terlepas dari kengerian yang dia alami sebagai wanita muda.

"Saya senang karena saya menemukan keseimbangan antara menyesuaikan, atau bertahan dari apa yang saya alami, dan bertindak untuk apa yang saya yakini," katanya pada 2002. "Itulah kuncinya."


Bill Steinkraus, Penunggang Kuda yang Membuat Sejarah Olimpiade, Meninggal di Usia 92 Tahun

Bill Steinkraus, salah satu penunggang kuda paling terkenal di Amerika dan yang pertama memenangkan medali emas individu Olimpiade dalam disiplin berkuda apa pun, meninggal pada 29 November di rumahnya di bagian Noroton, Darien, Conn. Dia berusia 92 tahun.

Kematiannya diumumkan pada hari Kamis oleh Yayasan Tim Equestrian Amerika Serikat.

Secara luas dianggap sebagai salah satu pebalap terhebat dalam sejarah olahraga berkuda, Steinkraus membuat keenam tim Olimpiade Amerika Serikat dari tahun 1952 hingga 1972, hanya melewatkan Olimpiade 1964 di Tokyo ketika kudanya berhenti di saat-saat terakhir.

Dia memenangkan medali emas individu Olimpiade pembuatan rekor, dalam lompat pertunjukan, di Mexico City pada tahun 1968. Dia juga memenangkan medali perak tim di Roma pada tahun 1960 dan di Munich pada tahun 1972, dan perunggu tim pada tahun 1952 di Helsinki. Tim Amerika-nya selesai kelima pada tahun 1956 di Stockholm.

Medali emasnya didapat dari kapal Snowbound, anak kebiri berusia 9 tahun yang berkemauan keras. "Saya suka menganggapnya sebagai semacam kuda George Bernard Shaw," kata Steinkraus kepada The New York Times. "Dia memiliki pendapatnya sendiri tentang segalanya."

Melalui prestasinya di Olimpiade dan acara internasional lainnya, Steinkraus, lulusan Yale dan pemain biola ulung, menarik pengagum dari seluruh dunia.

“Penunggang kuda Amerika menghormatinya karena keahlian menungganginya, dan orang Eropa terkejut bahwa seseorang yang berbudaya, berpendidikan, dan cerdas bisa menjadi pembalap Amerika,” Bertalan de Nemethy, pelatih lama tim Amerika Serikat dan dirinya sendiri adalah mantan perwira kavaleri Hungaria yang elegan, pernah berkata.

William Clark Steinkraus lahir pada 12 Oktober 1925, di Cleveland dan dibesarkan di Westport, Conn. Dia mulai berkuda pada usia 9 tahun di perkemahan musim panas di Kanada dan berkuda dalam Pertunjukan Kuda Nasional pertamanya pada usia 12 tahun, di kelas junior.

Seorang siswa dari pelatih terkenal Gordon Wright dan Morton W. Smith, ia kemudian memenangkan gelar junior saat remaja sebelum mendaftar di Yale.

Steinkraus menyela studinya untuk dinas Angkatan Darat selama Perang Dunia II. Dia berkuda di Burma (sekarang Myanmar) dengan resimen terakhir Angkatan Darat dan membantu membuka kembali Jalan Burma, rute pasokan penting bagi pasukan Sekutu. Setelah perang, ia kembali ke Yale dan lulus.

Kavaleri Angkatan Darat memasok semua penunggang kuda Amerika yang berkompetisi secara internasional sampai resimen itu dibubarkan pada tahun-tahun awal pascaperang. Tim Berkuda Amerika Serikat dibentuk pada tahun 1950, dan Steinkraus dimasukkan ke dalam tim tersebut pada tahun 1951.

Gambar

Dia menunggangi tim selama 22 tahun, 17 tahun sebagai kapten, sebelum pensiun dari kompetisi internasional pada tahun 1972. Dia terpilih sebagai presiden tim pada tahun 1973, ketua pada tahun 1983 dan ketua emeritus pada tahun 1992.

Pada tahun 1960 Steinkraus menikah dengan Helen Ziegler, cucu dari industrialis abad ke-19 William Ziegler, yang mendirikan perkebunan luas bernama Great Island di Noroton, terhubung dengan komunitas melalui jembatan darat. Dia dan Steinkraus dan keluarga mereka tinggal di sana selama bertahun-tahun. (Perkebunan itu menjadi berita pada tahun 2016 ketika dipasarkan seharga $ 175 juta.)

Ms. Steinkraus, mantan asisten peneliti kanker di Sloan-Kettering Institute di New York, adalah seorang olahragawan, yang dikenal sebagai Sis, yang berlomba perahu layar, bermain ski, berburu, dan mengambil pakaian, menjadi pembalap ulung dalam kompetisi dan kemudian internasional hakim. Dia meninggal pada tahun 2012.

Steinkraus meninggalkan tiga putra mereka, Eric, Philip dan Edward.

Saat tidak berkuda, Steinkraus adalah editor di penerbitan buku di New York dan menulis beberapa buku tentang olahraga, terutama "Refleksi Berkendara dan Melompat: Teknik Menang untuk Penunggang Serius," diterbitkan oleh Doubleday pada tahun 1991. Dia juga menulis untuk majalah otoritatif Kronik Kuda.

Selain bermain biola, Steinkraus adalah seorang ahli buku-buku tua dan mebel antik. Setelah pensiun dari kompetisi, dia menjadi komentator televisi untuk empat Olimpiade dan kemudian menjadi juri Olimpiade.

Dia juga menjabat sebagai ketua komite lompat Piala Dunia Federasi Berkuda Internasional selama 10 tahun dan sebagai direktur American Horse Shows Association selama lebih dari 40 tahun. Dia dilantik ke dalam Show Jumping Hall of Fame, di Lexington, Ky., pada tahun 1987.

Ketika dia pensiun dari kompetisi internasional, sponsor komersial dan hadiah uang baru saja mulai masuk. “Kami tidak tahu apakah, 50 tahun kemudian, kami akan mengatakan itu adalah awal dari akhir, atau itu adalah awal dari segalanya. awal,” katanya.

Seorang pengendara kontemporer (dan kemudian menjadi pelatih dan hakim), George H. Morris, menyebutnya "pria yang melambangkan gaya menunggang kuda." Another, Hugh Wiley, said: “He would think through a riding problem and always come up with an intelligent answer. After riding, he usually played his fiddle, read The Wall Street Journal or went to the opera.”

For all his Olympic medals, Steinkraus was quick to credit his horses, including Hollandia in Helsinki, Main Spring in Munich and Riviera Wonder in Rome, in addition to Snowbound in Mexico City. Success in competition, he insisted, depended on the relationship between rider and mount.

“A good horseman must be a good psychologist,” he told Life magazine in 1968. “Horses are young, childish individuals. When you train them, they respond to the environment you create. You are the parent, manager and educator. You can be tender or brutal. But the goal is to develop the horse’s confidence in you to the point he’d think he could clear a building if you headed him for it.”

Indeed, in the equation of rider and horse, Steinkraus placed greater importance on the latter.

“In this sport,” he said, “the horse is more the athlete. He’s the body and you’re the brain. When you need a new body, you get one.”


Old Lions Department: Architectural Historian Albert Schmidt at 92

The historian who lived a long life is working on a long article—a monograph, perhaps, about city planning and urbanism in provincial Russia, finding and shaping Catherine the Great’s imperial urban space. Born in 1925, Albert Schmidt calls himself a workaholic, and insists he always has been, but he tries to have fun too.

An emeritus professor of history and law at the University of Bridgeport and Quinnipiac University’s School of Law, Schmidt has written about Russian architectural history and town planning, Soviet law, and English legal history.

Since retirement, he was a docent at the National Portrait Gallery for fifteen years and he volunteered at the League of Women Voters Lobby Corps for seventeen, lobbying for various kinds of legislation. He was docent at historic houses and architecture tours for about ten years at the Decatur House in Lafayette Square and Heurich House (the DC Historical Society) near DuPont Square.

He has been in retirement nearly as long as he’s worked —at 92 years of age, this is an understandable parallel. His first job was at Coe College in Cedar Rapids, Iowa and he moved to Connecticut in 1965. He retired in 1990 and moved to Washington D.C. with his wife of 67 years, Kathryn. He became attracted to the capital because it seemed like a great place for retirement.

Schmidt met his wife at DePauw University in Greencastle, Indiana. “My home was Louisville, Kentucky. I went across the river to Indiana and she was from Cincinnati, right up the river from me. We met at DePauw and dated, nearly broke up, patched things up, married in 1951 and here we are, 67 years later. Happy ending, huh?”

He continued: “We bought a house in Mount Pleasant on Hobart Street in 1979 when property was still fairly cheap. Part of the front door was boarded up from the post-Martin Luther King riots that had occurred in the neighborhood.” They rented the basement apartment for eleven years, and on schedule, when Schmidt retired, he stayed there for ten years. When he could not easily negotiate the stairs, they moved to a co-op in Cleveland Park, the Broadmoor on Porter and Connecticut. It was on the list of James Goode’s Best Addresses: A Century of Washington’s Distinguished Apartment Houses.

“It’s a nice little place,” said Schmidt. “We’re not native Washingtonians by a long shot but we’ve been here since 1990 so we knew our way around. I used to drive but I no longer can. I’ve got neuropathy and can’t tell where my feet are going so I use a walker.”

When he was able to be more physically active, Schmidt enjoyed lobbying for the League of Women Voters. “I do try to keep up with current politics I’m not a political animal to the extent that I’ve been involved as a politician myself, but I’ve always worked for someone,” he said.

In Connecticut, he and his wife lived next door to Leonard Bernstein, with whom he worked with on a gubernatorial campaign. Bernstein’s home was very spacious and Schmidt’s wasn’t, so Bernstein opened his for fundraising purposes. Schmidt managed elections in 1997, 1998, and 2000 in Bosnia and Kosovo, so he has stayed involved in politics. “My wife’s even more a political animal than I,” especially for DC voting rights in Congress earlier this decade.

“I wasn’t sure I ever was going to college. The 1930s were hard for my family but that which was the source of agony for so many families was a blessing for me, namely being in World War II,” said Schmidt. He used the GI Bill and though he lost some of his best friends in the war, for him, it gave him a free education—all the way to the doctorate, he said. “I’d never thought I’d get a doctorate, I thought I was going to be a bookkeeper. Instead of taking foreign languages in high school, I took six semesters of bookkeeping and accounting. I was awarded a scholarship for college which took care of my tuition and I waited tables at sorority houses and that gave me my board, and I saved my GI Bill until graduate school and that led me all the way to the doctorate —it was very unforeseen.”

He wrote a memoir of his life that attempts to list the various activities of every year. “I started ten years before I was born. Born in 1925, I went back to 1914. My family knew many WW1 veterans, and I thought that was a good idea because of the association.”

As visiting scholar at George Washington University, he receives library privileges and attends seminars at the Institute for European, Russian, Eurasian Studies. He once went to Ukraine to lecture for a month under GW’s auspices. He’s frequently attended events at the Kennan Institute at the Woodrow Wilson Center. “Every Monday, there is a Washington DC history seminar there — I used to attend regularly, but I don’t negotiate the Metro any longer. My walking’s so bad, I don’t want to take any chances. I formerly took the Metro all the time.”

The Cold War International History Project (CWIHP) at the Wilson Center even has an internship named after him. He once taught a course at GW, “but I’ve really been retired since 1990,” said Schmidt.

His daily schedule is as such: He gets up early in the retirement home where he lives and starts working at 5:30-6:00 AM on his research papers. Sometimes, he doesn’t work. “I do miss water aerobics. I exercise twice a day here. In the morning in a class and in the afternoon, usually on an elliptical machine or walking.”

THE AMERICAN WITH THE FROZEN BEARD IN RUSSIA

When Schmidt was in the Soviet Union for the first time—for the longest stretch—he lived at Moscow University. He went to the U.S. Embassy and used the commissary there to do shopping and he did his own cooking. “I bought good stuff,” said Schmidt.

For a Sunday meal, he’d go to a hotel. “It was expensive and wasn’t great. I like Russian food. If you go to the Russian Tea Room in Manhattan, it’s good, but my Soviet dining wasn’t that. In Britain, I could eat fish and chips but I’ve never spent a lot going to expensive places. I’ve spent a fair amount of time in The Netherlands because one of the great libraries in Soviet law was in Leiden. I’d been there for weeks at a time and I liked the restaurants.”

Schmidt’s favorite period is Old Russia, mainly the eighteenth century. “Peter and Catherine were really transformative figures. Catherine’s intent was, in part, to Europeanize Russia and she was very successful in many ways in doing so. The Soviets tried to minimize her achievements because anything that Imperial Russia did was unacceptable to them, but they became much more generous, eventually. My PhD was in English history but I went back to Indiana University in the early Sixties and studied Russian Eastern European history and related subjects and then travelled in the Soviet Union for six months and Eastern Europe in 1962-63 and I went a number of times after that to either Russia or the Ukraine in ‘98. I have not done any archival work in Russian history —I’ve done archival work in English history, but not Russian. For the most part, I donated my Russian library to Hillwood Museum it’s called the Marjorie Merriweather Post residence. It’s near Cleveland Park and is a magnificent place, and there is a library. Because of the aesthetic aspects, much of the library consists of works of Russian art, but they have almost nothing on Russian architecture,” said Schmidt.

Schmidt wrote a book about architecture and the planning of classical Moscow and donated all of the books on Moscow to this museum. “Now I’m working on provincial Russia, where there’s nothing more to do! I might start a new field,” joked Schmidt.

Classical Russia is a reference to the architectural style, the style generally of the art. Provincial Russia is a geographical term. In other words, there is provincial classicism and there’s Moscow classicism. Around Moscow, that’s the area Schmidt knows best.

He has been to the Caucasus but he’s never been to Eastern Siberia or to Central Asia, although he has been to North Russia —Archangel, way north. “Not in the winter though. It can get so bloody cold. Experienced forty below in Leningrad once,” reminisced Schmidt. He usually has a much thicker beard than when we spoke, which he said was frozen “and I’ve had ice all over my beard.”

Schmidt didn’t always just deal with architectural history. About midway in his career, he became involved in Soviet law. In the early ‘70s, he went into college administration, and had been a chair of the history department at the University of Bridgeport for a number of years. Those were good years, he said, and he had reasonable success. He became Dean and eventually Vice President of the university.

“But that didn’t work out too well. Times got hard and the president expected more of me than I could deliver so our relationship became fairly tense, and finally, I resigned from the administrative post to go back to teaching. The dean of the law school was very appreciative of what I’d done as an administrator and offered me a post teaching Soviet law. I told him that I had no knowledge of legal education. How can I possibly do that?’”

The dean said, “translate your Russian history into Soviet law, translate your English history into English common law, and your European history into European legal history.” For Schmidt, that was easier said than done, but he agreed, and in the late early ‘80s, he worked hard to become a legal historian and received a grant to go to NYU law school for a year, “just for exposure to legal education.”

He then became acquainted with a whole cast of Soviet legal scholars and “built almost a whole new career” in the ‘80s by teaching part-time law school and part-time college liberal arts. “That’s where I ended up —I try to publish whatever I do. Now I’ve gone back to Russian architectural history,” said Schmidt.

He did Soviet law tours to Russia which he described as all right, but the one trip that he truly anticipated was one where they’d take a group of students to Central Asia as well as European Russia, but then Chernobyl happened and Schmidt’s tour “melted away” —people withdrew from it. That was his last attempt to see Central Asia.

“What was really new to me. we know Soviet laws or the lack thereof by the high handedness of Soviet leaders, and while there may be a legal basis —Stalin, Khrushchev, and others had been very lax in being faithful to what a legal system’s supposed to do — bestow justice. However, civil law is not so bad. Tort law and contract law —these are all pretty good, well-organized, and that was interesting. Law under Gorbachev, especially.”

Schmidt also became involved with an international group of Soviet law scholars and liked their company he in turn did follow a path that most of them did not follow, mainly historic preservation law. Since Schmidt was knowledgeable about the architecture, he figured he could transfer his knowledge into preservation law. He published some articles in that area. He was also was very impressed by the relationship between Soviet and German civil law.

“The structure was similar, except the Russians added the socialist dimension to it. I published in that area too. I tried to publish because I didn’t want to be simply a parasite but I never achieved the kind of expertise many of the people in that field have. Jack of all trades, master of none, that pretty much sums it up.”

It was an unexpected change of career directions in the late 1970s, spurned by his tense relationship with the president of the university. Schmidt’s wife Kathryn was a librarian in the high school system in Westport, Connecticut —Connecticut’s “gold coast.” It was a good high school, he said, and she and a group of faculty were invited to go to the Hebrew University in Jerusalem for a six-week summer program, and Schmidt was “stuck with that job as vice president.”

When he resigned from his post, he accompanied her to Israel. “I do try to have a project whenever I do something and my project then was to go to West Bank University—Birzeit, near Ramallah. Birzeit was probably the best of the West Bank universities, and I went to the University of Bethlehem and Najah University in Nablus, Palestine. I wrote an article on these Arab West Bank universities after I got back. That was my project in Israel but I’ve enjoyed Israel very much, and I got an award: ‘best participating non-participant.’ I had no business there, and what I did do was try to bring faculty and students from these Arab universities to the Hebrew University for a gathering and it was sort of fun because most had never met their opposites. It was quite an experience!”

On how Russians compared to the Arabs and Israelis during his time there, Schmidt heard about a number of Israelis who had a Soviet experience themselves they were refugees in relatively early ‘78. “I must say though, the situation—bad as it was then—it’s not as bad as it is now. Certainly, this was before much of the violence between sides that has occurred since. For example, Hebron, which has been a place of violence since the late ‘20s —we went there and it still wasn’t as bad as it became.”

Schmidt did take a trip up the length of Gaza to the Egyptian border, and he also went to ancient Saint Catherine’s monastery in Sinai when it was still under Israeli control. These exciting diversions may have ended up sapping some of his scholarship, “I guess you could say.”

Amongst his other diversions, Schmidt travelled to Latin America and visited Machu Picchu, Peru when it was springtime.” The funniest thing about the Galapagos Islands in Ecuador, he said, was when he was in a whale tour group and they bore witness to a ridiculous mating ritual on top of a rock. One of the huge tortoises mounted a boulder and thought it was a female.

INNOVATIVE PROGRAMS IN THE 60S

One of the main things that Schmidt considers to be one of his important accomplishments was during the Sixties “when there was a real largesse of funding from the federal government, something not seen these days, and it all went for education. To a considerable extent, it was because Russia had launched the Sputnik. That was their first venture to space and it meant for as far as the U.S. was concerned that they were ahead of us in rocketry and space exploration.”

Sputnik occurred in the late ‘50s and so Congress passed the National Defense Education Act (NDEA) which allowed for the study of advanced technologies and also crucial foreign languages that would prove useful. In 1952–53, Schmidt had had a Fulbright scholarship to Britain to get his doctorate but this was his second big grant, an NDEA one, which provided for his going to Indiana University to study Russian languages, and then a third one was when he was teaching. He had applied for and was awarded a grant to establish an Institute for non-Western history as a faculty member of the University of Bridgeport.

“I say ‘I’ but I have to be careful not to make this too personal, but obviously the people who were at Bridgeport in the history department when I came there thought only in terms of U.S. history and European history, and they gave me carte blanche to hire new faculty. I hired people in areas that were not usually represented. In other words, I wanted to hire an Africanist, a Middle Easternist, a South Asia (India/Pakistan) specialist, and I wanted to hire an East Asian/China/Japan specialist.”

“In any case,” he went on, “I did obtain permission to hire an Africanist who happened to be a specialist in the Middle East too and I hired a South Asianist and a Latin American historian, and for a time, Bridgeport had a unique history department. When I applied for these institutes to bring non-specialists in for summer programs, I had the faculty to back up my proposals.”

In 1967, 68, 69, and 70, Schmidt obtained funding from the institutes in what they then termed non-Western history “because they had this faculty that was interested in teaching in the summer, but the participants were from high school —even elementary school teachers for programs in those areas. We made the program especially attractive because we offered a Master’s Degree if you accumulated enough credits. They would do that through attending classes during the year, not funded by the grant. In the summer, these people got scholarships.”

During the rest of the year, students had to pay their own way. They offered a Master’s program that gave them access to all of those exotic areas. “It was really a good deal for everybody concerned. In ‘67–68, normal ‘69, it was a two-year deal. Those who were awarded the scholarship came one year to Bridgeport and the next year they went to India —they saw a lot of India. The only trouble was, summer in India is no picnic. It’s dreadfully hot. In the summer of 1969, I had to go to India to contact all the places where we were going to send our students and work out arrangements. I did that for about six weeks and I travelled through almost the entire subcontinent of India. It was fantastic. It was an around the world trip I came one way and went back the other. I came back through Japan, Hong Kong, and Taiwan.”

Schmidt found these educational excursions to be very interesting and useful, not just for the students, but for him. He still hears from the school teachers he worked with, many of whom are retired now.

“This was an eye opener for many of these people who had never been beyond their school district but we don’t do that in education anymore. They were given a stipend for going to summer school —that was pretty liberal.”

Schmidt’s own history has largely been one of moving in a variety of areas instead of concentrating on one. He had a stint in administration and different fields of history, and he tried to publish in any field that he taught.

AN OLD PRACTITIONER REMEMBERS THE EXCITING DAYS

Schmidt has always been enchanted by the visual remains of an earlier period when he studies history. When he went to Italy, Schmidt was still working on a dissertation in Tudor-Stuart English history. He was still spellbound by Venice and Florence and how Venice of today hasn’t changed very drastically from the Venice of five hundred years ago.

He went to Indiana University in the early ‘60s, had his first sabbatical from Coe College in Iowa and they said, “What do you want to do?” First, he was at Indiana university for a calendar year from September of ‘60 to July or August of ‘61 and he took three years of Russian language and began to have some competence in reading and speaking Russian. Then he took related courses: Russian literature, Soviet economics, eastern European history (because he became interested in eastern Europe in 1956 with the Hungarian revolution and he lectured publicly on Hungary and European history, using the stipend that he received from those lectures to bring a Hungarian revolutionary youth to the college).

He was especially intrigued with Czechoslovakia, since Cedar Rapids has a large population of Czechs, and there is a considerable amount of Polish history there as well. Self critical about his knowledge of European history, Schmidt went to Indiana and took a course in Balkan history. He came to know the head of the Eastern European program, Robert Byrnes, who was very helpful to Schmidt, understanding what Schmidt was trying to do —he was trying to establish himself in another field entirely.

“He drew me aside once, and said, ‘How would you like to go to Russia for a year?’ Now this was 1960 and that was sort of an exciting thing because it was just beginning to open up—it was the time of De-Stalinization. Khrushchev was trying to erase the Stalinist, negative image and he opened it to scholars, and I was in the second group of scholars to go to the Soviet Union in 1961-62. I eventually toured the country and I even tried hitchhiking. That was sort of a daring thing to do, wasn’t it? At that time, my spoken Russian went pretty well I had taken an intensive course on Russian language during the year so I handled spoken Russian reasonably well by the end of it. Then I was asked, ‘what are you going to study?’ and I thought, ‘my God, if I’m going to Russia, I wanted to get an idea of Russian cities, the image of Old Russia.’ That’s what I did, I worked with the books I collected there in Russian architectural history and there weren’t many people in this country who were involved in that so I collected a library which I’m still using.”

“Now since then, there are a number of younger scholars—they’re not young anymore, they’re younger than I—so the field is more populated, but I’m one of the oldest practitioners in the field in this country and so that’s what I went over to work at. I found a mentor in one of my faculty members at a University in Leningrad. Most of the scholars I found in Russia were not very helpful.I think they thought that I was too uninformed, didn’t know enough about this subject, so why should I be wasting their time?

“To some extent, my language was not great but it was good enough. I never had any trouble dealing with people along the street, but as a specialist, it wasn’t really great. One professor became my mentor,I dedicated my article to him, his name was Vladimir I. Piliavsky. He was very helpful, and we struck a bargain. I would send him books on American architecture and he would send me books on Russian architecture. Some years later, my wife joined me in Russia on a visit and he invited us to dine at their home in Leningrad.”

“He is long since deceased, having died in the 1980s, but I enjoyed all this and there were some Russians who treated me royally but there were some who were very disdainful of me. On the other hand, I was high in my praise of aspects of their art, and that pleased them. I was really impressed the classical art which we have here which is so abundant —Mount Vernon, the Federal Triangle, columns, domes and the like, in our capital, are all a part of the neoclassical style, and I didn’t realize that it was so pervasive in Russia, and that goes back to Catherine the Great in the late eighteenth century. I had a genuine interest it was something I could connect with because of my background in Western art style.”

“Just as I became impressed with the images I see, like when I went to France or Britain—to Mont-Saint-Michel, or London’s Wren churches, St. Paul’s Cathedral. I became intrigued and when I went to Russia and saw its landmarks. What I’m trying to do in the present paper is show that there was a very extended interest in classicism in Russian architectural history which isn’t much talked about, especially provincial architecture, and the cities are probably not even very well known. I did travel to many of them.”

The best days as a historian, Schmidt said, is “when I discover something or when I get an idea that is meaningful. Once I came upon the archives of an eighteenth century British law firm deposited in what had been the Lincolnshire county jail. This was in 1984, and I thought, this is a story of a county law firm B. Smith + Co. as it functioned. It was a good discovery but there was nothing personal about it, I knew nothing about the people nor how it would be a readable piece. Then one day I learned there was a retired partner, one Harry Bowden, in the law firm, still living.”

“I notified him that I was a historian and interested in the papers which he himself had deposited in the county archives located in the jail, and he said, ‘why don’t we have lunch?’ We did have lunch and it was then that I learned that he had the diaries of the principal, Benj Smith II, in this law firm from 1796 until 1858. They were daily diaries —I wrote a number of articles dealing with the personalities in the law firm and what they did, especially when I matched the diaries with the records in the jail.”

“While this was truly exciting, the law firm story became more so as that, but after Harry Bowden died. I was contacted by members of the Gould-Smith family of an early principal of the law firm named Benj. Smith. They had not been in touch with this man who was the last partner, Harry Bowden, in the law firm. They wanted to know what I could tell them about their family and the role of Smith II in the law firm. I was able to become virtually a member of the family because they knew far less than I did. We are still very close.”

MEMORIES FROM WORLD WAR II

When World War II ended in 1945, Schmidt was stationed in the Philippines in Manila. He served as a radio operator and supported air-sea rescue operations. He hadn’t had enough time in the Philippines or in service even to expect to be discharged very quickly. “I wanted to do something that would be interesting instead of just booze around, I wasn’t much of a boozer anyway.”

The high school he attended in Louisville was Louisville Boys High where there was a junior ROTC unit. He was in the Army Air Force and did basic training in Texas, and then I went to MacDill Field in Florida. He completed radio training at Scott Field, Illinois, outside St. Louis, and went overseas to New Guinea and the Philippines. Until he went into the service in March of 1943, Schmidt hadn’t travelled anywhere.

After the war ended in September 1945, Schmidt learned that an American military tribunal was going to try the Japanese generals in a war crimes trial in Manila. One was Tomoyuki Yamashita, the Japanese general in charge of troops in Manila who had committed many atrocities, but he was also a famous general because it was he who in 1942 had conquered Singapore from the British and was highly regarded by most of the Japanese generals. Afterwards he had a falling out with his commanders.

Schmidt went to another trial, this time of General Masaharu Homma, who was a commander of the Japanese troops in the Bataan Death March (1942), “which was the greatest atrocity, I suppose, committed by the Japanese against American troops.” Schmidt went into Manila from Clark Field and he sat in every portion of both trials. Then a half century later, he taught both trials when a professor in law school.

For Schmidt, that series of trials was a thrill to have been there and to have taught them later on as a professor. There was a book published in 2015 called Yamashita’s Ghost: War Crimes, MacArthur's Justice, and Command Accountability by Allan A. Ryan and it contained illustrations and photographs of the courtroom where Yamashita was being tried in Manila and a surprised Schmidt found his picture in it —he had been unaware that such a picture existed.

He was also an intern at the United Nations in Lake Success, NY, in the summer of 1950 which was when the Korean War began. “The Korean War was different than any other war. It was not a war of the U.S. versus North Korea, it was technically a war of the UN versus North Korea, because the Soviets had walked out of the Security Council and therefore they were not there to exercise their veto the way they normally did. When President Truman decided to intervene in Korea, it wasn’t a U.S. operation, it was a UN operation, and we really screwed the Russians because they were trying to pin intervention on us but we were just part of a UN operation,” said Schmidt.

“The Soviet delegate, a man by the name of Yakov Malik, came back to the UN and there was a sangat besar furor about what the Soviets were going to do once they got back to the UN. The demand for tickets to go to the Security Council was enormous —there were 20,000 requests for room in this council chamber that held about 800 people. I was working there as an intern that summer and I really wanted to witness the Soviet’s return I knew that the security council layout —a circular room within a circular hall around it. When the time came for the Soviet delegate to return, I walked that hall, trying to find a way to get in, but there were guards at every door. When I passed the door to the main entrance, a guard called for more chairs and I knew where to find them, so I got a chair and walked through the door with the chair and sat right next to the South Korean delegate. I sat there in the whole event. That was my triumphant moment!”

“Of course, the Soviet delegate Malik charged the U.S. with all kinds of high handedness but we outsmarted them on that. It certainly proved to be a UN operation, not a US operation. Now we certainly talk about our involvement in the Korean War, which we were very much a part of, but it was technically not the U.S. against North Korea but the UN against North Korea.”

The last historic work he read that really impressed him was The Vanquished: Why The First World War Failed To End, by Robert Gerwarth. “It was about the post-WW1 period after November 11th,” said Schmidt. “We think of the war as ending on November 11th, 1918. It really didn’t, there were oh-so-many very heated lesser conflicts. The Bolsheviks’ civil war in Russia, German extremists, conflict between the Turks and Greeks, and this was about those conflicts that extended beyond the armistice of 1918. It gives one a better understanding of the chaotic world that didn’t end with the peace treaties of 1918–19.”

Schmidt doesn’t smoke he never had a cigarette in his mouth. He likes bourbon, Jack on the rocks. As a Kentuckian, he likes horses but he doesn’t ride. “We didn’t have a car for years and years. My father was a machinist who made it to the sixth grade and my mom, she graduated from high school.”

He has always been a baseball fan, although he doesn’t go to games as much as he used to. He watches, and he always reads the box scores the morning after. Schmidt knew baseball best in the ‘30s and ‘40s, after Babe Ruth had just retired, Lou Gehrig was still going strong, as was Jimmy Foxx and young Joe DiMaggio.

The biggest adventure he had as a kid was the great Ohio River Valley flood in 1937. “We went out a second-story into a boat to evacuate the house.”

One of Schmidt’s daughters, Elizabeth Schmidt, is a professor of history at Loyola University Maryland. “I never urged her especially to be a historian but it rubbed off evidently, and certainly she’s a far better historian than I am. She’s certainly a far better scholar than I am, she has completed her sixth book! I don’t approach that.”

What’s Schmidt’s drive to continue working? He takes it day by day, he says.


David Rubinger, Whose Iconic Images Etched Israel’s History, Is Dead At 92

JERUSALEM (JTA) — David Rubinger, the Israeli photographer who took the iconic photo of Israeli paratroopers standing in front of the Western Wall after its capture in the Six-Day War, has died.

Rubinger, whose photos chronicled much of the history of the Jewish state, died Thursday. He was 92.

Rubinger was awarded the Israel Prize for his body of work in 1997, the first photographer to receive the award. He reportedly took 500,000 photos of Israeli people and events during his career.

An immigrant to Israel from Austria, he arrived in Israel in 1939 at 15 and fought in 1944 with the Jewish Brigade, a military division of the British army led by British-Jewish officers in Europe.

He began his career as a photojournalist in 1955 with the daily HaOlam Hazeh and then for Yediot Acharonot. He was also Time-Life’s main photographer in Israel for five decades, beginning in 1954. He also served as the Knesset’s official photographer for 30 years.

The photo at the Western Wall was taken on June 7, 1967, after paratroopers pushed into the Old City of Jerusalem and reached the narrow space between the Western Wall and the houses that faced it at the time. Rubinger maintained that the photo wasn’t successful from an artistic perspective but that its wide distribution has made it famous.

His own favorite work, he told interviewer Yossi Klein Halevi in 2007, depicted a blind boy who arrived as a new immigrant in Israel in the 1950s stroking a relief map of Israel.

“I call it, ‘Seeing the Homeland,’” Rubinger told Halevi.

Israeli President Reuven Rivlin eulogized Rubinger in a statement.

“There are those who write the pages of history, and there are those who illustrate them through their camera’s lens,” Rivlin said. “Through his photography, David eternalized history as it will be forever etched in our memories. His work will always be felt as it is seen in the eyes of the paratroopers as they looked upon the Western Wall, and in the expressions on the faces of the leaders of Israel, which he captured during the highest of highs and lowest of lows.”

David Rubinger, Whose Iconic Images Etched Israel’s History, Is Dead At 92


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